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EFAX(1)								       EFAX(1)

       efax - send/receive faxes with Class 1, 2 or 2.0 fax modem

			(Please read the fax man page first.)

       efax [ options ] [ -t num [ file... ] ]

       Where options are:

       -a cmd	use  the  command ATcmd when answering the phone.  The default
		is "A".

       -c caps	set the local modem capabilities.  See the section on capabil‐
		ities  below  for the format and meaning of caps.  For Class 1
		the default is 1,n,0,2,0,0,0,0 where n is  the	highest	 speed
		supported by the modem.	 For Class 2 the default is determined
		by the modem.

       -d dev	use the fax modem connected to device  dev.   The  default  is

       -f fnt	use font file fnt for generating the header.  The default is a
		built-in 8x16 font.  See the efix(1) -f option	for  the  font
		file format.

       -g cmd	if  a  CONNECT	(or  DATA) response indicates a data call, the
		shell /bin/sh is exec(2)'ed with cmd as its command.  cmd is a
		printf(3) format that may contain up to 6 %d escapes which are
		replaced by the baud rate following the	 most  recent  CONNECT
		message. cmd typically exec's getty(8).

       -h hdr	put  string  `hdr'  at	the top of each page.  The first %d in
		`hdr' is replaced by the page number and the second,  if  any,
		is replaced by the number of pages being sent.

       -i str

       -j str

       -k str	send the command ATstr to the modem to initialize it.  -i com‐
		mands are sent before the modem is put into fax mode, -j  com‐
		mands  after  the  modem  is in fax mode, and -k commands just
		before efax exits.  The only default is a hang-up  (ATH)  com‐
		mand  that  is sent before exiting only if no other -k options
		are given.  Multiple options may be used.

       -l id	set the local identification string to id.  id should  be  the
		local  telephone  number  in international format (for example
		"+1 800 555 1212").  This is passed to the remote fax machine.
		Some  fax  machines  may not accept characters other than num‐
		bers, space, and '+'.

       -o opt	use option opt to accommodate a non-standard fax modem	proto‐
		col.   See  the	 MODEM	REQUIREMENTS  section  below  for more
		details.  The options are:

	   0	Force use of Class 2.0 fax modem  commands.   The  modem  must
		support Class 2.0.

	   2	Force  use of Class 2 fax modem commands.  The modem must sup‐
		port Class 2.

	   1	Force use of Class 1 fax modem commands. The modem  must  sup‐
		port  Class 1.	By default efax queries the modem and uses the
		first of the three above classes which	is  supported  by  the

	   a	use  software adaptive answer method.  If the first attempt to
		answer the call does not result in a data connection within  8
		seconds the phone is hung up temporarily and answered again in
		fax mode (see "Accepting both fax and data calls" below).

	   e	ignore errors in modem initialization commands.

	   f	use "virtual flow control".  efax tries to estimate the number
		of  bytes  in the modem's transmit buffer and pauses as neces‐
		sary to avoid filling it.  The modem's buffer  is  assumed  to
		hold  at  least 96 bytes.  This feature does not work properly
		with Class 2 modems that add redundant padding to scan	lines.
		Use  this  option  only	 if you have problems configuring flow

	   h	use hardware (RTS/CTS) in addition to software (XON/XOFF) flow
		control.   Many	 modems will stop responding if this option is
		used.  See the section `Resolving Problems' before using  this

	   l	halve  the  time  between  testing lock files when waiting for
		other programs to complete.  By default this is 8 seconds. For
		example -olll sets the interval to 1 second.

	   n	ignore requests for pages to be retransmitted. Use this option
		if you don't care about the quality of the received fax or  if
		the  receiving	machine is too fussy.  Otherwise each page may
		be retransmitted up to 3 times.

	   r	do not reverse bit order during data  reception	 for  Class  2
		modems.	  Only	Multitech modems require this option. Not nor‐
		mally required since efax detects these modems.

	   x	send XON  (DC1)	 instead  of  DC2  to  start  data  reception.
		Applies to a very few Class 2 modems only.

	   z	delay  an  additional  100 milliseconds before each modem ini‐
		tialization or reset command.  The initial delay  is  100  ms.
		For  example,  -ozzz produces a 400 ms delay.  Use with modems
		that get confused when commands arrive too quickly.

       -q n	ask for retransmission of pages	 received  with	 more  than  n
		errors.	 Default is 10.

       -r pat	each received fax page is stored in a separate file.  The file
		name is created using pat as a strftime(3) format  string.   A
		page  number  of  the form .001, .002, ...  is appended to the
		file name.  If pat is blank ("") or no -r option  is  given  a
		default string of "%m%d%H%M%S" is used.

       -s	remove lock file(s) after initializing the modem.  This allows
		outgoing calls to proceed when efax is waiting for an incoming
		call.	If  efax detects modem activity it will attempt to re-
		lock the device.  If the modem has been locked	by  the	 other
		program	 efax  will  exit and return 1 (``busy'').  Normally a
		new efax process is then started  by  init(8).	The  new  efax
		process	 will then check periodically until the lock file dis‐
		appears and then re-initialize the modem.

       -t num [file...]
		dial telephone	number	num  and  send	the  fax  image	 files
		file....   If used, this must be the last argument on the com‐
		mand line.  The telephone number num is a string that may con‐
		tain  any  dial	 modifiers that the modem supports such as a T
		prefix for tone dialing or commas  for	delays.	  If  no  file
		names  are  given the remote fax machine will be polled. If no
		-t argument is given efax will answer the phone and attempt to
		receive a fax.

       -v strng select	types of messages to be printed.  Each lower-case let‐
		ter in strng enables one type of message:

		   e - errors
		   w - warnings
		   i - session progress information
		   n - capability negotiation information
		   c - modem (AT) commands and responses
		   h - HDLC frame data (Class 1 only)
		   m - modem output
		   a - program arguments
		   r - reception error details
		   t - transmission details
		   f - image file details
		   x - lock file processing

		Up to two -v options may be used.  The first is	 for  messages
		printed	 to  the standard error and the second is for messages
		to the standard output. The default is "ewin" to the  standard
		error only.

       -w	wait  for an OK or CONNECT prompt instead of issuing an answer
		(ATA) command to receive a fax.	  Use  this  option  when  the
		modem is set to auto-answer (using S0=n) or if another program
		has already answered the call.

       -x lkf	use a UUCP-style lock file lkf to lock the modem device before
		opening	 it.   If  the	device is locked, efax checks every 15
		seconds until it is free.  Up to 16 -x options may be used  if
		there  are several names for the same device.  A `#' prefix on
		the file name creates an binary rather than  text  (HDB-style)
		lock  file.   This is the reverse of what was used by previous
		efax versions.

       efax can read the same types of files as efix(1)	 including  text,  T.4
       (Group  3),  PBM,  single-  and	multi-page TIFF (G3 and uncompressed).
       efax automatically determines the type of file from its contents.  TIFF
       files  are recommended as they contain information about the image size
       and resolution.

       Each page to be sent should be converted to a separate TIFF format file
       with  Group 3 (G3) compression.	Received files are also stored in this
       format.	The EXAMPLES section below shows how efix and  other  programs
       can be used to create, view and print these files.

       The  operating system must provide short response times to avoid proto‐
       col timeouts.  For Class 2 and 2.0 modems the delay should not exceed 1
       or 2 seconds.

       When  using  Class  1 modems the program must respond to certain events
       within 55 milliseconds.	Longer delays may cause the  fax  protocol  to
       fail  in	 certain  places (between DCS and TCF or between RTC and MPS).
       Class 1 modems should therefore not be  used  on	 systems  that	cannot
       guarantee  that	the program will respond to incoming data in less than
       55 milliseconds.	 In particular, some intelligent serial cards and ter‐
       minal servers may introduce enough delay to cause problems with Class 1

       The operating system must also provide sufficient  low-level  buffering
       to  allow  uninterrupted	 transfer of data between the modem and a disk
       file at the selected baud rate, typically 9600 bps.  Since the fax pro‐
       tocol  does  not	 provide  end-to-end flow control the effectiveness of
       flow control while receiving is limited by the size of the modem's buf‐
       fer.  This  can be less than 100 bytes.	Efax does not use flow control
       during reception.

       The "Group" is the protocol used to send faxes  between	fax  machines.
       Efax  supports the Group 3 protocol used over the public telephone net‐

       The "Class" is the protocol used by computers to	 control  fax  modems.
       Efax supports Class 1, 2 and 2.0 fax modems.

       Most  fax modems use XON/XOFF flow control when in fax mode.  This type
       of flow control adds very little overhead for fax use. Many modems have
       unreliable  hardware  (RTS/CTS)	flow  control in fax mode.  By default
       efax enables only XON/XOFF flow control and the -oh option must be used
       to add hardware flow control.

       While  some modems have serial buffers of about 1k bytes, many inexpen‐
       sive modems have buffers of about one hundred bytes and are  thus  more
       likely to suffer overruns when sending faxes.

       A  few  older modems may need a delay between commands of more than the
       default value used by efax (100 milliseconds).  If  the	delay  is  too
       short, commands may not echo properly, may time out, or may give incon‐
       sistent responses.  Use one or more -oz options to increase  the	 delay
       between	modem initialization commands and use the E0 modem initializa‐
       tion command to disable echoing of modem commands.

       By default efax sends DC2 to start the data flow from  the  modem  when
       receiving  faxes	 from  Class 2 modems.	A few older modems require XON
       instead.	 Use of DC2 would cause the modem to  give  an	error  message
       and/or  the program to time out.	 The -ox option should be used in this

       A few older Class 2 modems (e.g. some Intel models) don't send  DC2  or
       XON  to	start  the  data  flow to the modem when sending faxes.	 After
       waiting 2 seconds efax will print a warning and start sending anyways.

       A very few Class 2 modems do not reverse the bit order (MSB to LSB)  by
       default	on receive.  This might cause errors when trying to display or
       print the received files.  The -or option can be used in this case.

       Some inexpensive "9600 bps" fax modems only transmit at	9600  bps  and
       reception is limited to 4800 bps.

       The following Class 1 modems have been reported to work with efax: AT&T
       DataPort, Cardinal Digital Fax Modem (14400), Digicom Scout+,  Motorola
       Lifestyle  28.8,	 Motorola  Power  28.8, QuickComm Spirit II, Smartlink
       9614AV-Modem, Supra Faxmodem 144LC,  USR	 Courier  V.32bis  Terbo,  USR
       Sportster (V.32 and V.34), Zoom AFC 2.400, Zoom VFX14.4V.

       The following Class 2 modems have been reported to work with efax: 14k4
       Amigo Communion fax/modem, Adtech Micro Systems 14.4  Fax/modem,	 askey
       modem  type 1414VQE, AT&T DataPort, ATT/Paradyne, AT&T Paradyne PCMCIA,
       Boca modem, BOCA M1440E, Crosslink 9614FH faxmodem, FuryCard DNE	 5005,
       GVC  14.4k  internal,  Intel 14.4 fax modem, Megahertz 14.4, , Microcom
       DeskPorte FAST ES 28.8, Motorola	 UDS  FasTalk  II,  MultiTech  1432MU,
       Practical  Peripherals  PM14400FXMT, Supra V32bis, Telebit Worldblazer,
       TKR DM-24VF+, Twincom 144/DFi, ViVa  14.4/Fax  modem,  Vobis  Fax-Modem
       (BZT-approved), Zoom VFX14.4V, ZyXEL U-1496E[+], ZyXEL Elite 2864I.

       The  required  modem  initialization  commands  are  generated by efax.
       Additional commands may be supplied  as	command-line  arguments.   The
       modem  must be set up to issue verbose(text) result codes.  The follow‐
       ing command does this and is sent by efax before trying	to  initialize
       the modem.

       Q0V1	respond to commands with verbose result codes

       The following commands may be useful for special purposes:

       X3	don't  wait for dial tone before dialing.  This may be used to
		send a fax when the call has already been dialed manually.  In
		this  case  use	 an empty string ("") as the first argument to
		the -t command.	 Use X4 (usual default) to enable  all	result

       M2	leave  the  monitor  speaker turned on for the duration of the
		call (use M0 to leave it off).

       L0	turn monitor speaker volume to minimum (use L3 for maximum).

       E0	disable echoing of modem commands.  See the Resolving Problems
		section below.

       &D2	returns	 the  modem  to command mode when DTR is dropped.  The
		program drops DTR at the start and end of the call if it can't
		get  a	response to a modem command.  You can use &D3 to reset
		the modem when DTR is dropped.

       S7=120	wait up to two minutes (120 seconds) for carrier.  This may be
		useful if the answering fax machine takes a long time to start
		the  handshaking  operation  (e.g.  a  combined	 fax/answering
		machine with a long announcement).

       The  capabilities of the local hardware and software can be set using a
       string of 8 digits separated by commas:



       vr  (vertical resolution) =
		0 for 98 lines per inch
		1 for 196 lpi

       br  (bit rate) =
		0 for 2400 bps
		1 for 4800
		2 for 7200
		3 for 9600
		4 for 12000 (V.17)
		5 for 14400 (V.17)

       wd  (width) =
		0 for 8.5" (21.5 cm) page width
		1 for 10" (25.5 cm)
		2 for 12" (30.3 cm)

       ln  (length) =
		0 for 11" (A4: 29.7 cm) page length
		1 for 14" (B4: 36.4 cm)
		2 for unlimited page length

       df  (data format) =
		0 for 1-D coding
		1 for 2-D coding (not supported)

       ec  (error correction) =
		0 for no error correction

       bf  (binary file) =
		0 for no binary file transfer

       st  (minimum scan time) =
		0 for zero delay per line
		1 for 5 ms per line
		3 for 10 ms per line
		5 for 20 ms per line
		7 for 40 ms per line

       When receiving a fax the vr, wd, and ln fields of the capability string
       should  be  set	to  the maximum values that your display software sup‐
       ports.  The default is 196 lpi, standard (8.5"/21.5cm) width and unlim‐
       ited length.

       When  sending  a	 fax efax will determine vr and ln from the image file
       and set wd to the default.

       If the receiving fax machine does not support  high  resolution	(vr=1)
       mode, efax will reduce the resolution by combining pairs of scan lines.
       If the receiving fax machine does not support the  image's  width  then
       efax will truncate or pad as required. Most fax machines can receive ln
       up to 2.	 Few machines support values of wd other than 0.

       efax adds blank scan lines at the top of each image when	 it  is	 sent.
       This  allows  room  for the page header but increases the length of the
       image (by default about 0.1" or 2.5mm of blank space is added).

       The header placed in this area typically includes the  date  and	 time,
       identifies  the,	 and  shows  the page number and total pages.  Headers
       cannot be disabled but the header string can be set to a blank line.

       The default font for generating the headers is the built-in 8x16	 pixel
       font scaled to 12x24 pixels (about 9 point size).

       Note that both efax and efix have -f options to specify the font.  efIx
       uses the font to generate text when doing text-to-fax conversions (dur‐
       ing "fax make") while efAx uses the font to generate the header (during
       "fax send").

       A session log is written to the standard error stream.  This log	 gives
       status  and  error  messages  from  the	program	 as selected by the -v
       option. A time stamp showing the full time or just minutes and  seconds
       is  printed  before  each  message.   Times  printed  along  with modem
       responses also show milliseconds.

       The program returns an error code as follows:

       0	The fax was successfully sent or received.

       1	The dialed number was busy or the modem	 device	 was  in  use.
		Try again later.

       2	Something  failed  (e.g.  file	not found or disk full). Don't
		retry.	Check the session log for more details.

       3	Modem  protocol	 error.	  The  program	did  not  receive  the
		expected response from the modem.  The modem may not have been
		properly initialized, the correct -o options were not used, or
		a  bug report may be in order.	Check the session log for more

       4	The modem is not responding.  Operator attention is  required.
		Check that the modem is turned on and connected to the correct

       5	The program was terminated by a signal.

       Creating fax (G3) files

       The efix program can be used to convert text files to  TIFF-G3  format.
       For example, the following command will convert the text file letter to
       the files letter.001, letter.002, etc,:

	      efix -nletter.%03d letter

       Ghostscript's tiffg3 driver can generate fax files  in  TIFF-G3	format
       from postscript files.  For example, the command:

	       gs -q -sDEVICE=tiffg3 -dNOPAUSE \
		   -sOutputFile=letter.%03d letter.ps </dev/null

       will  convert the Postscript file letter.ps into high-resolution (vr=1)
       G3 fax image files letter.001, letter.002, ...

       The images should have margins of at least 1/2 inch (1  cm)  since  the
       fax standard only requires that fax machines print a central portion of
       the image 196.6mm (7.7 inches) wide by 281.5mm (11.1 inches) high.

       The efix program can also insert bitmaps in images  to  create  letter‐
       head, signatures, etc.

       Printing fax files

       You  can	 use  the  efix program to print faxes on Postscript or HP-PCL
       (LaserJet) printers.  For example,  to  print  the  received  fax  file
       reply.001 on a Postscript printer use the command:

	      efix -ops reply.001 | lpr

       Sending fax files

       The  following command will dial the number 222-2222 using tone dialing
       and send a two-page fax from the	 TIFF-G3  files	 letter.001  and  let‐
       ter.002 using the fax modem connected to device /dev/cua1.

	      efax -d /dev/cua1 \
		   -t T222-2222 letter.001 letter.002

       Manual answer

       You  can	 use efax to answer the phone immediately and start fax recep‐
       tion.  Use this mode if you need to answer calls	 manually  to  see  if
       they are fax or voice.

       For  example,  the  following command will make the fax modem on device
       /dev/ttyS1 answer the phone and attempt to receive a fax.  The received
       fax  will  be stored in the files reply.001, reply.002, and so on.  The
       modem will identify itself as "555 1212" and receive faxes at  high  or
       low resolution (vr=1), at up to 14.4 kbps (br=5).

	      efax -d /dev/ttyS1 -l "555 1212" \
		 -c 1,5 -r reply

       Automatic answer

       The  -w	option makes efax wait for characters to become available from
       the modem (indicating an incoming call) before starting fax  reception.
       Use  the	 -w  option  and  a  -iS0=n option to answer the phone after n
       rings.  The example below will make the modem answer incoming calls  in
       fax  mode  on  the  fourth ring and save the received faxes using files
       names corresponding to the reception date and time.

	      efax -d /dev/ttyb -w -iS0=4 2>&1 >> fax.log

       Sharing the modem with outgoing calls

       The modem device can be shared by programs that	use  the  UUCP	device
       locking	protocol.   This includes pppd, chat, minicom, kermit, uucico,
       efax, cu, and many others others.  However, locking will only  work  if
       all programs use the same lock file.

       efax  will  lock the modem device before opening it if one or more UUCP
       lock file names are given with -x options.  Most programs  place	 their
       lock  files in the /usr/spool/uucp or /var/lock directories and use the
       name LCK..dev where dev is the name of the  device  file	 in  the  /dev
       directory that is to be locked.

       If  the -s (share) option is used, the lock file is removed while wait‐
       ing for incoming calls so other programs can use the same device.

       If efax detects another program using the modem while it is waiting  to
       receive	a  fax, efax exits with a termination code of 1.  A subsequent
       efax process using this device will wait until  the  other  program  is
       finished	 before	 re-initializing  the  modem  and starting to wait for
       incoming calls again.

       Programs that try to lock the modem  device  by	using  device  locking
       facilities  other than UUCP lock files not be able to use this arbitra‐
       tion mechanism because the device  will	still  be  open	 to  the  efax
       process.	  In  this  case  you will need to kill the efax process (e.g.
       "fax stop") before starting the other program.

       When efax is waiting for a fax it leaves the modem ready to receive  in
       fax  mode  but removes the lock file.  When a slip or PPP program takes
       over the modem port by setting up its own lock file  efax  cannot  send
       any  more commands to the modem -- not even to reset it.	 Therefore the
       other program has to set the modem back to data mode when it starts up.
       To do this add a modem reset command (send ATZ expect OK) to the begin‐
       ning of your slip or PPP chat script.

       Accepting both fax and data calls

       Many modems have an adaptive data/fax answer mode that can  be  enabled
       using  the -j+FAE=1 (for Class 1) or -jFAA=1 (for Class 2[.0]) initial‐
       ization string.	The type of call (data or fax)	can  then  be  deduced
       from the modem's responses.

       Some  modems  have  limited adaptive answer features (e.g. only working
       properly at certain baud rates or only in Class 2) or none at all.   In
       this  case  use the initialization string -i+FCLASS=0 to answer in data
       mode first and the -oa option to then hang up and try again in fax mode
       if the first answer attempt was not successful.	This method only works
       if your telephone system waits a few seconds after you hang  up	before
       disconnecting incoming calls.

       If  the	-g  option is used then the option's argument will be run as a
       shell command when an incoming data call is detected.   Typically  this
       command	will  exec  getty(8).	This program should expect to find the
       modem already off-hook and a lock file present so it should not try  to
       hang  up the line or create a lock file.	 Note that the modem should be
       set up to report	 the  DCE-DTE  (modem-computer,	 e.g.  CONNECT	38400)
       speed,  not  the	 DCE-DCE (modem-modem, e.g. CONNECT 14400) speed.  For
       many modems the initialization option -iW0 will set this.

       The following command will make efax answer incoming calls on /dev/cua1
       on  the	second	ring.	This device will be locked using two different
       lock files but these lock files	will  be  removed  while  waiting  for
       incoming	 calls	(-s).	If  a data call is detected, the getty program
       will be run to initialize the terminal  driver  and  start  a  login(1)
       process.	   Received   fax  files  will	be  stored  using  names  like
       Dec02-, in the /usr/spool/fax/incoming  directory  and  the
       log file will be appended to /usr/spool/fax/faxlog.cua1.

	      efax -d /dev/cua1	 -j '+FAA=1' \
		 -x /usr/spool/uucp/LCK..cua1 \
		 -x /usr/spool/uucp/LCK..ttyS1 \
		 -g "exec /sbin/getty -h /dev/cua1 %d" \
		 -iS0=2 -w -s \
		 -r "/usr/spool/fax/incoming/%b%d-%H.%I.%S" \
		 >> /usr/spool/fax/faxlog.cua1 2>&1

       Note that adaptive answer of either type will not work for all callers.
       For some data calls the duration of the initial data-mode answer may be
       too  short for data handshaking to complete.  In other cases this dura‐
       tion may be so long that incoming fax calls will time out  before  efax
       switches	 to  fax  mode.	  In addition, some calling fax modems mistake
       data-mode answering tones for fax  signaling  tones  and	 initiate  fax
       negotiation  too	 soon.	 If  you  use software adaptive answer you can
       reduce the value of the initial data-mode answer (set  by  TO_DATAF  in
       efax.c)	to  get	 more reliable fax handshaking or increase it for more
       reliable data handshaking.  However, if you need	 to  provide  reliable
       fax  and data service to all callers you should use separate phone num‐
       bers for the two types of calls.

       When a call is answered the modem goes on-line  with  the  computer-to-
       modem baud rate fixed at the speed used for the most recent AT command.
       When efax is waiting for a fax or data call it sets the interface speed
       to  19200 bps since this is the speed required for fax operation.  This
       prevents full use of 28.8kbps modem capabilities.

       efax can answer all incoming calls if you place an entry	 for  efax  in
       /etc/inittab  (for SysV-like systems) or /etc/ttytab (for BSD-like sys‐
       tems). The init(8) process will run a new copy of efax when the	system
       boots  up and whenever the previous efax process terminates.  The init‐
       tab or ttytab entry should invoke efax by running the fax  script  with
       an answer argument.

       For  example,  placing  the following line in /etc/inittab (and running
       "kill -1 1") will make init run the fax script with the argument answer
       every time previous process terminates and init is in runlevel 4 or 5.

	      s1:45:respawn:/bin/sh /usr/bin/fax answer

       For  BSD-like  systems  (e.g.  SunOS),  a line such as the following in
       /etc/ttytab will have the same effect:

	      ttya "/usr/local/bin/fax answer" unknown on

       You should protect the fax script and configuration files against  tam‐
       pering since init will execute them as a privileged (root) process.  If
       you will be allowing data calls via getty and login you	should	ensure
       that  your  system  is  reasonably secure (e.g. that all user id's have
       secure passwords).

       If efax exec()'s getty properly but you get a garbled login prompt then
       there  is  probably a baud rate mismatch between the modem and the com‐
       puter.  First, check the efax log file to make sure the modem's CONNECT
       response	 reported  the	serial port speed (e.g. 19200), not the modem-
       modem speed (e.g. 14400).  Next, check the getty options and/or config‐
       uration	files  (e.g.  /etc/gettydefs)  for  that particular baud rate.
       Then run getty manually with the same arguments	and  verify  the  port
       settings	 using	``stty </dev/XXX''.  Note that you'll probably want to
       enable hardware flow control  for  data	connections  (-h  for  agetty,
       CRTSCTS for getty_ps).

       A  few programs won't work properly when efax is set up to answer calls
       because they don't create lock files.  You can  put  the	 shell	script
       ``wrapper''  below  around  such	 programs  to make them work properly.
       Change BIN and LOCKF to suit.

	      if [ -f $LOCKF ]
		      echo lock file $LOCKF exists
		      exit 1
		      printf "%10d0 $$ >$LOCKF
		      $BIN $*
		      rm $LOCKF

       The "fax answer" script described above can be configured to e-mail the
       fax  files  received  by the previous fax answer process to a "fax man‐
       ager" who can then forward the  fax  to	the  correct  recipient.   The
       received	 fax  files  are  send as MIME attachments, one file per page,
       using the ``base64'' text encoding and the ``image/tiff'' file format.

       To view the fax images directly from your e-mail reader you  will  have
       to  configure  it  with	an  application that can display files of type
       image/tiff.  Typically this is specified in a  ``mailcap''  file.   For
       example,	 placing the following line in /etc/mailcap will cause the fax
       file attachments to be displayed using the ``fax view'' command.

       image/tiff; fax view %s

       You can configure a "fax" printer into the lpr print spooler that  will
       fax  a  document	 out using efax instead of printing it.	 This allows a
       network server running efax to send faxes on behalf of other  machines,
       including non-Unix clients.  In the following steps use the directories
       specified in the fax script if they are	different  than	 /usr/bin  and
       /var/spool/fax  (FAXDIR).   To set up a fax printer do the following as

       (1) Create a link to the fax script called ``faxlpr'' so the fax script
       can determine when it is being invoked from the print spooler:

       ln -s /usr/bin/fax /usr/bin/faxlpr

       (2) Edit /etc/printcap and add an entry such as:


       to  define  a printer called "fax".  Print files will be spooled to the
       /var/spool/fax (sd=) directory and then piped  to  the  /usr/bin/faxlpr
       filter (if=).  Error messages will appear on /dev/console.

       (3) Create and/or set the permissions to allow anyone to read and write
       in the fax spool directory.  For example:

	      mkdir /var/spool/fax
	      chmod 777 /var/spool/fax

       (4) Create a printer daemon lock file that is readable by anyone:

	      touch /var/spool/fax/lock
	      chmod 644 /var/spool/fax/lock

       You should now be able to send a fax using the lpr interface by using a
       command such as:

	      lpr -P fax -J "555 1212" file.ps

       where  the -J option is used to specify the phone number or alias to be

       Note that if more than one file is given on the command line they  will
       be concatenated before being passed to "fax send".  TIFF-G3, Postscript
       or PBM files must therefore be sent one file at a  time	although  TIFF
       and  Postscript	files  may contain multiple pages.  Only multiple text
       files can be sent in one command.  Page breaks in  text	files  can  be
       marked  with form-feed characters.  Files will be converted and sent at
       the default (high) resolution.

       You can use lpq(1) to check the fax queue, lprm(1) to remove  fax  jobs
       and  lpc(8)  to control the spooler.  In each case use the -Pfax option
       to specify the fax ``printer.'' A log file will be mailed to  the  user
       when the fax is sent.

       You  should also be able to send a fax from any networked computer that
       has lpr-compatible remote printing software and that allows you to  set
       the  job	 name  (-J  option)  to an arbitrary string.  Such software is
       available for most computers.

       See the lpd(8) and printcap(5) man pages for information on  the	 print
       spooler	and  for restricting access by host name (/etc/host.lpd) or by
       user group (the `rg' printcap entry).

       Double check the configuration setup in	the  first  part  of  the  fax
       script, particularly the modem device name and the lock file names.

       If  efax	 hangs	when  trying  to  open	the  modem  device  (typically
       /dev/ttyX), the device is either already	 in  use  by  another  process
       (e.g. pppd) or it requires the carrier detect line to be true before it
       can be opened.  Many systems define an alternate device	name  for  the
       same  physical  device (typically cuaX) that can be opened even if car‐
       rier is not present or other programs are already using it.

       If responses to modem initialization commands are being lost or	gener‐
       ated  at	 random,  another processes (e.g. getty or an efax auto-answer
       process) may be trying to use the modem at the same time.  Try  running
       efax  while  this  other	 program  is running.  If efax does not report
       "/dev/ttyX locked or busy. waiting."  then the lock files names are not
       specified correctly.

       Attempt	to  send a fax. Check that the modem starts making the calling
       signal (CNG, a 0.5 second beep every 3 seconds) as soon	as  it's  fin‐
       ished  dialing.	 This shows the modem is in fax mode.  You may need to
       set the SPKR variable to -iM2L3 to monitor the phone line to do this.

       Listen for the answering fax machine and check that it sends the answer
       signal  (CED,  a	 3  second  beep)  followed  by "warbling" sounds (DIS
       frames) every 3 seconds.	 If you hear  a	 continuous  sound  (tones  or
       noise) instead, then you've connected to a data modem instead.

       Your  modem  should send back its own warble (DCS frame) in response to
       DIS immediately followed by 1.5 seconds of noise (a channel check).  If
       everything  is  OK,  the	 receiving  end	 will send another warble (CFR
       frame) and your modem will start to send data.  If you have an external
       modem, check its LEDs.  If flow control is working properly the modem's
       send data (SD) LED will turn off periodically while  the	 fax  data  is

       Check  the message showing the line count and the average bit rate when
       the page transmission is done.  Low line counts (under 1000 for a  let‐
       ter size image) or the warning "fax output buffer overflow" while send‐
       ing indicate that the image data format is incorrect.  Check  the  file
       being sent using the "fax view" command.

       If  you	get  the error message ``flow control did not work'' then flow
       control was not active.	This usually results in a garbled transmission
       and  the receiving machine may reject the page, abort the call, print a
       distorted or blank image and/or hang up.

       The warning "characters received while sending" or an <XOFF>  character
       appearing  after	 the  transmission  means  that	 the  operating system
       ignored the modem's XOFF flow control character.	 Ensure that  you  are
       not  running  other  programs such as getty or pppd at the same time as
       efax since they will turn off xon/xoff flow control.

       If you cannot get flow control to work properly then  enable  ``virtual
       flow  control''	with  the -of option or hardware flow control with the
       -oh option.

       Check that  the	remote	machine	 confirms  reception  with  a  +FPTS:1
       response (Class 2) or an MCF frame (Class 1).

       For  Class 2 modems, the error message "abnormal call termination (code
       nn)" indicates that the modem detected an error and hung up.

       Many companies advertise services that will  fax	 back  information  on
       their products.	These can be useful for testing fax reception.

       The  message  "run  length buffer overflow" when receiving indicates an
       error with the image data format.  You may need to use the  -or	option
       with certain Class 2 modems.

       If  efax	 displays the message "can't happen (<details>)" please send a
       bug report to the author.

       Finally, don't play "option bingo," if you can't	 resolve  the  problem
       send  a	verbose log of the failed session (the output from fax -v ...)
       to the address below.

       A Web Page with pointers to the latest version, known bugs and  patches
       is available at:


       For Linux Systems

       Independent  packages  provide  more  user-friendly  interfaces to efax
       (xfax, tefax) and provide an e-mail-to-fax (Qfax) gateway  using	 efax.
       All   are   available   by   anonymous	FTP  from  metalab.unc.edu  in

       For Amiga Systems

       A port of an early version of efax for the Amiga is available as a com‐
       ponent  of  a shareware voice mail package, AVM, distributed by Al Vil‐
       larica (rvillari@cat.syr.edu).

       Other Ports

       efax is relatively easy to  port.   All	system-dependent  code	is  in
       efaxos.c.   An  early  version of efax was ported to VMS.  Version 0.8a
       was ported to Win32 by Luigi Capriotti.	 Contact  the  author  if  you
       would like to integrate the Win32 code into the current version.

       Efax  was  written by Ed Casas.	Please send comments or bug reports to

       Bug reports should include the operating system, the type of the	 modem
       and  a  copy  of	 a  verbose session log that demonstrates the problem.
       It's usually impossible to help without a verbose log.  Please  do  not
       send fax image files.

       efax  is	 copyright  1993 -- 1999 Ed Casas.  It may be used, copied and
       modified under the terms of the GNU Public License.

       Although efax has been tested it may have errors that will  prevent  it
       from  working correctly on your system.	Some of these errors may cause
       serious problems including loss of data and interruptions to  telephone

       CCITT Recommendation T.30, "Procedures for Document Facsimile Transmis‐
       sion in the General Switched Telephone Network". 1988

       CCITT Recommendation T.4, "Standardization of Group 3 Facsimile Appara‐
       tus for Document Transmission". 1988.

       For documentation on Class 1 and Class 2 fax commands as implemented by
       Connexant (formerly Rockwell) modems see	 http://www.conexant.com/tech‐

       For  the	 TIFF  specification see http://partners.adobe.com/supportser‐
       vice/devrelations/PDFS/TN/TIFF6.pdf or RFC 2301	(ftp://ftp.isi.edu/in-

       For information on Ghostscript see http://www.cs.wisc.edu/~ghost/.

       The  pbm	 utilities  can be obtained by ftp from wuarchive.wustl.edu in

       PCX and many other file formats are described in: Gunter Born, The File
       Formats Handbook, International Thomson Computer Press, 1995.

       The "Fax Modem Source Book" by Andrew Margolis, published by John Wiley
       & Sons in 1994 (ISBN 0471950726), is a book on writing fax applications
       which includes source code.

       Dennis  Bodson et. al., "FAX: Digital Facsimile Technology and Applica‐
       tions", Second Edition. Artech House, Boston. 1992.

       fax(1), efix(1), gs(1), init(8),	 inittab(5),  ttytab(5),  printcap(5),
       lpd(8), printf(3), strftime(3).

       Can't read TIFF files with more than 1 strip

       Class 1 operation may fail if the program can't respond to certain data
       received from the modem within 55 milliseconds.

       May fail if multitasking delays cause the received data to overflow the
       computer's  serial  device  buffer  or if an under-run of transmit data
       exceeds 5 seconds.

       Polling does not work.

       Does not support 2-D coding, ECM, or BFT.

3rd Berkeley Distribution	 February 1999			       EFAX(1)

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