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login(1)							      login(1)

       login - Signs the user on to the system

       login [-p] [-h host] [[-f] user]

       The  login command is used when a user initially signs on to the system
       and also by daemons, such as ftp, to create a user's environment.

       This security-sensitive command uses the Security Integration Architec‐
       ture  (SIA)  routine  as an interface to the security mechanism(s) that
       perform the actual user validation. See	the  matrix.conf(4)  reference
       page for more information.

       With the exception of -p, these options are available only to the supe‐
       ruser.  Used by telnetd and other servers to list the host  from	 which
       the connection was received.  Used with a user name user on the command
       line to indicate that proper authentication was already done, and  that
       no  password  needs to be requested.  Causes the remainder of the envi‐
       ronment to be preserved; otherwise, any previous	 environment  is  dis‐

       The  invocation of login for initial signon is made by a system program
       or server using the privileged -h and -f forms of the login command.

       If login is invoked without an argument, it asks for a user name,  and,
       if appropriate, a password.  Echoing is turned off (if possible) during
       the entering of the password, so it will	 not  appear  on  the  written
       record of the session.

       After  a	 successful  login,  accounting	 files	are  updated.  You are
       informed of the existence of mail, and the message of the day  and  the
       time of last login are displayed.  The mail message, the message of the
       day, and the last login time are suppressed if there is a file  in  the
       home  directory; this is mostly used to make life easier for users such
       as uucp.

				    Security Note

       If you have enhanced security installed on your system, the login  com‐
       mand prints the last successful and unsuccessful login times and termi‐
       nal devices.  If the account does not have a password and the authenti‐
       cation  profile	for  the account requires one, login starts the passwd
       command to establish one for the account.

       The login command prohibits you from logging in if any of the following
       are  true: The password for the account has expired and you cannot suc‐
       cessfully change the password.  The password lifetime for  the  account
       has passed.  The administrative lock on the account was set.  The maxi‐
       mum number of unsuccessful login attempts for the account was exceeded.
       The  maximum number of unsuccessful login attempts for the terminal was
       exceeded.  The administrative lock on the terminal was set.  The termi‐
       nal  has	 an  authorized user list and you are not on it.  The terminal
       has time of day restrictions and the current time is not	 within	 them.
       The account was retired by the system administrator.

       The  login  command  initializes the user and group IDs and the working
       directory, and then executes a command interpreter  according to speci‐
       fications  found in the password file. Argument 0 (zero) of the command
       interpreter is the name of the command interpreter  with	 a  leading  -

       The login command also modifies the environment with information speci‐
       fying home directory, command interpreter,  terminal  type  (if	avail‐
       able), and user name.

				    Security Note

       If  you have enhanced security installed on your system, the login com‐
       mand always allows root to log in at the console to avoid the situation
       where all accounts and terminals are locked.

       If  either  /etc/nologin_hostname  or /etc/nologin exists, login prints
       the contents on your terminal and exits. The shutdown  command  creates
       /etc/nologin_hostname  (or  /etc/nologin	 in  the case of a clusterwide
       shutdown) to stop users from logging in when  the system or cluster  is
       about to go down.

       Login  is recognized by sh, csh, and ksh and executed directly (without

       The user name or the password is invalid.  Consult your system adminis‐

				       Security Note

	      If  you have enhanced security installed on your system, you may
	      see the following diagnostic messages: The login command	cannot
	      invoke  the  passwd program.  The passwd program is invoked, the
	      user is unable to change the password, and the account  requires
	      one.  is allowed

	      The  login  command  is allowing a root login at the system con‐
	      sole, despite a condition that would normally not allow  such  a
	      login.   The account is locked for one of the reasons previously
	      listed.  The terminal is locked for one of  the  reasons	previ‐
	      ously   listed.  You are not on the authorized user list for the
	      terminal.	 The current time is not within the  current  time-of-
	      day restrictions for the terminal.

	      After  an	 unsuccessful  login  attempt, login waits a specified
	      (configurable) amount of time  before  it	 prompts  for  another
	      login attempt.

	      If  the  account's  password  was changed by another user, login
	      prints the time the  password  was  changed  and	the  user  who
	      changed it.

	      If your password is about to expire, login warns you of the time
	      of the impending expiration.  Your system administrator sets the
	      warning period.

       Contains	 user  and  accounting	information.   Contains login history.
       Contains last login time stamps.	 Mail directory.  Message of the  day.
       Contains user information.  Stops logins. In a cluster, /etc/nologin is
       used instead.  Suppresses mail notification, message of	the  day,  and
       last login time.

       Commands:    binmail(1),	 chfn(1), chsh(1), getty(8), init(8), Mail(1),
       mail(1), mailx(1), passwd(1), rlogin(1), shutdown(8)

       Function:  getpass(3)

       Files:  matrix.conf(4), passwd(4), utmp(4)



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