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ppp_manual_setup(7)					   ppp_manual_setup(7)

       ppp_manual_setup - Describes how to manually set up Point-to-Point Pro‐
       tocol (PPP) connections

       The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard way  to  transmit
       IP  datagrams  over  a  serial  link and a standard way for the systems
       (peers) at either end of the link to negotiate various optional charac‐
       teristics  of the link.	Using PPP, a serial link can be used to trans‐
       mit Internet  Protocol  (IP)  datagrams,	 allowing  TCP/IP  connections
       between the peers.

       Note  that  although  you  do not use a network interface with PPP, you
       must have a network interface configured on your system for the network
       daemons	(such  as nfsd and rwhod) to run properly.  The network inter‐
       face must be configured with a new IPv4 address.	 For example,  if  you
       have a personal computer that you use at home and in the office, do not
       use the same IPv4 address for the network interface at home as you  use
       in the office.

       You  can	 use  the  gated daemon to manage IPv4 routing and the ip6rtrd
       daemon to manage IPv6 routing, if you are not using the PPP  connection
       solely to communicate between the two systems making the connection.

       If  you	plan to use a system as an IP router, it must be configured to
       allow the forwarding of IP packets. For more information on  setting  a
       system  up as an IP router, see the Network Administration: Connections
       manual and iprsetup(8).

       You can connect systems either directly to each	other  (using  a  null
       modem),	if  they are in close proximity, or over telephone lines using
       modems, if they are not.

       If you connect the systems directly, use a null modem  cable,  such  as
       BC22D-xx (where xx varies depending on the length of the cable) to con‐
       nect the serial ports on the two hosts.	The  maximum  length  of  this
       type of connection is defined by the RS-232 standard.

       If  the	systems are not in close proximity to each other, you can con‐
       nect them using telephone line and modems. To use this kind of  connec‐
       tion,  attach  a	 modem	to a serial port on both hosts so that the two
       hosts can establish a serial connection between them. You  can  use  an
       RS-232  cable connected to the serial port on the host. This cable must
       be a straight-through cable such as BC22E-xx or BC22F-xx and the modems
       must be set to 8 bit, no parity.

       PPP  works  best when hardware flow control is used.  High speed modems
       often fall-back to a lower data rate when line degradation  occurs.  To
       support	hardware  flow	control	 you must use cables with a sufficient
       number of wires for full modem control.	DECconnect cables do not  pro‐
       vide  a	sufficient  number of wires.  Therefore, do not use them.  See
       modem(7) for a list of modem cables to use and modem guidelines.


       Do not use XON/XOFF flow control.  It  will  corrupt  the  data	stream
       causing	the  TCP  layer over IP to issue retransmit requests for over-

       PPP provides three protocols for authenticating hosts and for authenti‐
       cating  your  host  system  to others: Password Authentication Protocol
       (PAP) Challenge	Handshake  Authentication  Protocol  (CHAP)  Microsoft
       Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP)

       All  protocols exchange secrets in order to complete the authentication
       process.	 PAP secrets are contained in the  /etc/ppp/pap-secrets	 file;
       CHAP  secrets  are  contained  in the /etc/ppp/chap-secrets file.  Only
       root should be able to read these files.

       The pap-secrets and chap-secrets files should have the  following  for‐
       mat: client server secret ip_address...

       Name of the machine being authenticated.	 Name of the machine requiring
       authentication.	Password or CHAP  secret  known	 by  both  client  and
       server.	 Zero  or  more	 IPv4  addresses that the client may use (this
       field is used only on the server).

       The MS-CHAP protocol exchange secrets are located in the /etc/ppp/chap-
       secrets	file.	The  format  for this protocol is as follows: username
       server secret

       Name of the user to be authenticated.  Name of  the  machine  requiring
       authentication.	 Password  or  CHAP  secret  known  by both client and


	      The /etc/ppp  directory  contains	 files	of  secrets  used  for
	      authentication,  and  should  not	 be  in	 a  partition  that is
	      exported using NFS and accessible to other hosts.

	      If authentication is required, the  /etc/ppp/options  file  must
	      contain the auth and usehostname options.

       Verify  that  PPP  is supported in the kernel by entering the following
       command: # sysconfig -s | grep ppp

       If it is not loaded and configured, do the following: Log in  as	 root.
       Rebuild	the  kernel  by running the doconfig program and selecting the
       Point-to-Point (PPP) option.  Make a backup copy of the current /vmunix
       file.   Copy  the newly-created /sys/HOSTNAME/vmunix kernel file to the
       /vmunix file.  Reboot the system

       A PPP connection between two systems involves setting up a serial  link
       and running the PPP daemon, pppd, on both ends of the link.  Guidelines
       for running pppd are as follows: If you want to run IPv6 over PPP,  set
       the  Maximum  Receive  Unit  (mru)  parameter  to  1280 or higher.  See
       pppd(8) for more information.  If you want the interface	 ID  for  IPv6
       over  PPP  to  differ from the address for the local host's Ethernet or
       other broadcast interface, put the desired address on the pppd  command
       line with a colon appended as follows:

	      ip6cp-interface-id  interface-id:	 If you want the local address
	      of the PPP link to differ from the IPv4 address  for  the	 local
	      host's  Ethernet	or  other broadcast interface, put the desired
	      address on the pppd command line with a colon appended  as  fol‐

	      local_addr:  Do  not  use ifconfig to configure the addresses of
	      the PPP interface.  The pppd daemon assigns addresses and	 iden‐
	      tifies  the  interface as active.	 Whether you run pppd manually
	      on the remote machine or use a script file on the local  machine
	      to  run pppd on the remote machine, do not provide a device name
	      to pppd; it uses the controlling tty by default.

       For information on pppd options, see pppd(8)  and  Network  Administra‐
       tion: Connections.

       To  a  PPP  dial-out  connection, do the following: Verify that you can
       communicate with the modem.  Do the  following:	Edit  the  /etc/remote
       file and copy the kdebug entry.	Modify the new entry, providing a sys‐
       tem name for the entry, the correct Tru64 UNIX device (tty00  or	 tty01
       depending  on  your system), the correct baud rate, and correct parity.
       See remote(4) for more information.  Check the /usr/spool/locks	direc‐
       tory  for  LCK..ttynn  lock files. If any exist for the terminal device
       you are configuring for PPP, remove them.

	      When you establish a connection over a terminal device, the sys‐
	      tem  generates  a lock file to prevent the connection from being
	      disrupted by another application.	 If the connection  terminates
	      abnormally,  the	lock  file  might persist, preventing you from
	      establishing new connections.  Use the tip command to access the
	      modem as follows: % tip system_name

	      system_name is the system name from the /etc/remote file.


	      Be  sure	you do not have a getty process running on the port to
	      which the modem is connected.

	      For more information on the tip command, see tip(1) and the Com‐
	      mand and Shell User's Guide.  If your modem is using the AT com‐
	      mand language, enter the following command: AT <Return>

	      If the modem is not in quiet mode, it responds with an  OK  mes‐
	      sage.   Contact the remote system administrator or your Internet
	      Service Provider (ISP) and  obtain  the  following  information:
	      Your  remote  IPv4 address and netmask, unless the remote system
	      assigns the IPv4 address dynamically (IPv4 over PPP only)	 Char‐
	      acters  that might need to be escaped Instructions on how to log
	      in and use the remote service

	      This information is used to create a chat	 script,  which	 auto‐
	      mates the dial-out process.  Create a file for commands that the
	      chat program uses to direct the modem what number	 to  dial  and
	      what  to	send  the  remote system in order to start pppd.  This
	      file is called a chat script.  Each entry in a chat  script  has
	      the following format:

	      string_chat_expects string_chat_sends

	      See  chat(8) for more information onchat and chat scripts.  Copy
	      the PPP options file template from the /etc/ppp.common directory
	      to  the  /etc/ppp	 directory,  as	 follows:  #  cp /etc/ppp.com‐
	      mon/options /etc/ppp

	      This file must exist and must be readable	 by  pppd;  otherwise,
	      the  daemon  will not run. Set the file permissions so that only
	      root has write access: # ls -l /etc/ppp/options  -rw-r--r--    1
	      root	 bin	      3348  Feb	 26  22:32  options  Edit  the
	      /etc/ppp/options file and include the pppd options  as  required
	      by the remote system or ISP.  See pppd(8) for a complete list of
	      pppd options.  See Network  Administration:  Connections	for  a
	      sample  /etc/ppp/options	file  for  dial-out  access.  Edit the
	      /etc/syslog.conf file and do the following to enable logging for
	      PPP: Add the local2 facility (used by pppd and chat) to the line
	      that specifies /dev/console as the message destination  as  fol‐

	      kern.debug;local2.notice	   /dev/console

	      In this example, the notice level is specified.  Add the follow‐
	      ing entry to the file to create a ppp-log file:

	      local2.debug		      /etc/ppp/ppp-log Save the	 edits
	      and close the file.

	      See syslogd(8) for more information.  Create the ppp-log file by
	      issuing the following command: # touch /etc/ppp/ppp-log

	      This file must be created before the next step  to  ensure  that
	      PPP  event logging is started.  Stop and start syslogd by enter‐
	      ing  the	following  commands:  #	 /sbin/init.d/syslog  stop   #
	      /sbin/init.d/syslog  start  Invoke  pppd	on the local system to
	      connect to the remote system. For example, the following command
	      starts  a	 link on tty01 and specifies the connect option to run
	      the chat program using the specified chat script file.   %  pppd
	      /dev/tty01  38400	 connect  \  'chat -v -f /etc/ppp/chat-script'
	      Issue the following command to  monitor  the  ppp-log  file  and
	      determine	 whether  the  PPP  connection	is  active:  % tail -f

       After you have established a connection, you can use the	 pppstats  and
       netstat	commands  to  obtain current statistics for the PPP interface.
       For example: % pppstats

       9425  311      5	     2	    0  |     9574    308      1	     3	  304

       % netstat -I ppp0

       Name  Mtu    Network    Address	     Ipkts Ierrs   Opkts Oerrs	Coll

       ppp0   1500    <Link>	 Link#6		 305	 0     302     0     0
       ppp0  1500   10	       305     0     302     0	   0

       For more information about the pppstats and netstat commands, see  ppp‐
       stats(8) and netstat(1).

       If  any problems occur while using PPP, see the Network Administration:
       Connections manual.

       To configure a PPP dial-in system, complete the following steps: Set up
       your modem for dial-in accss.  See modem(7) for more information.  Edit
       the /etc/passwd file and create a dedicated entry for a PPP user.   For
       the login shell field, specify /usr/sbin/startppp; for example:

	      ppp1:password:10:20:Remote				   PPP
	      User:/usr/users/guest:/usr/sbin/startppp Edit  the  /etc/inittab
	      file and create an entry for each terminal device that is to run
	      PPP.  For example:

	      modem:3:respawn:/usr/sbin/getty /dev/tty00 M38400 vt100

	      See inittab(4) for more information.  Issue the init  q  command
	      to  start	 the getty process immediately.	 If the dial-in system
	      is going to be a gateway for the dial-out system to reach	 other
	      systems  on the LAN, the dial-in system must be configured as an
	      IP router and must also run one of the  following	 daemons:  For
	      IPv4  routing,  run  the gated daemon.  Edit the /etc/gated.conf
	      file and delete the nobroadcast option (if specified) in the rip
	      statement.   See	the Network Administration: Connections manual
	      for basic network setup information and gated.conf(4) for	 gated
	      options.	 For  IPv6  routing, run the ip6rtrd daemon.  You must
	      include  the  ppp	 interface  in	the  ip6rtrd.conf  file.   See
	      ip6_setup(8)   for  more	information.   In  addition,  set  the
	      ipv6forwarding and ip6gateway kernel configuration attributes to
	      1.   Copy the PPP options file template from the /etc/ppp.common
	      directory	 to  the  /etc/ppp  directory,	as   follows:	#   cp
	      /etc/ppp.common/options /etc/ppp

	      This  file  must	exist and must be readable by pppd; otherwise,
	      the daemon will not run. Set the file permissions so  that  only
	      root  has	 write access: # ls -l /etc/ppp/options -rw-r--r--   1
	      root	bin	     3348  Feb	26  22:32  options  Edit   the
	      /etc/ppp/options	file  and include the pppd options required to
	      support dial-in access for all remote users.  See Network Admin‐
	      istration:  Connections  for  a sample /etc/ppp/options file for
	      dial-in access.

	      If you want to specify options for each individual serial	 port,
	      create  a	 /etc/ppp/options.ttyxx file and include the remote IP
	      address and any other options that apply to that specific serial
	      port.  See pppd(8) for a complete list ofpppd options.  After an
	      incoming call is received and a connection established, startppp
	      runs  in	the  background.   The	process	 ID  is	 logged in the
	      /etc/ppp/pppxx.pid file.

       If any problems occur while using PPP, see the Network  Administration:
       Connections manual.

       To  terminate  the  PPP	link, send a TERM or INTR signal to one of the
       pppd  daemons  by  issuing  the	following   command:   #   kill	  `cat

       In  this command, pppxx specifies the pppd used for the PPP connection.
       The pppd specified in the command also instructs other pppd daemons  to

       If  pppd	 is  attached to a hardware serial port that is connected to a
       modem, the daemon should get a HUP signal  when	the  modem  hangs  up,
       which  will  cause it to clean up and exit.  This action depends on the
       driver and its current settings.

       Do not use a SIGKILL (kill -9) to terminate the process.	 It might  not
       allow  the  pppd	 daemon to terminate properly, which could corrupt the
       tty files.

       Files: gated.conf(4), inittab(4), ip6rtrd.conf(4), remote(4)

       Daemons: ip6rtrd(8), nd6hostd(8), pppd(8), syslogd(8)

       Commands:  tip(1),  chat(8),  iprsetup(8),  netstat(1),	pppd(8),  ppp‐
       stats(8), syslogd(8)

       Networks: modem(7)

       Network Administration: Connections

       RFC  1332, The PPP Internet Protocol Control Protocol (IPCP), G. McGre‐

       RFC 1334, PPP Authentication Protocols, B. Lloyd, W. Simpson

       RFC 1661, The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), W. Simpson

       RFC 1662, PPP in HDLC-like Framing, W. Simpson

       RFC 2461, Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6  (IPv6),  T.  Narten,  E.
       Nordmark,  and W. A. Simpson

       RFC 2472, IP Version 6 over PPP


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