login man page on SmartOS

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   16655 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
SmartOS logo
[printable version]

LOGIN(1)							      LOGIN(1)

       login - sign on to the system

       login [-p] [-d device] [-R repository] [-s service]
	    [-t terminal] [-u identity] [-U ruser]
	    [-h hostname [terminal] | -r hostname]
	    [name [environ]...]

       The  login command is used at the beginning of each terminal session to
       identify oneself to the system. login is invoked by the system  when  a
       connection is first established, after the previous user has terminated
       the login shell by issuing the exit command.

       If login is invoked as a command, it must replace the  initial  command
       interpreter. To invoke login in this fashion, type:

	 exec login

       from  the  initial  shell.  The	C  shell and Korn shell have their own
       built-ins of login. See ksh(1), ksh93(1), and csh(1)  for  descriptions
       of login built-ins and usage.

       login  asks  for	 your user name, if it is not supplied as an argument,
       and your password, if appropriate. Where possible,  echoing  is	turned
       off  while you type your password, so it does not appear on the written
       record of the session.

       If you make any mistake in the login procedure, the message:

	 Login incorrect

       is printed and a new login prompt appears. If you make  five  incorrect
       login  attempts,	 all  five  can	 be logged in /var/adm/loginlog, if it
       exists. The TTY line is dropped.

       If password aging is turned on and the password has aged (see passwd(1)
       for  more  information), the user is forced to changed the password. In
       this case the /etc/nsswitch.conf file is consulted to  determine	 pass‐
       word  repositories (see nsswitch.conf(4)). The password update configu‐
       rations supported are limited to the following five cases.

	   o	  passwd: files

	   o	  passwd: files nis

	   o	  passwd: files nisplus

	   o	  passwd: compat (==> files nis)

	   o	  passwd: compat (==> files nisplus)

		  passwd_compat: nisplus

       Failure to comply with the configurations prevents the user  from  log‐
       ging  onto  the	system because passwd(1) fails. If you do not complete
       the login successfully within a certain period of time,	it  is	likely
       that you are silently disconnected.

       After  a	 successful login, accounting files are updated. Device owner,
       group, and permissions  are  set	 according  to	the  contents  of  the
       /etc/logindevperm file, and the time you last logged in is printed (see

       The user-ID, group-ID, supplementary group list, and working  directory
       are initialized, and the command interpreter (usually ksh) is started.

       The basic environment is initialized to:


       For Bourne shell and Korn shell logins, the shell executes /etc/profile
       and $HOME/.profile, if it exists.

       For  the	 ksh93	Korn  shell,  an  interactive  shell   then   executes
       /etc/ksh.kshrc,	followed  by the file specified by the ENV environment
       variable. If $ENV is not set, this defaults to  $HOME/.kshrc.  For  the
       ksh  and /usr/xpg4/bin/sh Korn Shell, an interactive shell executes the
       file named by $ENV (no default).

       For C shell logins, the shell executes /etc/.login,  $HOME/.cshrc,  and
       $HOME/.login. The default /etc/profile and /etc/.login files check quo‐
       tas (see quota(1M)), print /etc/motd, and check for mail. None  of  the
       messages	 are  printed if the file $HOME/.hushlogin exists. The name of
       the command interpreter is set to − (dash), followed by the last compo‐
       nent of the interpreter's path name, for example, −sh.

       If the login-shell field in the password file (see passwd(4)) is empty,
       then the default command interpreter, /usr/bin/sh,  is  used.  If  this
       field is * (asterisk), then the named directory becomes the root direc‐
       tory. At that point, login is re-executed at the new level, which  must
       have its own root structure.

       The  environment	 can  be  expanded or modified by supplying additional
       arguments to login, either at execution time  or	 when  login  requests
       your login name. The arguments can take either the form xxx or xxx=yyy.
       Arguments without an = (equal sign) are placed in the environment as:


       where n is a number starting at 0 and is incremented each  time	a  new
       variable	 name  is required. Variables containing an = (equal sign) are
       placed in the environment without modification. If they already	appear
       in the environment, then they replace the older values.

       There  are  two	exceptions:  The  variables  PATH  and SHELL cannot be
       changed. This prevents people logged into restricted shell environments
       from  spawning  secondary  shells that are not restricted. login under‐
       stands simple single-character quoting conventions. Typing a  \	(back‐
       slash)  in  front  of a character quotes it and allows the inclusion of
       such characters as spaces and tabs.

       Alternatively, you can pass the current environment by supplying the -p
       flag  to login. This flag indicates that all currently defined environ‐
       ment variables should be passed, if possible, to the  new  environment.
       This  option does not bypass any environment variable restrictions men‐
       tioned above.  Environment variables specified on the login  line  take
       precedence, if a variable is passed by both methods.

       To  enable  remote  logins by root, edit the /etc/default/login file by
       inserting a # (pound sign) before the CONSOLE=/dev/console entry.   See

       For  accounts in name services which support automatic account locking,
       the  account  can  be  configured  to  be  automatically	 locked	  (see
       user_attr(4)  and  policy.conf(4))  if successive failed login attempts
       equals or exceeds RETRIES. Currently, only the  files  repository  (see
       passwd(4)  and  shadow(4)) supports automatic account locking. See also

       The login command uses pam(3PAM) for  authentication,  account  manage‐
       ment,  session  management, and password management. The PAM configura‐
       tion policy, listed through /etc/pam.conf, specifies the modules to  be
       used  for  login.  Here is a partial pam.conf file with entries for the
       login command using the UNIX authentication,  account  management,  and
       session management modules:

	 login	auth	   required  pam_authtok_get.so.1
	 login	auth	   required  pam_dhkeys.so.1
	 login	auth	   required  pam_unix_auth.so.1
	 login	auth	   required  pam_dial_auth.so.1

	 login	account	   requisite pam_roles.so.1
	 login	account	   required  pam_unix_account.so.1

	 login	session	   required  pam_unix_session.so.1

       The Password Management stack looks like the following:

	 other	password   required   pam_dhkeys.so.1
	 other	password   requisite  pam_authtok_get.so.1
	 other	password   requisite  pam_authtok_check.so.1
	 other	password   required   pam_authtok_store.so.1

       If there are no entries for the service, then the entries for the other
       service is used. If multiple authentication modules  are	 listed,  then
       the user can be prompted for multiple passwords.

       When login is invoked through rlogind or telnetd, the service name used
       by PAM is rlogin or telnet, respectively.

       The following options are supported:

       -d device
				 login accepts a device option, device. device
				 is  taken to be the path name of the TTY port
				 login is to operate on. The use of the device
				 option	 can be expected to improve login per‐
				 formance, since login does not need  to  call
				 ttyname(3C).  The -d option is available only
				 to users whose	 UID  and  effective  UID  are
				 root.	Any  other  attempt  to	 use -d causes
				 login to quietly exit.

       -h hostname [terminal]
				 Used by in.telnetd(1M)	 to  pass  information
				 about the remote host and terminal type.

				 Terminal  type as a second argument to the -h
				 option should not start with a hyphen (-).

				 Used to pass  environment  variables  to  the
				 login shell.

       -r hostname
				 Used  by  in.rlogind(1M)  to pass information
				 about the remote host.

       -R repository
				 Used  to  specify  the	 PAM  repository  that
				 should	 be  used to tell PAM about the "iden‐
				 tity" (see option -u below). If no "identity"
				 information  is passed, the repository is not

       -s service
				 Indicates the PAM service name that should be
				 used.	Normally,  this argument is not neces‐
				 sary and is used only for specifying alterna‐
				 tive  PAM  service names. For example: "ktel‐
				 net" for the Kerberized telnet process.

       -u identity
				 Specifies the	"identity"  string  associated
				 with  the  user  who  is being authenticated.
				 This usually is  not  be  the	same  as  that
				 user's	 Unix login name. For Kerberized login
				 sessions, this is the Kerberos principal name
				 associated with the user.

       -U ruser
				 Indicates  the	 name of the person attempting
				 to login on the remote	 side  of  the	rlogin
				 connection.  When in.rlogind(1M) is operating
				 in Kerberized mode, that daemon processes the
				 terminal  and	remote	user  name information
				 prior to invoking login, so the "ruser"  data
				 is  indicated using this command line parame‐
				 ter.  Normally	 (non-Kerberos	 authenticated
				 rlogin),  the	login  daemon reads the remote
				 user information from the client.

       The following exit values are returned:

		   Successful operation.


			      Initial commands for each csh.

			      Suppresses login messages.

			      User's commands for interactive ksh93,  if  $ENV
			      is unset; executes after /etc/ksh.kshrc.

			      User's login commands for csh.

			      User's login commands for sh, ksh, and ksh93.

			      Private list of trusted hostname/username combi‐

			      System-wide csh login commands.

			      Issue or project identification.

			      System-wide commands for interactive ksh93.

			      Login-based device permissions.


			      Message displayed to users attempting  to	 login
			      during machine shutdown.

			      Password file.

			      System-wide sh, ksh, and ksh93 login commands.

			      List of users' encrypted passwords.

			      User's default command interpreter.

			      Time of last login.

			      Record of failed login attempts.



			      Mailbox for user your-name.

			      Default value can be set for the following flags
			      in /etc/default/login.  Default values are spec‐
			      ified  as	 comments  in  the  /etc/default/login
			      file, for example, TIMEZONE=EST5EDT.

						      Sets the TZ  environment
						      variable	of  the	 shell
						      (see environ(5)).

						      Sets the HZ  environment
						      variable of the shell.

						      Sets the file size limit
						      for the login. Units are
						      disk  blocks. Default is
						      zero (no limit).

						      If set, root  can	 login
						      on   that	 device	 only.
						      This  does  not  prevent
						      execution of remote com‐
						      mands with rsh(1).  Com‐
						      ment  out	 this  line to
						      allow login by root.

						      Determines   if	 login
						      requires	  a   non-null

						      Determines   if	 login
						      should   set  the	 SHELL
						      environment variable.

						      Sets the	initial	 shell
						      PATH variable.

						      Sets  the	 initial shell
						      PATH variable for root.

						      Sets the number of  sec‐
						      onds (between 0 and 900)
						      to wait before  abandon‐
						      ing a login session.

						      Sets  the	 initial shell
						      file creation mode mask.
						      See umask(1).

						      Determines  whether  the
						      syslog(3C)      LOG_AUTH
						      facility	should be used
						      to log all  root	logins
						      at  level LOG_NOTICE and
						      multiple	failed	 login
						      attempts atLOG_CRIT.

						      If  present, and greater
						      than zero, the number of
						      seconds that login waits
						      after   RETRIES	failed
						      attempts	 or   the  PAM
						      framework	       returns
						      PAM_ABORT. Default is 20
						      seconds.	Minimum	 is  0
						      seconds.	No  maximum is

						      If  present,  sets   the
						      number   of  seconds  to
						      wait  before  the	 login
						      failure	 message    is
						      printed to  the  screen.
						      This  is	for  any login
						      failure	 other	  than
						      PAM_ABORT. Another login
						      attempt is allowed, pro‐
						      viding  RETRIES  has not
						      been reached or the  PAM
						      framework	  is  returned
						      PAM_MAXTRIES.    Default
						      is 4 seconds. Minimum is
						      0 seconds. Maximum is  5

						      Both  su(1M)  and	 sulo‐
						      gin(1M) are affected  by
						      the value of SLEEPTIME.

						      Sets   the   number   of
						      retries for  logging  in
						      (see   pam(3PAM)).   The
						      default is 5. The	 maxi‐
						      mum number of retries is
						      15. For accounts config‐
						      ured    with   automatic
						      locking  (see   SECURITY
						      above),  the  account is
						      locked and login	exits.
						      If automatic locking has
						      not   been   configured,
						      login    exits   without
						      locking the account.

						      Used  to	determine  how
						      many     failed	 login
						      attempts are allowed  by
						      the   system   before  a
						      failed login message  is
						      logged,  using  the sys‐
						      log(3C)	    LOG_NOTICE
						      facility.	 For  example,
						      if the variable  is  set
						      to  0,  login  logs  all
						      failed login attempts.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │Interface Stability │ Committed	      │

       csh(1),	exit(1),  ksh(1),  ksh93(1),  mail(1),	mailx(1),   newgrp(1),
       passwd(1),  rlogin(1),  rsh(1),	sh(1),	shell_builtins(1),  telnet(1),
       umask(1),  in.rlogind(1M),   in.telnetd(1M),   logins(1M),   quota(1M),
       su(1M),	sulogin(1M), syslogd(1M), useradd(1M), userdel(1M), pam(3PAM),
       rcmd(3SOCKET),  syslog(3C),  ttyname(3C),  auth_attr(4),	 exec_attr(4),
       hosts.equiv(4),	issue(4),  logindevperm(4),  loginlog(4),  nologin(4),
       nsswitch.conf(4), pam.conf(4), passwd(4),  policy.conf(4),  profile(4),
       shadow(4), user_attr(4), utmpx(4), wtmpx(4), attributes(5), environ(5),
       pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5),  pam_unix_session(5),  pam_auth‐
       tok_check(5),  pam_authtok_get(5), pam_authtok_store(5), pam_dhkeys(5),
       pam_passwd_auth(5), termio(7I)

       Login incorrect

	   The user name or the password cannot be matched.

       Not on system console

	   Root login denied. Check the CONSOLE setting in /etc/default/login.

       No directory! Logging in with home=/

	   The user's home directory named in the passwd(4) database cannot be
	   found or has the wrong permissions. Contact your system administra‐

       No shell

	   Cannot execute the shell named in the passwd(4)  database.  Contact
	   your system administrator.

       NO LOGINS: System going down in N minutes

	   The	machine	 is  in the process of being shut down and logins have
	   been disabled.

       Users with a UID greater than 76695844  are  not	 subject  to  password
       aging, and the system does not record their last login time.

       If  you	use  the  CONSOLE  setting  to disable root logins, you should
       arrange that remote command execution by root  is  also	disabled.  See
       rsh(1), rcmd(3SOCKET), and hosts.equiv(4) for further details.

       The pam_unix(5) module is no longer supported. Similar functionality is
       provided by pam_unix_account(5), pam_unix_auth(5), pam_unix_session(5),
       pam_authtok_check(5),	 pam_authtok_get(5),	 pam_authtok_store(5),
       pam_dhkeys(5), and pam_passwd_auth(5).

				  Jan 7, 2008			      LOGIN(1)

List of man pages available for SmartOS

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net