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ENVIRON(5)							    ENVIRON(5)

       environ - user environment

       When  a	process	 begins execution, one of the exec family of functions
       makes available	an  array  of  strings	called	the  environment;  see
       exec(2).	  By  convention,  these strings have the form variable=value,
       for example, PATH=/sbin:/usr/sbin. These environmental  variables  pro‐
       vide  a way to make information about a program's environment available
       to programs.

       A name may be placed in the  environment	 by  the  export  command  and
       name=value  arguments  in sh(1), or by one of the exec functions. It is
       unwise to conflict with certain shell variables such as MAIL, PS1, PS2,
       and IFS that are frequently exported by .profile files; see profile(4).

       The  following  environmental variables can be used by applications and
       are expected to be set in the target run-time environment.


	   The name of the user's login directory, set by  login(1)  from  the
	   password file; see passwd(4).


	   The	string	used  to specify internationalization information that
	   allows users to work with different national conventions. The  set‐
	   locale(3C) function checks the LANG environment variable when it is
	   called with "" as the locale argument.  LANG is used as the default
	   locale  if  the corresponding environment variable for a particular
	   category is unset or null.  If, however,  LC_ALL is set to a valid,
	   non-empty  value,  its  contents are used to override both the LANG
	   and the other LC_* variables. For example, when invoked  as	setlo‐
	   cale(LC_CTYPE, ""), setlocale() will query the LC_CTYPE environment
	   variable first to see if it is set and non-null. If LC_CTYPE is not
	   set or null, then setlocale() will check the LANG environment vari‐
	   able to see if it is set and non-null. If both  LANG	 and  LC_CTYPE
	   are	unset  or NULL, the default "C" locale will be used to set the
	   LC_CTYPE category.

	   Most commands will invoke setlocale(LC_ALL, "") prior to any	 other
	   processing.	This  allows  the  command  to	be used with different
	   national conventions by setting the appropriate  environment	 vari‐

	   The	following environment variables correspond to each category of


	       If set to a valid, non-empty string value, override the	values
	       of LANG and all the other LC_*variables.


	       This  category specifies the character collation sequence being
	       used.  The information corresponding to this category is stored
	       in  a  database	 created  by  the localedef(1) command.	  This
	       environment variable affects strcoll(3C) and strxfrm(3C).


	       This category  specifies	 character  classification,  character
	       conversion,  and	 widths of multibyte characters. When LC_CTYPE
	       is set to a valid value, the calling utility  can  display  and
	       handle text and file names containing valid characters for that
	       locale;	 Extended Unix Code (EUC) characters where  any	 indi‐
	       vidual  character can be 1, 2, or 3 bytes wide; and EUC charac‐
	       ters of 1, 2, or 3 column widths. The default "C" locale corre‐
	       sponds  to  the 7-bit ASCII character set; only characters from
	       ISO 8859-1 are valid. The  information  corresponding  to  this
	       category	 is  stored  in	 a database created by the localedef()
	       command.	 This  environment  variable  is  used	by  ctype(3C),
	       mblen(3C), and many commands, such as cat(1), ed(1), ls(1), and


	       This category specifies the language of	the  message  database
	       being  used.  For  example, an application may have one message
	       database with French messages, and another database with German
	       messages.  Message  databases are created by the mkmsgs(1) com‐
	       mand. This environment variable is used by exstr(1), gettxt(1),
	       srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), and gettext(3C).


	       This  category  specifies  the  monetary symbols and delimiters
	       used for a particular locale.  The information corresponding to
	       this   category	 is  stored  in	 a  database  created  by  the
	       localedef(1) command. This  environment	variable  is  used  by


	       This  category  specifies the decimal and thousands delimiters.
	       The information corresponding to this category is stored	 in  a
	       database	  created  by  the  localedef() command. The default C
	       locale corresponds to "."  as  the  decimal  delimiter  and  no
	       thousands  delimiter.  This  environment	 variable  is  used by
	       localeconv(3C), printf(3C), and strtod(3C).


	       This category specifies date and time formats. The  information
	       corresponding  to  this category is stored in a database speci‐
	       fied in localedef(). The default C locale corresponds  to  U.S.
	       date  and  time	formats.  This environment variable is used by
	       many commands and functions; for example:  at(1),  calendar(1),
	       date(1), strftime(3C), and getdate(3C).


	   Controls  which  standard  format message components fmtmsg selects
	   when	 messages  are	displayed  to  stderr;	see    fmtmsg(1)   and


	   A colon-separated list of network identifiers. A network identifier
	   is a character string used by the Network  Selection	 component  of
	   the	system	to provide application-specific default network search
	   paths. A network identifier must consist of non-null characters and
	   must	 have  a length of at least 1. No maximum length is specified.
	   Network identifiers are normally chosen by the  system  administra‐
	   tor.	 A network identifier is also the first field in any /etc/net‐
	   config file entry. NETPATH thus provides a link into the  /etc/net‐
	   config  file	 and the information about a network contained in that
	   network's entry. /etc/netconfig is maintained by the system	admin‐
	   istrator. The library routines described in getnetpath(3NSL) access
	   the NETPATH environment variable.


	   Contains a sequence of templates which catopen(3C) and  gettext(3C)
	   use	when attempting to locate message catalogs. Each template con‐
	   sists of an optional prefix, one or	more  substitution  fields,  a
	   filename and an optional suffix. For example:


	   defines  that catopen() should look for all message catalogs in the
	   directory /system/nlslib, where the catalog	name  should  be  con‐
	   structed  from the name parameter passed to catopen(), %N, with the
	   suffix .cat.

	   Substitution fields consist of a % symbol, followed	by  a  single-
	   letter keyword. The following keywords are currently defined:


	       The value of the name parameter passed to catopen().


	       The value of LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       The language element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       The territory element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       The codeset element from LANG or LC_MESSAGES.


	       A single % character.

	   An  empty  string is substituted if the specified value is not cur‐
	   rently defined.  The separators "_" and "." are not included in  %t
	   and %c substitutions.

	   Templates defined in NLSPATH are separated by colons (:). A leading
	   colon or two adjacent colons (::) is equivalent to  specifying  %N.
	   For example:


	   indicates  to  catopen() that it should look for the requested mes‐
	   sage catalog in name, name.cat and /nlslib/$LANG/name.cat. For get‐
	   text(), %N automatically maps to "messages".

	   If  NLSPATH	is unset or NULL, catopen() and gettext() call	setlo‐
	   cale(3C), which checks LANG and the	LC_* variables to  locate  the
	   message catalogs.

	   NLSPATH  will  normally  be	set  up	 on  a	system	wide basis (in
	   /etc/profile) and thus makes the location  and  naming  conventions
	   associated  with  message catalogs transparent to both programs and


	   The sequence of directory prefixes that  sh(1),  time(1),  nice(1),
	   nohup(1),  and  other utilities apply in searching for a file known
	   by an incomplete path name. The prefixes are	 separated  by	colons
	   (:). login(1) sets PATH=/usr/bin. For more detail, see sh(1).


	   Define severity levels and associate and print strings with them in
	   standard format error messages;  see	  addseverity(3C),  fmtmsg(1),
	   and fmtmsg(3C).


	   The	kind  of  terminal  for	 which	output is to be prepared. This
	   information is used by commands, such as vi(1), which  may  exploit
	   special capabilities of that terminal.


	   Timezone information. The contents of this environment variable are
	   used by the functions ctime(3C), localtime(3C),  strftime(3C),  and
	   mktime(3C)  to  override  the default timezone. The value of TZ has
	   one of the two formats (spaces inserted for clarity):



	     std offset dst offset, rule

	   If TZ is of the first format (that is, if the first character is  a
	   colon  (:)),	 or  if TZ is not of the second format, then TZ desig‐
	   nates  a  path  to	a   timezone   database	  file	 relative   to
	   /usr/share/lib/zoneinfo/, ignoring a leading colon if one exists.

	   Otherwise, TZ is of the second form, which when expanded is as fol‐


	   std and dst

	       Indicate no less than three, nor more than {TZNAME_MAX},	 bytes
	       that are the designation for the standard (std) or the alterna‐
	       tive (dst, such as Daylight Savings Time) timezone. Only std is
	       required; if dst is missing, then the alternative time does not
	       apply in this timezone. Each  of	 these	fields	can  occur  in
	       either of two formats, quoted or unquoted:

		   o	  In the quoted form, the first character is the less-
			  than ('<') character and the last character  is  the
			  greater-than ('>') character. All characters between
			  these quoting characters are alphanumeric characters
			  from	the  portable  character  set  in  the current
			  locale, the plus-sign ('+') character, or the minus-
			  sign ('-') character. The std and dst fields in this
			  case do not include the quoting characters.

		   o	  In the unquoted form, all characters in these fields
			  are  alphabetic characters from the portable charac‐
			  ter set in the current locale.
	       The interpretation of these fields  is  unspecified  if	either
	       field is less than three bytes (except for the case when dst is
	       missing), more than {TZNAME_MAX}	 bytes,	 or  if	 they  contain
	       characters other than those specified.


	       Indicate	 the value one must add to the local time to arrive at
	       Coordinated Universal Time. The offset has the form:


	       The minutes (mm) and seconds (ss) are optional. The  hour  (hh)
	       is required and can be a single digit. The offset following std
	       is required. If no offset follows dst, daylight savings time is
	       assumed to be one hour ahead of standard time. One or more dig‐
	       its can be used.	 The value is always interpreted as a  decimal
	       number. The hour must be between 0 and 24, and the minutes (and
	       seconds), if present, must be between 0 and 59.	Out  of	 range
	       values  can cause unpredictable behavior. If preceded by a "-",
	       the timezone is east of the Prime Meridian.  Otherwise,	it  is
	       west  of	 the  Prime  Meridian  (which  can  be indicated by an
	       optional preceding "+" sign).


	       Indicate when to change to and back from daylight savings time,
	       where  start/time  describes when the change from standard time
	       to daylight savings time occurs, and  end/time  describes  when
	       the  change  back  occurs.   Each time field describes when, in
	       current local time, the change is made.

	       The formats of start and end are one of the following:


		   The Julian day n (1 ≤ n ≤ 365). Leap days are not  counted.
		   That is, in all years, February 28 is day 59 and March 1 is
		   day 60. It is impossible to refer to the occasional	Febru‐
		   ary 29.


		   The	zero-based  Julian  day	 (0  ≤ n ≤ 365). Leap days are
		   counted, and it is possible to refer to February 29.


		   The d^th day, (0 ≤ d ≤ 6) of week n of month m of the  year
		   (1 ≤ n ≤ 5, 1 ≤ m ≤ 12), where week 5 means "the last d-day
		   in month m" which may occur in either  the  fourth  or  the
		   fifth week). Week 1 is the first week in which the d^th day
		   occurs.  Day zero is Sunday.

	       Implementation specific defaults are used for start and end  if
	       these optional fields are not specified.

	       The  time  has the same format as offset except that no leading
	       sign ("-" or "+" ) is allowed. If time is  not  specified,  the
	       default value is 02:00:00.

       cat(1),	date(1),  ed(1),  fmtmsg(1),  localedef(1),  login(1),	ls(1),
       mkmsgs(1), nice(1), nohup(1), sh(1), sort(1), time(1), vi(1),  exec(2),
       addseverity(3C),	 catopen(3C),  ctime(3C),  ctype(3C), fmtmsg(3C), get‐
       date(3C), getnetpath(3NSL),  gettext(3C),  gettxt(3C),  localeconv(3C),
       mblen(3C),  mktime(3C),	printf(3C),  setlocale(3C), strcoll(3C), strf‐
       time(3C),   strtod(3C),	 strxfrm(3C),	 TIMEZONE(4),	 netconfig(4),
       passwd(4), profile(4)

				 Nov 19, 2002			    ENVIRON(5)

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