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SYSLOG(3C)							    SYSLOG(3C)

       syslog, openlog, closelog, setlogmask - control system log

       #include <syslog.h>

       void openlog(const char *ident, int logopt, int facility);

       void syslog(int priority, const char *message, .../* arguments */);

       void closelog(void);

       int setlogmask(int maskpri);

       The  syslog() function sends a message to syslogd(1M), which, depending
       on the configuration of /etc/syslog.conf, logs  it  in  an  appropriate
       system  log,  writes it to the system console, forwards it to a list of
       users, or forwards it to syslogd on another host over the network.  The
       logged  message includes a message header and a message body.  The mes‐
       sage header consists of a facility indicator, a severity level  indica‐
       tor, a timestamp, a tag string, and optionally the process ID.

       The  message body is generated from the message and following arguments
       in the same manner as if these were arguments to	 printf(3UCB),	except
       that  occurrences  of %m in the format string pointed to by the message
       argument are replaced by the error message string associated  with  the
       current	value  of  errno.   A  trailing	 NEWLINE character is added if

       Symbolic constants for use as values of the logopt, facility, priority,
       and maskpri arguments are defined in the <syslog.h> header.

       Values of the priority argument are formed by ORing together a severity
       level value and an optional facility value.  If no  facility  value  is
       specified, the current default facility value is used.

       Possible values of severity level include, in decreasing order:

		      A	 panic	condition.   This is normally broadcast to all

		      A condition that should be corrected  immediately,  such
		      as a corrupted system database.

		      Critical conditions, such as hard device errors.


		      Warning messages.

		      Conditions  that	are not error conditions, but that may
		      require special handling.

		      Informational messages.

		      Messages that contain information normally of  use  only
		      when debugging a program.

       The  facility  indicates the application or system component generating
       the message.  Possible facility values include:

		     Messages generated by the kernel. These cannot be	gener‐
		     ated by any user processes.

		     Messages  generated by random user processes. This is the
		     default facility identifier if none is specified.

		     The mail system.

		     System daemons, such as in.ftpd(1M).

		     The authentication /  security  /	authorization  system:
		     login(1), su(1M), getty(1M).

		     The line printer spooling system: lpr(1B), lpc(1B).

		     Designated for the USENET network news system.

		     Designated for the UUCP system; it does not currently use

		     The cron/at facility; crontab(1), at(1), cron(1M).

		     The audit facility, for example, auditd(1M).

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

		     Designated for local use.

       The openlog() function sets process attributes that  affect  subsequent
       calls  to syslog(). The ident argument is a string that is prepended to
       every message. The openlog() function uses the passed-in ident argument
       directly,  rather than making a private copy of it. The logopt argument
       indicates logging options.  Values for logopt are constructed by a bit‐
       wise-inclusive OR of zero or more of the following:

		     Log the process ID with each message.  This is useful for
		     identifying specific daemon processes (for	 daemons  that

		     Write  messages  to  the system console if they cannot be
		     sent to syslogd(1M). This option is safe to use in daemon
		     processes	that  have no controlling terminal, since sys‐
		     log() forks before opening the console.

		     Open the connection to syslogd(1M) immediately.  Normally
		     the  open	is  delayed until the first message is logged.
		     This is useful for programs that need to manage the order
		     in which file descriptors are allocated.

		     Delay open until syslog() is called.

		     Do	 not wait for child processes that have been forked to
		     log messages onto the console.   This  option  should  be
		     used  by processes that enable notification of child ter‐
		     mination using  SIGCHLD,  since  syslog()	may  otherwise
		     block  waiting  for a child whose exit status has already
		     been collected.

       The facility argument encodes a default facility to be assigned to  all
       messages	 that  do  not have an explicit facility already encoded.  The
       initial default facility is LOG_USER.

       The openlog() and syslog() functions may allocate  a  file  descriptor.
       It is not necessary to call openlog() prior to calling syslog().

       The  closelog()	function closes any open file descriptors allocated by
       previous calls to openlog() or syslog().

       The setlogmask() function sets the log priority mask  for  the  current
       process to maskpri and returns the previous mask.  If the maskpri argu‐
       ment is 0, the current log mask is not modified.	 Calls by the  current
       process	to  syslog()  with a priority not set in maskpri are rejected.
       The mask for an individual priority pri	is  calculated	by  the	 macro
       LOG_MASK(pri);  the  mask for all priorities up to and including toppri
       is given by the macro LOG_UPTO(toppri). The default log mask allows all
       priorities to be logged.

       The  setlogmask()  function returns the previous log priority mask. The
       closelog(), openlog() and syslog() functions return no value.

       No errors are defined.

       Example 1 Example of LOG_ALERT message.

       This call logs a message at priority LOG_ALERT:

	 syslog(LOG_ALERT, "who: internal error 23");

       The FTP daemon ftpd would make this call to openlog() to indicate  that
       all  messages it logs should have an identifying string of ftpd, should
       be treated by syslogd(1M) as other messages from	 system	 daemons  are,
       should include the process ID of the process logging the message:

	 openlog("ftpd", LOG_PID, LOG_DAEMON);

       Then  it would make the following call to setlogmask() to indicate that
       messages at priorities from LOG_EMERG through LOG_ERR should be logged,
       but that no messages at any other priority should be logged:


       Then,  to log a message at priority LOG_INFO, it would make the follow‐
       ing call to syslog:

	 syslog(LOG_INFO, "Connection from host %d", CallingHost);

       A locally-written utility could use the following call to  syslog()  to
       log  a  message	at  priority  LOG_INFO to be treated by syslogd(1M) as
       other messages to the facility  LOG_LOCAL2 are:

	 syslog(LOG_INFO|LOG_LOCAL2, "error: %m");

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │Interface Stability │ Committed		│
       │MT-Level	    │ Safe		│
       │Standard	    │ See standards(5). │

       at(1), crontab(1), logger(1), login(1), lpc(1B),	 lpr(1B),  auditd(1M),
       cron(1M),  getty(1M),  in.ftpd(1M),  su(1M), syslogd(1M), printf(3UCB),
       syslog.conf(4), attributes(5), standards(5)

				 Mar 16, 2009			    SYSLOG(3C)

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