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INTRO(3T)							     INTRO(3T)

       libtiff	-  introduction	 to libtiff, a library for reading and writing
       TIFF files

       #include <tiffio.h>
       cc file.c -ltiff

       libtiff is a library for reading and writing data  files	 encoded  with
       the  Tag	 Image	File format, Revision 6.0 (or revision 5.0 or revision
       4.0).  This file format	is  suitable  for  archiving  multi-color  and
       monochromatic image data.

       The  library  supports  several compression algorithms, as indicated by
       the Compression field, including: no compression (1), CCITT 1D  Huffman
       compression (2), CCITT Group 3 Facsimile compression (3), CCITT Group 4
       Facsimile compression (4), Lempel-Ziv & Welch compression (5), baseline
       JPEG  compression (7), word-aligned 1D Huffman compression (32771), and
       PackBits compression (32773).  In addition,  several  nonstandard  com‐
       pression algorithms are supported: the 4-bit compression algorithm used
       by the ThunderScan program (32809) (decompression only),	 NeXT's	 2-bit
       compression algorithm (32766) (decompression only), an experimental LZ-
       style algorithm known as	 Deflate  (32946),  and	 an  experimental  CIE
       LogLuv  compression  scheme designed for images with high dynamic range
       (32845 for LogL and 32845 for LogLuv).  Directory information may be in
       either  little- or big-endian byte order-byte swapping is automatically
       done by the library.  Data bit ordering may be either Most  Significant
       Bit  (MSB)  to Least Significant Bit (LSB) or LSB to MSB.  Finally, the
       library does not support files in which the BitsPerSample, Compression,
       MinSampleValue,	or  MaxSampleValue fields are defined differently on a
       per-sample basis (in Rev. 6.0 the Compression tag is not defined	 on  a
       per-sample basis, so this is immaterial).

       The  library  makes extensive use of C typedefs to promote portability.
       Two sets of typedefs are used, one for communication  with  clients  of
       the  library  and  one  for internal data structures and parsing of the
       TIFF format.  The  following  typedefs  are  exposed  to	 users	either
       through	function  definitions or through parameters passed through the
       varargs interfaces.
	    typedef unsigned short uint16;	16-bit unsigned integer
	    typedef unsigned <thing> uint32;	32-bit unsigned integer
	    typedef unsigned int ttag_t;	directory tag
	    typedef uint16 tdir_t;		directory index
	    typedef uint16 tsample_t;		sample number
	    typedef uint32 tstrip_t;		strip number
	    typedef uint32 ttile_t;		tile number
	    typedef int32 tsize_t;		i/o size in bytes
	    typedef void* tdata_t;		image data ref
	    typedef void* thandle_t;		client data handle
	    typedef int32 toff_t;		file offset
       Note that tstrip_t, ttile_t, and tsize_t are constrained to be no  more
       than  32-bit quantities by 32-bit fields they are stored in in the TIFF
       image.  Likewise tsample_t is limited by the 16-bit field used to store
       the  SamplesPerPixel tag.  tdir_t constrains the maximum number of IFDs
       that may appear in an image and may be an arbitrary size (w/o penalty).
       ttag_t must be either int, unsigned int, pointer, or double because the
       library uses a varargs interface and ANSI C restricts the type  of  the
       parameter  before an ellipsis to be a promoted type.  toff_t is defined
       as int32 because TIFF file offsets are (unsigned) 32-bit quantities.  A
       signed  value  is  used	because	 some  interfaces  return -1 on error.
       Finally, note that user-specified data references are passed as	opaque
       handles	and  only  cast	 at the lowest layers where their type is pre‐

       The following routines are part of the library.	Consult specific  man‐
       ual pages for details on their operation.  The manual page names listed
       below are for systems where the full function names can not be  encoded
       in  the	filesystem;  on	 most systems doing ``man function-name'' will
       Name		      Appears on Page  Description
       TIFFCheckTile	      tile.3t	       very x,y,z,sample is within image
       TIFFClientOpen	      open.3t	       open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFClose	      close.3t	       close an open file
       TIFFComputeStrip	      strip.3t	       return strip containing y,sample
       TIFFComputeTile	      tile.3t	       return tile containing x,y,z,sample
       TIFFCurrentDirectory   query.3t	       return index of current directory
       TIFFCurrentRow	      query.3t	       return index of current scanline
       TIFFCurrentStrip	      query.3t	       return index of current strip
       TIFFCurrentTile	      query.3t	       return index of current tile
       TIFFError	      error.3t	       library error handler
       TIFFFdOpen	      open.3t	       open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFFileName	      query.3t	       return name of open file
       TIFFFileno	      query.3t	       return open file descriptor
       TIFFFlush	      flush.3t	       flush all pending writes
       TIFFFlushData	      flush.3t	       flush pending data writes
       TIFFGetBitRevTable     swab.3t	       return bit reversal table
       TIFFGetField	      getfield.3t      return tag value in current directory
       TIFFGetFieldDefaulted  getfield.3t      return tag value in current directory
       TIFFGetMode	      query.3t	       return open file mode
       TIFFGetVersion	      query.3t	       return library version string
       TIFFIsTiled	      query.3t	       return true if image data is tiled
       TIFFIsByteSwapped      query.3t	       return true if image data is byte-swapped
       TIFFNumberOfStrips     strip.3t	       return number of strips in an image
       TIFFNumberOfTiles      tile.3t	       return number of tiles in an image
       TIFFOpen		      open.3t	       open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFPrintDirectory     print.3t	       print description of the current directory
       TIFFReadBufferSetup    rdbuf.3t	       specify i/o buffer for reading
       TIFFReadDirectory      readdir.3t       read the next directory
       TIFFReadEncodedStrip   rdestrip.3t      read and decode a strip of data
       TIFFReadEncodedTile    rdetile.3t       read and decode a tile of data
       TIFFReadRawStrip	      rdrstrip.3t      read a raw strip of data
       TIFFReadRawTile	      rdrtile.3t       read a raw tile of data
       TIFFReadRGBAImage      rdimage.3t       read an image into a fixed format raster
       TIFFReadScanline	      readline.3t      read and decode a row of data
       TIFFReadTile	      readtile.3t      read and decode a tile of data
       TIFFReverseBits	      swab.3t	       reverse bits in an array of bytes
       TIFFRGBAImageBegin     rgbaimage.3t     setup decoder state for TIFFRGBAImageGet
       TIFFRGBAImageEnd	      rgbaimage.3t     release TIFFRGBAImage decoder state
       TIFFRGBAImageGet	      rgbaimage.3t     read and decode an image
       TIFFRGBAImageOK	      rgbaimage.3t     is image readable by TIFFRGBAImageGet
       TIFFScanlineSize	      size.3t	       return size of a scanline
       TIFFSetDirectory	      setdir.3t	       set the current directory
       TIFFSetSubDirectory    setdir.3t	       set the current directory
       TIFFSetErrorHandler    error.3t	       set error handler function
       TIFFSetField	      setfield.3t      set a tag's value in the current directory
       TIFFSetWarningHandler  error.3t	       set warning handler function
       TIFFStripSize	      size.3t	       return size of a strip
       TIFFSwabShort	      swab.3t	       swap bytes of short
       TIFFSwabLong	      swab.3t	       swap bytes of long
       TIFFSwabArrayOfShort   swab.3t	       swap bytes of an array of shorts
       TIFFSwabArrayOfLong    swab.3t	       swap bytes of an array of longs
       TIFFTileRowSize	      size.3t	       return size of a row in a tile
       TIFFTileSize	      size.3t	       return size of a tile
       TIFFVGetField	      getfield.3t      return tag value in current directory
       TIFFVGetFieldDefaulted getfield.3t      return tag value in current directory
       TIFFVSetField	      setfield.3t      set a tag's value in the current directory
       TIFFWarning	      warning.3t       library warning handler
       TIFFWriteDirectory     writedir.3t      write the current directory
       TIFFWriteEncodedStrip  wrestrip.3t      compress and write a strip of data
       TIFFWriteEncodedTile   wretile.3t       compress and write a tile of data
       TIFFWriteRawStrip      wrrstrip.3t      write a raw strip of data
       TIFFWriteRawTile	      wrrtile.3t       write a raw tile of data
       TIFFWriteScanline      writeline.3t     write a scanline of data
       TIFFWriteTile	      wrrtile.3t       compress and write a tile of data

       The table below lists the TIFF tags that are recognized and handled  by
       the  library.   If  no  use is indicated in the table, then the library
       reads and writes the tag, but does not use it  internally.   Note  that
       some  tags  are meaningful only when a particular compression scheme is
       being used; e.g.	 Group3Options is only useful if Compression is set to
       CCITT  Group  3	encoding.  Tags of this sort are considered codec-spe‐
       cific tags and the library does not recognize them except when the Com‐
       pression	 tag  has  been	 previously  set  to  the relevant compression
       Tag Name		       Value  R/W  Library Use/Notes
       Artist		       315    R/W
       BadFaxLines	       326    R/W
       BitsPerSample	       258    R/W  lots
       CellLength	       265	   parsed but ignored
       CellWidth	       264	   parsed but ignored
       CleanFaxData	       327    R/W
       ColorMap		       320    R/W
       ColorResponseUnit       300	   parsed but ignored
       Compression	       259    R/W  choosing codec
       ConsecutiveBadFaxLines  328    R/W
       DataType		       32996  R	   obsoleted by SampleFormat tag
       DateTime		       306    R/W
       DocumentName	       269    R/W
       DotRange		       336    R/W
       ExtraSamples	       338    R/W  lots
       FaxRecvParams	       34908  R/W
       FaxSubAddress	       34909  R/W
       FaxRecvTime	       34910  R/W
       FillOrder	       266    R/W  control bit order
       FreeByteCounts	       289	   parsed but ignored
       FreeOffsets	       288	   parsed but ignored
       GrayResponseCurve       291	   parsed but ignored
       GrayResponseUnit	       290	   parsed but ignored
       Group3Options	       292    R/W  used by Group 3 codec
       Group4Options	       293    R/W
       HostComputer	       316    R/W
       ImageDepth	       32997  R/W  tile/strip calculations
       ImageDescription	       270    R/W
       ImageLength	       257    R/W  lots
       ImageWidth	       256    R/W  lots
       InkNames		       333    R/W
       InkSet		       332    R/W
       JPEGTables	       347    R/W  used by JPEG codec
       Make		       271    R/W
       Matteing		       32995  R	   obsoleted by ExtraSamples tag
       MaxSampleValue	       281    R/W
       MinSampleValue	       280    R/W
       Model		       272    R/W
       NewSubFileType	       254    R/W  called SubFileType in spec
       NumberOfInks	       334    R/W
       Orientation	       274    R/W
       PageName		       285    R/W
       PageNumber	       297    R/W
       PhotometricInterpretation      262  R/Wused by Group 3 and JPEG codecs
       PlanarConfiguration     284    R/W  data i/o
       Predictor	       317    R/W  used by LZW and Deflate codecs
       PrimaryChromacities     319    R/W
       ReferenceBlackWhite     532    R/W
       ResolutionUnit	       296    R/W  used by Group 3 codec
       RowsPerStrip	       278    R/W  data i/o
       SampleFormat	       339    R/W
       SamplesPerPixel	       277    R/W  lots
       SMinSampleValue	       340    R/W
       SMaxSampleValue	       341    R/W
       Software		       305    R/W
       StoNits		       37439  R/W
       StripByteCounts	       279    R/W  data i/o
       StripOffsets	       273    R/W  data i/o
       SubFileType	       255    R/W  called OSubFileType in spec
       TargetPrinter	       337    R/W
       Thresholding	       263    R/W
       TileByteCounts	       324    R/W  data i/o
       TileDepth	       32998  R/W  tile/strip calculations
       TileLength	       323    R/W  data i/o
       TileOffsets	       324    R/W  data i/o
       TileWidth	       322    R/W  data i/o
       TransferFunction	       301    R/W
       WhitePoint	       318    R/W
       XPosition	       286    R/W
       XResolution	       282    R/W
       YCbCrCoefficients       529    R/W  used by TIFFRGBAImage support
       YCbCrPositioning	       531    R/W  tile/strip size calulcations
       YCbCrSubsampling	       530    R/W
       YPosition	       286    R/W
       YResolution	       283    R/W  used by Group 3 codec

       In addition to the normal TIFF tags the library supports	 a  collection
       of  tags	 whose	values	lie in a range outside the valid range of TIFF
       tags.  These tags are termed pseud-tags and are used to control various
       codec-specific  functions  within  the library.	The table below summa‐
       rizes the defined pseudo-tags.
       Tag Name		       Codec  R/W  Library Use/Notes
       TIFFTAG_FAXMODE	       G3     R/W  general codec operation
       TIFFTAG_FAXFILLFUNC     G3/G4  R/W  bitmap fill function
       TIFFTAG_JPEGQUALITY     JPEG   R/W  compression quality control
       TIFFTAG_JPEGCOLORMODE   JPEG   R/W  control colorspace conversions
       TIFFTAG_JPEGTABLESMODE  JPEG   R/W  control contents of JPEGTables tag
       TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY      Deflate	   R/Wcompression quality level
       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGDATAFMT PixarLog	   R/Wuser data format
       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGQUALITY PixarLog	   R/Wcompression quality level
       TIFFTAG_SGILOGDATAFMT   SGILog R/W  user data format

	      Control the operation of the Group  3  codec.   Possible	values
	      (independent  bits that can be combined by or'ing them together)
	      are: FAXMODE_CLASSIC (enable old-style format in which  the  RTC
	      is  written  at the end of the last strip), FAXMODE_NORTC (oppo‐
	      site  of	FAXMODE_CLASSIC;  also	called	FAXMODE_CLASSF),  FAX‐
	      MODE_NOEOL  (do  not write EOL codes at the start of each row of
	      data), FAXMODE_BYTEALIGN (align each encoded  row	 to  an	 8-bit
	      boundary),  FAXMODE_WORDALIGN  (align  each  encoded  row	 to an
	      16-bit boundary), The default value is dependent on the compres‐
	      sion  scheme;  this  pseudo-tag is used by the various G3 and G4
	      codecs to share code.

	      Control the function used to convert arrays of black  and	 white
	      runs  to	packed	bit  arrays.   This  hook can be used to image
	      decoded scanlines in multi-bit depth rasters (e.g.  for  display
	      in colormap mode) or for other purposes.	The default value is a
	      pointer to a builtin function that images packed bilevel data.

	      Tag contaings image metadata per the IPTC newsphoto spec:	 Head‐
	      line, captioning, credit, etc... Used by most wire services.

	      Tag contains Photoshop captioning information and metadata. Pho‐
	      toshop uses in parallel and redundantly alongside	 IPTCNEWSPHOTO

	      Control the compression quality level used in the baseline algo‐
	      rithm.  Note that quality levels are in the range 0-100  with  a
	      default value of 75.

	      Control  whether or not conversion is done between RGB and YCbCr
	      colorspaces.  Possible values  are:  JPEGCOLORMODE_RAW  (do  not
	      convert),	  and  JPEGCOLORMODE_RGB  (convert  to/from  RGB)  The
	      default value is JPEGCOLORMODE_RAW.

	      Control the information written in the JPEGTables tag.  Possible
	      values  (independent  bits  that	can be combined by or'ing them
	      together)	 are:	JPEGTABLESMODE_QUANT   (include	  quantization
	      tables),	 and  JPEGTABLESMODE_HUFF  (include  Huffman  encoding
	      tables).	 The  default  value  is  JPEGTABLESMODE_QUANT|JPEGTA‐

	      Control  the  compression	 technique  used by the Deflate codec.
	      Quality levels are in the range 1-9 with larger numbers yielding
	      better compression at the cost of more computation.  The default
	      quality level is 6 which yields a good time-space tradeoff.

	      Control the format of user data passed in to the PixarLog	 codec
	      when  encoding and passed out from when decoding.	 Possible val‐
	      ues are: PIXARLOGDATAFMT_8BIT for 8-bit unsigned pixels,	PIXAR‐
	      LOGDATAFMT_8BITABGR  for	8-bit  unsigned	 ABGR-ordered  pixels,
	      PIXARLOGDATAFMT_11BITLOG for 11-bit log-encoded raw data, PIXAR‐
	      LOGDATAFMT_12BITPICIO  for  12-bit PICIO-compatible data, PIXAR‐
	      LOGDATAFMT_16BIT	for  16-bit  signed  samples,  and   PIXARLOG‐
	      DATAFMT_FLOAT for 32-bit IEEE floating point samples.

	      Control  the  compression	 technique used by the PixarLog codec.
	      This value is treated identically to TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY; see the
	      above description.

	      Control  the format of client data passed in to the SGILog codec
	      when encoding and passed out from when decoding.	Possible  val‐
	      ues  are: SGILOGDATAFMT_FLTXYZ for converting between LogLuv and
	      32-bit IEEE floating valued XYZ  pixels,	SGILOGDATAFMT_16BITLUV
	      for   16-bit  encoded  Luv  pixels,  SGILOGDATAFMT_32BITRAW  and
	      SGILOGDATAFMT_24BITRAW  for  no  conversion  of  data,   SGILOG‐
	      DATAFMT_8BITRGB  for  returning  8-bit RGB data (valid only when
	      decoding LogLuv-encoded data), SGILOGDATAFMT_FLTY for converting
	      between  LogL  and 32-bit IEEE floating valued Y pixels, SGILOG‐
	      DATAFMT_16BITL  for  16-bit  encoded  L  pixels,	 and   SGILOG‐
	      DATAFMT_8BITGRY  for  returning 8-bit greyscale data (valid only
	      when decoding LogL-encoded data).

       All error messages are directed	through	 the  TIFFError	 routine.   By
       default messages are directed to stderr in the form: module: message\n.
       Warning messages are likewise directed through the TIFFWarning routine.

       fax2tiff(1),  gif2tiff(1),   pal2rgb(1),	  ppm2tiff(1),	 rgb2ycbcr(1),
       ras2tiff(1),   sgi2tiff(1),   tiff2bw(1),  tiffdither(1),  tiffdump(1),
       tiffcp(1), tiffcmp(1), tiffgt(1),  tiffinfo(1),	tiffmedian(1),	tiffs‐
       plit(1), tiffsv(1),

       Tag  Image File Format Specification — Revision 6.0, an Aldus Technical

       The Spirit of TIFF Class F, an appendix to the TIFF  5.0	 specification
       prepared by Cygnet Technologies.

       The  library  does  not	support multi-sample images where some samples
       have different bits/sample.

       The library does not support random access to compressed data  that  is
       organized  with	more than one row per tile or strip.  The library dis‐
       cards unknown tags.  The library should do more validity checking of  a
       directory's contents.

				August 21, 1997			     INTRO(3T)

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