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EXSTR(1)							      EXSTR(1)

       exstr - extract strings from source files

       exstr filename...

       exstr -e filename...

       exstr -r [-d] filename...

       The  exstr  utility  is	used to extract strings from C-language source
       files and replace them by calls to the message retrieval function  (see
       gettxt(3C)). This utility will extract all character strings surrounded
       by double quotes, not just strings used as arguments to the printf com‐
       mand  or the printf routine. In the first form, exstr finds all strings
       in the source files and writes them on the standard output. Each string
       is preceded by the source file name and a colon (:).

       The first step is to use exstr -e to extract a list of strings and save
       it in a file. Next, examine this list and determine which  strings  can
       be translated and subsequently retrieved by the message retrieval func‐
       tion. Then, modify this file by deleting lines that can't be translated
       and, for lines that can be translated, by adding the message file names
       and the message numbers as the  fourth  (msgfile)  and  fifth  (msgnum)
       entries	on  a  line. The message files named must have been created by
       mkmsgs(1) and  exist  in	 /usr/lib/locale/locale/LC_MESSAGES    .  (The
       directory  locale corresponds to the language in which the text strings
       are written; see setlocale(3C)). The message numbers used  must	corre‐
       spond to the sequence numbers of strings in the message files.

       Now  use	 this modified file as input to exstr -r to produce a new ver‐
       sion of the original C-language source file in which the	 strings  have
       been  replaced by calls to the message retrieval function gettxt(). The
       msgfile and msgnum fields are used to construct the first  argument  to
       gettxt().  The  second  argument	 to gettxt() is printed if the message
       retrieval fails at run-time. This argument is the null  string,	unless
       the -d option is used.

       This  utility  cannot  replace strings in all instances. For example, a
       static initialized character string cannot be replaced  by  a  function
       call. A second example is that a string could be in a form of an escape
       sequence which could not be translated. In order not to break  existing
       code, the files created by invoking exstr -e must be examined and lines
       containing strings not replaceable by function calls must  be  deleted.
       In some cases the code may require modifications so that strings can be
       extracted and replaced by calls to the message retrieval function.

       The following options are supported:

	      Extract a list of	 strings  from	the  named  C-language	source
	      files,  with  positional	information.  This list is produced on
	      standard output in the following format:



		  the name of a C-language source file


		  line number in the file


		  character position in the line






		  the extracted text string

	      Normally you would redirect this output into a  file.  Then  you
	      would  edit this file to add the values you want to use for msg‐
	      file and msgnum:

			  the file that contains the text  strings  that  will
			  replace  string.  A file with this name must be cre‐
			  ated and installed in the appropriate place  by  the
			  mkmsgs(1) utility.

			  the sequence number of the string in msgfile.

	      The next step is to use exstr -r to replace strings in file.

	      Replace  strings in a C-language source file with function calls
	      to the message retrieval function gettxt().

	      This option is used together with the -r option. If the  message
	      retrieval	 fails	when gettxt() is invoked at run-time, then the
	      extracted string is printed. You would use the  capability  pro‐
	      vided by exstr on an application program that needs to run in an
	      international environment and have messages print in  more  than
	      one  language.  exstr  replaces text strings with function calls
	      that point at strings in a message data base. The data base used
	      depends  on  the	run-time  value of the LC_MESSAGES environment
	      variable (see environ(5)).

       Example 1 The following examples show uses of exstr

       Assume that the file example.c contains two strings:



		 printf("This is an example\n");

		 printf("Hello world!\n");


       The exstr utility, invoked with the argument example.c extracts strings
       from the named file and prints them on the standard output.

	 example% exstr example.c

       produces the following output:

	 example.c:This is an example\n
	 example.c:Hello world!\n

       The  exstr  utility,  invoked with the -e option and the argument exam‐
       ple.c, and redirecting output to the file example.stringsout

	 example% exstr -e example.c > example.stringsout

       produces the following output in the file example.stringsout

	 example.c:3:8:::This is an example\n
	 example.c:4:8:::Hello world!\n

       You must edit example.stringsout to add the values you want to use  for
       the  msgfile  and msgnum fields before these strings can be replaced by
       calls to the retrieval function. If UX is the name of the message file,
       and the numbers 1 and 2 represent the sequence number of the strings in
       the file, here is what example.stringsout looks like after you add this

	 example.c:3:8:UX:1:This is an example\n
	 example.c:4:8:UX:2:Hello world!\n

       The  exstr utility can now be invoked with the -r option to replace the
       strings in the source file by calls to the message  retrieval  function

	 example% exstr -r example.c <example.stringsout >intlexample.c

       produces the following output:

	 extern char *gettxt();



	      printf(gettxt("UX:1", ""));

	      printf(gettxt("UX:2", ""));


       The following example:

	 example% exstr -rd example.c <example.stringsout >intlexample.c

       uses the extracted strings as a second argument to gettxt():

	 extern char *gettxt();



		 printf(gettxt("UX:1", "This is an example\n"));

		 printf(gettxt("UX:2", "Hello world!\n"));



	   files created by mkmsgs(1)

       gettxt(1),  mkmsgs(1),  printf(1),  srchtxt(1), gettxt(3C), printf(3C),
       setlocale(3C), attributes(5), environ(5)

       The error messages produced by exstr are intended to  be	 self-explana‐
       tory.   They  indicate  errors  in  the	command	 line or format errors
       encountered within the input file.

				  Jul 5, 1990			      EXSTR(1)

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