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charmap(4)							    charmap(4)

       charmap - Defines character symbols as character encodings

       The  character set description (charmap) file defines character symbols
       as character encodings. This file is the source file for a coded	 char‐
       acter set, or codeset. All supported codesets have the Portable Charac‐
       ter Set (PCS) as a proper subset.  The PCS consists  of	the  following
       character  symbols  (listed  by	their standardized symbolic names) and
       hexadecimal encodings:

       Symbol Name	     Hexadecimal Encoding
       <NUL>		     \x00
       <SOH>		     \x01
       <STX>		     \x02
       <ETX>		     \x03
       <EOT>		     \x04
       <ENQ>		     \x05
       <ACK>		     \x06
       <alert>		     \x07
       <backspace>	     \x08
       <tab>		     \x09
       <newline>	     \x0A
       <vertical-tab>	     \x0B
       <form-feed>	     \x0C
       <carriage-return>     \x0D
       <SO>		     \x0E
       <SI>		     \x0F
       <DLE>		     \x10
       <DC1>		     \x11
       <DC2>		     \x12
       <DC3>		     \x13
       <DC4>		     \x14
       <NAK>		     \x15
       <SYN>		     \x16
       <ETB>		     \x17
       <CAN>		     \x18
       <EM>		     \x19
       <SUB>		     \x1A
       <ESC>		     \x1B
       <IS4>		     \x1C
       <IS3>		     \x1D
       <IS2>		     \x1E
       <IS1>		     \x1F
       <space>		     \x20
       <exclamation-mark>    \x21
       <quotation-mark>	     \x22
       <number-sign>	     \x23
       <dollar-sign>	     \x24
       <percent>	     \x25
       <ampersand>	     \x26
       <apostrophe>	     \x27
       <left-parenthesis>    \x28
       <right-parenthesis>   \x29
       <asterisk>	     \x2A
       <plus-sign>	     \x2B
       <comma>		     \x2C
       <hyphen>		     \x2D
       <period>		     \x2E

       <slash>		     \x2F
       <zero>		     \x30
       <one>		     \x31
       <two>		     \x32
       <three>		     \x33
       <four>		     \x34
       <five>		     \x35
       <six>		     \x36
       <seven>		     \x37
       <eight>		     \x38
       <nine>		     \x39
       <colon>		     \x3A
       <semi-colon>	     \x3B
       <less-than>	     \x3C
       <equal-sign>	     \x3D
       <greater-than>	     \x3E
       <question-mark>	     \x3F
       <commercial-at>	     \x40
       <A>		     \x41
       <B>		     \x42
       <C>		     \x43
       <D>		     \x44
       <E>		     \x45
       <F>		     \x46
       <G>		     \x47
       <H>		     \x48
       <I>		     \x49
       <J>		     \x4A
       <K>		     \x4B
       <L>		     \x4C
       <M>		     \x4D
       <N>		     \x4E
       <O>		     \x4F
       <P>		     \x50
       <Q>		     \x51
       <R>		     \x52
       <S>		     \x53
       <T>		     \x54
       <U>		     \x55
       <V>		     \x56
       <W>		     \x57
       <X>		     \x58
       <Y>		     \x59
       <Z>		     \x5A
       <left-bracket>	     \x5B
       <backslash>	     \x5C
       <right-bracket>	     \x5D
       <circumflex>	     \x5E
       <underscore>	     \x5F
       <grave-accent>	     \x60
       <a>		     \x61
       <b>		     \x62
       <c>		     \x63
       <d>		     \x64
       <e>		     \x65
       <f>		     \x66
       <g>		     \x67
       <h>		     \x68
       <i>		     \x69
       <j>		     \x6A
       <k>		     \x6B
       <l>		     \x6C
       <m>		     \x6D
       <n>		     \x6E
       <o>		     \x6F

       <p>		     \x70
       <q>		     \x71
       <r>		     \x72
       <s>		     \x73
       <t>		     \x74
       <u>		     \x75
       <v>		     \x76
       <w>		     \x77
       <x>		     \x78
       <y>		     \x79
       <z>		     \x7A
       <left-brace>	     \x7B
       <vertical-line>	     \x7C
       <right-brace>	     \x7D
       <tilde>		     \x7E
       <DEL>		     \x7F

       The charmap file has the following components: An optional special sym‐
       bolic name declarations section

	      Each  declaration in this section consists of a special symbolic
	      name, followed by one or more space or  tab  characters,	and  a
	      value.  The  following list describes the special symbolic names
	      that you can include in the declarations section: Specifies  the
	      name of the codeset for which the charmap file is defined.  This
	      value determines the value returned by the nl_langinfo (CODESET)
	      subroutine. If <code_set_name> is not declared, the name for the
	      Portable Character Set is used.  Specifies the maximum number of
	      bytes  in a character for the codeset.  Valid values are 1 to 4.
	      The default value is 1.  Specifies the minimum number  of	 bytes
	      in  a  character	for the codeset.  Since all supported codesets
	      have the Portable Character Set as a proper subset,  this	 value
	      must be 1.  Specifies the escape character that indicates encod‐
	      ings in hexadecimal or octal notation.  The default value is a \
	      (backslash).  Specifies the character used to indicate a comment
	      within a charmap file.  The default value is a # (number	sign).
	      The CHARMAP section header

	      This  header  marks the beginning of the section that associates
	      character symbols with encodings.	 Mapping statements for	 char‐
	      acters in the codeset

	      Each  statement  lists  a	 symbolic name for a character and its
	      associated encoding. The	format	of  a  mapping	statement  is:
	      <char_symbol> encoding

	      A symbolic name begins with the < (left-angle bracket) character
	      and ends with the > (right-angle bracket) character.  The	 char‐
	      acters  for  char_symbol (between < and >) can be any characters
	      from the Portable Character Set, except for  control  and	 space
	      characters. The right-angle bracket (>) can occur in char_symbol
	      as well in the last position of the name. You must precede all >
	      characters but the last one with the escape character (as speci‐
	      fied by the <escape_char> special symbolic name).

	      The format of a mapping statement is:

	      <char_symbol> encoding

	      An encoding is specified as one  or  more	 character  constants,
	      with  the maximum number of character constants specified by the
	      <mb_cur_max> special symbolic name.  The encoding may be	listed
	      as  decimal,  octal, or hexadecimal constants with the following
	      formats: \xxx, where x is a hexadecimal digit \ooo or \oo, where
	      o is an octal digit \dddd or \ddd, where d is a decimal digit

	      Some examples of character symbol definitions are the following:

	      <A>	   \d65		 #decimal   constant  <B>	  \x42
	      #hexadecimal constant <j10101>   \x81\xA1	   #multiple hexadeci‐
	      mal constants

	      A	 range	of symbolic names and corresponding encoded values may
	      also be defined, where the nonnumeric prefix for	each  symbolic
	      name  is	common, and the numeric portion of the second symbolic
	      name  is equal to or greater than the  numeric  portion  of  the
	      first symbolic name.  In this format, a symbolic name value con‐
	      sists of zero or more nonnumeric characters followed by an inte‐
	      ger  of  one  or	more  decimal	digits.	 This format defines a
	      series   of   symbolic   names.	For   example,	 the	string
	      <j0101>...<j0104>	  is  interpreted  as  the  <j0101>,  <j0102>,
	      <j0103>, and <j0104> symbolic names, in that order.

	      In statements defining ranges of	symbolic  names,  the  encoded
	      value  listed  is	 the  value for the first symbolic name in the
	      range. Subsequent symbolic names have encoded values in increas‐
	      ing order.  For example:

	      <j0101>...<j0104>	       \d129\d254

	      The preceding statement is interpreted as follows:

	      <j0101>  \d129\d254  <j0102> \d129\d255 <j0103> \d130\d0 <j0104>

	      Although you cannot assign multiple encodings  to	 one  symbolic
	      name, you can create multiple names for one encoded value.  This
	      is allowed because some characters have  several	common	names.
	      For example, the "."  character is called a period in some parts
	      of the world, and a full stop in others.	Both names may	appear
	      in the charmap.  For example:

	      <period>	      \x2e <full-stop>	   \x2e

	      If used, comments must begin with the character specified by the
	      <comment_char> special symbolic name. When an entire line	 is  a
	      comment,	you must specify <comment_char> in the first column of
	      the line.	 The END CHARMAP trailer

	      This entry denotes the end of character map statements.

       The following example is a portion of a possible charmap file:

       CHARMAP <code_set_name>	       "ISO8859-1"  <mb_cur_max>	     1
       <mb_cur_min>		 1  <escape_char>	     \	<comment_char>

       <NUL>			 \x00	<SOH>			  \x01	 <STX>
       \x02  <ETX>		      \x03  <EOT>		    \x04 <ENQ>
       \x05   <ACK>			\x06   <alert>			  \x07
       <backspace>		\x09  <tab>		       \x09  <newline>
       \x0a <vertical-tab>	    \x0b  <form-feed>		   \x0c	 <car‐
       riage-return>	   \x0d END CHARMAP

       Character set description (charmap) source files for supported locales.
       The /usr/lib/nls/loc/charmaps directory	does  not  exist  when	source
       files for installed locales are not provided.

       Commands: locale(1), localedef(1)

       Files: locale(4)


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