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cdrecord(1)							   cdrecord(1)

       cdrecord - Records audio or data compact discs (CDs) from a master

       cdrecord [-general options] [-dev=device]... [-track options] [track1 .
       . . trackn]

       General options must be entered before any track	 file  name  or	 track
       option.	Retrieves and prints out the ATIP (absolute time in pregroove)
       information of a CD  recordable	or  CD	rewritable  media.  With  this
       option,	cdrecord  tries to retrieve the ATIP info. If the actual drive
       does not support to read the ATIP info, it may be that only  a  reduced
       set of information records or even nothing is displayed. Only a limited
       number of MMC compliant drives support reading the ATIP info.

	      If cdrecord is able to retrieve the lead-in start time  for  the
	      first  session,  it  tries  to decode and print the manufacturer
	      information from the media.  Blanks a CD-RW and exits or	blanks
	      a CD-RW before writing. The blanking type may be one of the fol‐
	      lowing: Blanks the entire disk. This may take a long time.  Min‐
	      imally blanks the disk. This results in erasing the PMA, the TOC
	      and the pregap.  Displays a list	of  possible  blanking	types.
	      Blanks  the last session.	 Blanks a track.  Blanks the tail of a
	      track.  Uncloses last session.  Unreserves a reserved track.

	      If used together with the -force flag, this option may  be  used
	      to blank CD-RW disks that otherwise cannot be blanked. Note that
	      you may need to specify -blank=all because some  drives  do  not
	      continue	with certain types of bad CD-RW disks.	Note also that
	      cdrecord does its best if	 the  -force  flag  is	used,  but  it
	      finally  depends	on  the	 drive's firmware whether the blanking
	      operation succeeds or not.  Checks if a driver for  the  current
	      drive  is	 present  and  exits.  If  the drive is a known drive,
	      cdrecord uses exit code 0.  Sets disk-at-once  mode.  This  cur‐
	      rently  only  works with MMC drives that support non-raw Session
	      At Once mode.  Set the debug  value  to  #  (with	 -debug=#)  or
	      increment	 the  debug  level by one (with -d). Specifying -dd is
	      equal to -debug=2. This may help to find problems while  opening
	      a	 driver	 for  libscg  as  well as with sector sizes and sector
	      types. Using -debug slows down the process and may be the reason
	      for  a  buffer  underrun.	  Sets the default pregap size for all
	      tracks except track number 1. This option currently  only	 makes
	      sense  with  the	TEAC  drive  when creating track-at-once disks
	      without the 2 second silence before each track.  This option may
	      not  be  available  in future.  Sets the SCSI target for the CD-
	      Recorder (see notes above).  A typical device  specification  is
	      -dev=6,0.	  If  a	 filename  must	 be provided together with the
	      numerical target specification, the filename is  implementation-
	      specific.	 The correct filename in this case can be found in the
	      system-specific manuals of the target operating  system.	 On  a
	      FreeBSD  system without CAM support, you need to use the control
	      device (that is, /dev/rcd0.ctl). A correct device	 specification
	      in this case may be -dev=/dev/rcd0.ctl:@.

	      On Linux, drives connected to a parallel port adapter are mapped
	      to a virtual SCSI bus. Different adapters are mapped to  differ‐
	      ent targets on this virtual SCSI bus.

	      If  no  dev  option is present, cdrecord tries to get the device
	      from the CDR_DEVICE environment.

	      'If the argument to the -dev= option does not contain the	 char‐
	      acters ,, /, @ or :, it is interpreted as an label name that may
	      be found in the file /etc/default/cdrecord. See the  FILES  sec‐
	      tion for more information.  Uses a user-supplied driver name for
	      the device. To get a list of possible drivers use	 -driver=help.
	      The reason for the existence of this option is to allow users to
	      use cdrecord with drives that are similar	 to  supported	drives
	      but not known directly by cdrecord. Use this option with extreme
	      care. If a wrong driver is used for a device, the possibility of
	      creating corrupted disks is high. The minimum problem related to
	      a wrong driver is that the -speed or -dummy does not work.

	      There is a special driver entry in  the  list:  cdr_simul.  This
	      driver  is  designed to make timing tests at any speed or timing
	      tests for drives that do not support the -dummy option. The sim‐
	      ulation driver implements a drive with a buffer size of 1MB that
	      can be changed with the CDR_SIMUL_BUFSIZE environment  variable.
	      The simulation driver correctly simulates even a buffer underrun
	      condition. If the -dummy option is present,  the	simulation  is
	      not  aborted in case of a buffer underrun.  Sets driver-specific
	      options. The options are specified with a comma-separated	 list.
	      To  get  a  list	of valid options use -driveropts=help together
	      with the checkdrive option. Currently only the burnproof	option
	      is  implemented  to  support  Buffer Underrun Proof writing with
	      drives that  use	the  Sanyo  BURN-Proof	technology.   The  CD-
	      Recorder	goes  through  all steps of the recording process, but
	      the laser is turned off during this procedure. It is recommended
	      to  run  several tests before actually writing to a compact disk
	      if the timing and load response of  the  system  is  not	known.
	      Ejects disk after doing the work. Some devices (such as Philips)
	      need to eject the medium before creating a  new  disk.  Doing  a
	      -dummy  test and immediately creating a real disk would not work
	      on these devices.	 The disk is only fixated (that is, a TOC  for
	      a CD-Reader is written). This may be used if for some reason the
	      disk has been written but not  fixated.  This  option  currently
	      does  not work with old TEAC drives (CD-R50S and CD-R55S).  Does
	      not fixate the disk after writing the tracks. This may  be  used
	      to  create  an  audio  disk in steps.  An unfixated disk usually
	      cannot be used on a non CD-writer type drive but there are audio
	      CD players that are able to play such a disk.  Forces command to
	      continue on some errors. This option currently  implements  some
	      tricks  that  allow  you to blank out bad CD-RW disks.  Sets the
	      fifo (ring buffer) size to #. You may use the same method as  in
	      dd(1). The number representing the size is taken in bytes unless
	      otherwise specified. If a number is  followed  directly  by  the
	      letter  b,  k,  m,  s or f, the size is multiplied by 512, 1024,
	      1024*1024, 2048 or 2352 respectively. If the  size  consists  of
	      numbers  separated  by x or *, multiplication of the two numbers
	      is performed. Thus -fs=10x63k species a fifo size of 630 kBytes.

	      The size specified by the -fs= argument includes the shared mem‐
	      ory that is needed for administration. This is at least one page
	      of memory. If no -fs= option is present, cdrecord tries  to  get
	      the  fifo	 size  value  from  the -CDR_FIFOSIZE environment. The
	      default fifo size is currently 4 MB.

	      The fifo is used to increase buffering for the real-time writing
	      process.	 It  allows  the  system  to  run  a pipe from mkisofs
	      directly into cdrecord. If the fifo is active and	 a  pipe  from
	      mkisofs  into  cdrecord  is used to create a CD, cdrecord aborts
	      prior to doing any modifications on the  disk  if	 mkisofs  dies
	      before it starts writing. The recommended fifo size is between 4
	      and 32 MBytes. As a rule of thumb, the fifo size	should	be  at
	      least  equal  to	the  size  of  the  internal buffer of the CD-
	      Recorder and no more than half of the  physical  amount  of  RAM
	      available	 in  the  machine. If the fifo size is big enough, the
	      fifo statistics prints a fifo empty count of zero and  the  fifo
	      min  fill is not below 20%. It is not wise to use too much space
	      for the fifo. If you need more than 8 MB to write	 a  CD	on  an
	      idle  machine, your machine is either underpowered, has hardware
	      problems or is misconfigured.  If you have buffer	 underruns  or
	      similar  problems	 and observe a zero fifo empty count, you have
	      hardware problems. The fifo size in  this	 case  is  sufficient.
	      Ignores the known size of the medium. This option should be used
	      with extreme care; it exists only	 for  debugging	 purposes  and
	      should  not be used for other reasons. It is not needed to write
	      disks with more than the nominal capacity.  Does an inquiry  for
	      the drive, prints the inquiry information, and exits.  Tells the
	      -scg driver to modify the kernel debug value while SCSI commands
	      are running.  Loads the media and exits.	This only works with a
	      tray loading mechanism but seems to be  useful  when  using  the
	      Kodak disk transporter.  Sets the Media Catalog Number of the CD
	      to med_cat_nr.  Retrieves multisession  information  in  a  form
	      suitable for mkisofs 1.10 or later.

	      This  option  only  makes sense with a CD that contains at least
	      one closed session and is appendable (not yet  finally  closed).
	      Some  drives  create error messages if you try to get the multi‐
	      session information for a disk that is  not  suitable  for  this
	      operation.   Allows  multisession	 CDs to be made.  Use only for
	      recording multisession CDs. This flag needs to be present on all
	      sessions	of a multisession disk, except when you want to create
	      a session that is the last session on the	 media.	 The  fixation
	      allows the CD-Recorder to append additional sessions later. This
	      is done by generating a table of contents with  a	 link  to  the
	      next  program area. Media generated in this way is not 100% com‐
	      patible to manufactured CDs, except for CDplus.

	      If this option is present, the default track type is  CD-ROM  XA
	      mode  2. The Sony drives have no hardware support for -CD-ROM XA
	      mode 2. You have to specify the -data option in order to	create
	      multisession disks on these drives.

	      Because  cdrecord does not have a coder for converting data sec‐
	      tors to audio sectors, you  need	to  force  CD-ROM  sectors  by
	      including	 the -data option if you want to record a multisession
	      disk in DAO/SAO mode. Not all drives allow multisession  CDs  in
	      DAO/SAO  mode.  Sets packet writing mode.	 This is an experimen‐
	      tal interface.  Sets the packet size to #, which	forces	fixed-
	      packet  mode.  This  is  an  experimental interface.  Prints the
	      drive capabilities for SCSI-3/mmc compliant drives  as  obtained
	      from  mode  page	0x2A.  Values marked with kB use 1000 bytes as
	      kilobyte, values marked with KB  use  1024  bytes	 as  Kilobyte.
	      Scans all SCSI devices on all SCSI busses and prints the inquiry
	      strings. This option may be used to find the SCSI address of the
	      CD-Recorder  on  a system. The numbers printed out as labels are
	      computed as bus * 100 + target  Does  not	 print	out  a	status
	      report  for  failed SCSI commands.  Sets the speed factor of the
	      writing process to #, an integer, representing a multiple of the
	      audio  speed.  This  is  about 150 KB/s for CD-ROM and about 172
	      KB/s for CD-Audio. If no	-speed	option	is  present,  cdrecord
	      tries  to get the speed value from the CDR_SPEED environment. If
	      your drive has problems with -speed=2 or	-speed=4,  you	should
	      try  -speed=0.  Sets the default SCSI command timeout value to #
	      seconds. The default SCSI command timeout is the minimum timeout
	      used for sending SCSI commands. If a SCSI command fails due to a
	      timeout, you may try to raise the default SCSI  command  timeout
	      above  the  timeout  value of the failed command. If the command
	      runs correctly with a raised command timeout, report the	better
	      timeout value and the corresponding command to the author of the
	      program. If no -timeout option is present, a default timeout  of
	      40  seconds is used.  Retrieves and prints out the table of con‐
	      tents or PMA of a CD. With this option, cdrecord works with CD-R
	      drives  and  with	 CD-ROM drives.	 Uses *.inf files to overwrite
	      audio options. If this option is used, the pregap size  informa‐
	      tion  is	read  from  the *.inf file that is associated with the
	      file that contains the audio data for a track.   Increments  the
	      level of general verbosity by one. This displays the progress of
	      the write process.  Increments the verbose  level	 in  the  SCSI
	      command  transport  by  one.  This  helps to debug problems that
	      occur in the CD-Recorder during the write process.  If  you  get
	      incomprehensible	error  messages,  use  this  option  for  more
	      detailed output.	-VV shows data buffer content. Using the -V or
	      -VV  option slows down the process and may cause a buffer under‐
	      run.  Prints version information and exits.  Waits for input  to
	      become  available	 on  standard  input before trying to open the
	      SCSI driver. This allows cdrecord to read its input from a  pipe
	      even  when  writing  additional sessions to a multisession disk.
	      When writing another session to  a  multisession	disk,  mkisofs
	      needs  to	 read  the  old session from the device before writing
	      output. This cannot be done if cdrecord opens the SCSI driver at
	      the same time.

       Track  options  may  be	mixed  with track file names.  If this flag is
       present, all subsequent tracks are written in  CD-DA  (similar  to  Red
       Book) audio format.  The file with data for these tracks should contain
       stereo, 16-bit digital audio  with  44100  samples/s.  The  byte	 order
       should  be the following: MSB left, LSB left, MSB right, LSB right, MSB
       left and so on. The track should be a multiple of 2352 bytes. It is not
       possible	 to  put  the  master  image  of  an audio track on a raw disk
       because data is read in multiple of 2352	 bytes	during	the  recording

	      If  a  filename ends in or the file is considered to be a struc‐
	      tured audio data file. The cdrecord  command  assumes  that  the
	      file  in	this  case  is a Microsoft file and extracts the audio
	      data from the files by skipping over the non-audio header infor‐
	      mation. In all other cases, cdrecord only works correctly if the
	      audio data stream does not have any header. Because many	struc‐
	      tured  audio  files are not an integral number of blocks (1/75th
	      second) in length, it is often necessary	to  specify  the  -pad
	      option  as well. The cdrecord command recognizes that audio data
	      in a file is stored in Intel  (little-endian)  byte  order,  and
	      automatically  byte-swaps	 the  data if the CD recorder requires
	      big-endian data. The cdrecord command  rejects  any  audio  file
	      that  does  not match the Red Book requirements of 16-bit stereo
	      samples in pcm coding at 44100 samples/second.

	      Using other structured audio data formats as input  to  cdrecord
	      usually  works  if  the  structure  of the data is the structure
	      described above (raw pcm data in big-endian  byte	 order).  How‐
	      ever,  if the data format includes a header, you hear a click at
	      the start of a track.

	      If neither  -data	 nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in or and to -data
	      for all other files.  If this flag is  present,  all  subsequent
	      tracks are written in CDI format. The data is a multiple of 2048
	      bytes.  If this flag is present, all subsequent tracks are writ‐
	      ten  in CD-ROM mode 1 (Yellow Book) format. The data is a multi‐
	      ple of 2048 bytes. The file with track data  should  contain  an
	      ISO-9660" or "Rock Ridge" filesystem image (see mkisofs for more
	      details). If the track data is an UFS filesystem image, fragment
	      size  should be set to 2 KB or more to allow CR-drives with 2 KB
	      sector size to be used for reading.

	      If no other flag is present, -data is the default.

	      If neither  -data	 nor  -audio  have  been  specified,  cdrecord
	      defaults to -audio for all filenames that end in or and to -data
	      for all other files.  Sets an index list for the next track.  An
	      index  list  is  a comma separated list of numbers counting from
	      index 1. The first entry in this list must contain a 0; the fol‐
	      lowing numbers must be an ascending list of numbers (counting in
	      1/75 seconds) that represent the start of the indices.  An index
	      list  in the form: 0,7500,15000 sets index 1 to the start of the
	      track, index 2 to 100 seconds from the start of  the  track  and
	      index  3	to  200 seconds from the start of the track.  Uses the
	      ISO-9660 file system size as the size of the  next  track.  This
	      option is needed if you want to read the image of a track from a
	      raw disk partition or on a master CD.  In	 the  first  case  the
	      option  -isosize	is  needed  to limit the size of the CD to the
	      size of the ISO filesystem. In the second case the option	 -iso‐
	      size  is needed to prevent cdrecord from reading the two run-out
	      blocks that are appended by each	CD-recorder  in	 track-at-once
	      mode.  These two run-out blocks cannot be read and would cause a
	      buffer underrun that would cause a defective copy.  Do  not  use
	      this  option  if	cdrecord reads the track data from stdin. This
	      option currently cannot be used to determine the size of a  file
	      system if the multisession option is present.  Sets the Interna‐
	      tional Standard Recording Number for the next track to Circumam‐
	      bulate.	If  this  flag	is  present, all subsequent tracks are
	      written in CD-ROM mode 2 format. The data is a multiple of  2048
	      bytes.   If the track is a data track, 15 sectors of zeroed data
	      is added to the end of this and each subsequent data  track.  In
	      this  case,  the	-pad  option  is  superseded  by the -padsize=
	      option. It remains, however, as a	 shorthand  for	 -padsize=15s.
	      If  the  -pad option refers to an audio track, cdrecord pads the
	      audio data to be a multiple of 2352 bytes. The audio  data  pad‐
	      ding  is	done  with  binary  zeroes  which is equal to absolute

	      The -pad option remains valid until disabled  by	-nopad.	  Does
	      not  pad	the  following	tracks. This is the default.  Sets the
	      amount of data to be appended as padding to the next track to #.
	      Opposed  to the behavior of the -pad option, the value for -pad‐
	      size= is reset to zero for each new track. See the  -fs=	option
	      for possible arguments.  Use this option if your CD-drive is not
	      able to read the last sectors of a track or if you  want	to  be
	      able to read the CD on a Linux system with the ISO-9660 filesys‐
	      tem read-ahead bug. If an empty file is  used  for  track	 data,
	      this  option  may be used to create a disk that is entirely made
	      of padding.  If this flag is present, all TOC entries for subse‐
	      quent audio tracks indicate that the audio data has been sampled
	      with 50/15 μsec preemphasis. The data, however is	 not  modified
	      during  the  process  of	transferring  from  file to disk. This
	      option has no affect on data tracks.  If this flag  is  present,
	      all  TOC	entries for subsequent audio tracks indicates that the
	      audio data has been mastered  with  linear  data.	 This  is  the
	      default.	 Sets the  pregap size for the next track. This option
	      currently only makes sense with the  TEAC	 drive	when  creating
	      track-at-once  disks  without  the  2 second silence before each
	      track. This option may go away in future.	 Allows all subsequent
	      tracks  to  violate  the	Read Book track-length standard, which
	      requires a minimum track length of 4  seconds.  This  option  is
	      only  useful when used in DAO mode.  Not all drives support this
	      feature.	The  drive  must  accept  the  resulting  CUE	sheet.
	      Enforces	to  the Red Book track length standard. Tracks must be
	      at least 4 seconds.  If this flag	 is  present,  audio  data  is
	      assumed to be in byte-swapped (little-endian) order.  Some types
	      of CD-Writers, for example,  Yamaha,  Sony  and  the  SCSI-3/mmc
	      drives  require  audio  data  to	be  presented in little-endian
	      order, while other writers require audio data to be presented in
	      the  big-endian  (network)  byte order normally used by the SCSI
	      protocol. The cdrecord command  knows  if	 a  CD-Recorder	 needs
	      audio data in big- or little-endian order, and corrects the byte
	      order of the data stream to match the needs of the recorder. You
	      only need the swab flag if your data stream is in Intel (little-
	      endian) byte order.

	      Note that the verbose output of cdrecord shows you  if  swapping
	      is  necessary  to	 make the byte order of the input data fit the
	      required byte order of the recorder. The cdrecord	 command  does
	      not  show you if the swab flag was actually present for a track.
	      If the master image for the next track has been stored on a  raw
	      disk,  use  this	option	to specify the valid amount of data on
	      this disk. If the image of the next track is stored in a regular
	      file,  the size of that file is taken to determine the length of
	      this track.

	      If the track contains an ISO 9660 filesystem image use the -iso‐
	      size  option  to	determine the length of that filesystem image.
	      In disk-at-once mode and with some drives that use the TEAC pro‐
	      gramming	interface,  even in track-at-once mode, cdrecord needs
	      to know the size of each track  before  starting	to  write  the
	      disk.  The  cdrecord  command  now checks this and aborts before
	      starting to write. If this  happens  you	need  to  run  mkisofs
	      -print-size  and	use  the  output as an argument to the -tsize=
	      option of cdrecord. See the -fs= option for possible  arguments.
	      If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 1 format. The data is a multiple of  2048	bytes.
	      If  this	flag  is present, all subsequent tracks are written in
	      CD-ROM XA mode 2 format. The data is a multiple of 2048 bytes.

       The cdrecord command is used to record data or audio compact  discs  on
       an Orange Book CD-Recorder.

       The  device  refers to scsibus/target/lun of the CD-Recorder. Operating
       systems use a library simulation of the SCSI general  driver.  Possible
       syntax  is: -dev= scsibus,target,lun or -dev= target,lun. In the latter
       case, the CD-Recorder has to be connected to the default	 SCSI  bus  of
       the  machine.  The  parameters scsibus, target and lun are integer num‐
       bers. Some operating systems  or	 SCSI  transport  implementations  may
       require	to  specify  a filename in addition.  In this case the correct
       syntax for the device is: -dev= devicename:scsibus,target,lun or	 -dev=
       devicename:target,lun.  If  the	name  of the device node that has been
       specified on such a system refers to exactly one SCSI device, a	short‐
       hand  in	 the  form -dev= devicename:@ or -dev= devicename:@,lun may be

       To access remote SCSI devices,  prepend	the  SCSI  device  name	 by  a
       remote-device   indicator.   The	 remote	 device	 indicator  is	either
       -REMOTE:user@host: or -REMOTE:host: A valid remote SCSI device name may
       be   -REMOTE:user@host:	 to   allow   remote   SCSI  bus  scanning  or
       -REMOTE:user@host:1,0,0 to access the SCSI device at host connected  to
       SCSI bus # 1,target 0, lun 0.

       To make cdrecord portable to all UNIX platforms, the syntax -dev= devi‐
       cename:scsibus,target,lun is preferred  as  it  hides  operating-system
       specific knowledge about device names from the user. A specific operat‐
       ing system must not necessarily support a way to specify a real	device
       file name nor a way to specify scsibus,target,lun.

       The  default SCSI bus on the machine is scsibus 0.  Watch the boot mes‐
       sages or look at-/var/adm/messages for more information about the  SCSI
       configuration  of  your machine. If you have problems figuring out what
       values for scsibus,target,lun should be used, try the  -scanbus	option
       of cdrecord.

       If  a  file  /etc/default/cdrecord  exists,  the parameter to the -dev=
       option may also be a drive name label in said file (see FILES section).

       On SVr4 compliant systems, cdrecord uses the real time class to get the
       highest	scheduling  priority  that is possible (higher than all kernel
       processes). On systems with POSIX realtime  scheduling,	cdrecord  also
       uses  real  time scheduling but may not be able to gain a priority that
       is higher than all kernel processes.

       In track-at-once mode, each track corresponds to	 a  single  file  that
       contains	 the prepared data for that track. If the argument is -, stan‐
       dard input is used for that track. Only one track  may  be  taken  from

       For  all	 examples below, it is be assumed that the CD-Recorder is con‐
       nected to the primary SCSI bus of the machine. The SCSI	target	id  is
       set to 2.

       To  record a pure CD-ROM at double speed using data from the file cdim‐
       age.raw: # cdrecord -v speed=2 dev=2,4,0 cdimage.raw

       To create an image for a ISO 9660 filesystem  with  Rock	 Ridge	exten‐
       sions: # mkisofs -R -o cdimage.raw /home/joerg/master/tree

       To  check  the  resulting  file	before writing to CD on Linux: # mount
       cdimage.raw -r -t iso9660 -o loop /mnt # ls -lR /mnt	umount /mnt  #
       umount /mnt

       If  the	overall speed of the system is sufficient and the structure of
       the filesystem is not too complex, cdrecord runs	 without  creating  an
       image of the ISO 9660 filesystem. Simply run the pipeline: # mkisofs -R
       /master/tree | cdrecord -v fs=6m speed=2 dev=2,4,0 -

       The recommended minimum fifo  size  for	running	 this  pipeline	 is  4
       MBytes.	 As  the default fifo size is 4 MB, the -fs= option needs only
       be present if you want to use a different fifo size. If your system  is
       loaded,	you  should  run  mkisofs in the real-time class. To raise the
       priority of mkisofs replace the command # mkisofs -R /master/tree

       To record a pure CD-DA (audio) at single speed  with  each  track  con‐
       tained  in  a  file  named  track01.cdaudio,  track02.cdaudio,  etc:  #
       cdrecord -v speed=1 dev=2,4,0 -audio track*.cdaudio

       To check if you can use double speed for the  example  above,  use  the
       dummy  write  option:  #	 cdrecord  -v  -dummy speed=2 dev=2,4,0 -audio

       To handle drives that need to know the size of a track before  starting
       to write, first run # mkisofs -R -q -print-size /master/tree

       and  then  run  #  mkisofs -R /master/tree | cdrecord speed=2 dev=2,4,0
       tsize=XXXs -

       where XXX is replaced by the output of the previous run of mkisofs.

       To copy an audio CD in the most accurate	 way,  first  run  #  cdda2wav
       -v255 -D2,4,0 -B -Owav

       and then run # cdrecord -v dev=2,4,0 -dao -useinfo *.wav

       This  may  either hold a device identifier that is suitable to the open
       call  of	 the  SCSI  transport  library	or  a  label   in   the	  file
       /etc/default/cdrecord.  Sets the default size of the fifo (see also the
       -fs= option).  Sets the default speed value for writing (see  also  the
       -speed option).

       Default	 values	  can	be   set   for	 the   following   options  in
       /etc/default/cdrecord.  This may either hold a device  identifier  that
       is  suitable  to the open call of the SCSI transport library or a label
       in the file /etc/default/cdrecord that it allows to identify a specific
       drive  on  the  system.	 Sets the default speed value for writing (see
       also the -speed option). For example, CDR_SPEED=2.   Sets  the  default
       size  of	 the fifo (see also the -fs= #option). For example, CDR_FIFOS‐
       IZE=8m.	is an identifier for a specific drive on the system.  Such  an
       identifier may not contain the four characters comma (,), slash (/), at
       (@), or colon (:).

	      Each line that follows a label contains a TAB-separated list  of
	      items.   Currently,  three  items are recognized: the SCSI ID of
	      the drive, the default speed that should be used for this	 drive
	      and  the	default	 fifo size that should be used for this drive.
	      The values for -speed and -fifosize may be set  to  -1  to  tell
	      cdrecord	to  use	 the  global defaults. A typical line may look
	      this way: # teac1= 0,5,0 4    8m # yamaha= 1,6,0	   -1	-1

	      This tells cdrecord that a drive named teac1 is  at  scsibus  0,
	      target 5, lun 0 and should be used with -speed=4 and a -fs=8 MB.
	      A second drive may be found at scsibus 1, target 6,  lun	0  and
	      uses the default speed and the default fifo size.

       Disks made in track-at-once mode are not suitable as masters for direct
       mass production by CD manufacturers. You need the  disk-at-once	option
       to record such disks. Nevertheless the disks made in track-at-once mode
       normally are read in all CD players. Some old audio CD players  however
       may produce a two second click between two audio tracks.

       The  minimal  size of a track is 4 seconds or 300 sectors. If you write
       smaller tracks, the CD-Recorder adds  dummy  blocks.  This  is  not  an
       error, even though the SCSI-error message looks this way.

       The  cdrecord  command  has  been tested on an upgraded Philips CDD-521
       recorder at single and double speed on a SparcStation  20/502  with  no
       problems;   slower   computer  systems  should  work  also.  The	 newer
       Philips/HP/Plasmon/Grundig drives as well as Yamaha CDR-100 and CDR-102
       work  also. The Plasmon RF-4100 works but has not been tested in multi‐
       session. A Philips CDD-521 that has not been upgraded  does  not	 work.
       The  Sony  CDU-924  has	been  tested, but does not support XA-mode2 in
       hardware. The Sony  therefore  cannot  create  conforming  multisession
       disks.  The Ricoh RO-1420C works, but some people seem to have problems
       using them with -speed=2; try -speed=0 in this case.

       The Yamaha CDR-400 and all new SCSI-3/mmc conforming  drives  are  sup‐
       ported in single and multisession.

       You should run several tests in all supported speeds of your drive with
       the -dummy option turned on if you are using  cdrecord  on  an  unknown
       system. Writing a CD is a realtime process. NFS does not always deliver
       constantly the needed data rates. If you want to use cdrecord with  CD-
       images  that are located on an NFS mounted filesystem, be sure that the
       fifo size is big enough. It is recommended that you leave the system as
       lightly loaded as possible while writing a CD. If you want to make sure
       that buffer underruns are not caused by your source disk, use the  com‐

       # cdrecord -dummy dev=2,4,0 padsize=600m /dev/null

       to create a disk that is entirely made of dummy data. The cdrecord com‐
       mand needs to run as root to get access to the /dev/scg?	 device	 nodes
       and to be able to lock itself into memory.

       If  you	do  not	 want  to  allow  users to become root on your system,
       cdrecord may safely be installed suid root. This allows all users or  a
       group  of  users with no root privileges to use cdrecord.  The cdrecord
       command in this case checks to determine if the real  user  would  have
       been  able  to read the specified files. To give all user access to use
       cdrecord, enter: # chown	 root  /usr/local/bin/cdrecord	#  chmod  4711

       To  give a restricted group of users access to cdrecord, enter: # chown
       root /usr/local/bin/cdrecord # chgrp cdburners  /usr/local/bin/cdrecord
       # chmod 4710 /usr/local/bin/cdrecord

       and add a group cdburners on your system.

       Never  give  write  permissions	for  the /dev/scg?  devices to nonroot
       users unless you would allow  anybody  to  read/write/format  all  your

       Do  not	connect old drives that do not support disconnect/reconnect to
       either the SCSI bus that is connected to the CD-Recorder or the	source

       A compact disc can have no more than 99 tracks.

       When  creating  a disc with both audio and data tracks, the data should
       be on track 1 otherwise you should create a CDplus disk which is a mul‐
       tisession  disk	with the first session containing the audio tracks and
       the following session containing the data track.

       Many operating systems are not able to read more	 than  a  single  data
       track or need special software to do so.

       More  information  on  the  SCSI command set of a HP CD-Recorder can be
       found at:

       If you have more information or	SCSI  command  manuals	for  currently
       unsupported CD-Recorders please contact the author.

       The Philips CDD 521 CD-Recorder (even in the upgraded version) has sev‐
       eral firmware bugs. Some of them force you to power cycle the device or
       to reboot the machine.

       When using cdrecord with the broken Linux SCSI generic (sg) driver. You
       should note that cdrecord uses a hack that tries to emulate  the	 func‐
       tionality  of  the sg driver. Unfortunately, the sg driver on Linux has
       several severe bugs: It cannot see if a SCSI command could not be  sent
       at  all.	  It cannot get the SCSI status byte. The cdrecord command for
       that reason cannot report failing SCSI commands in some situations.  It
       cannot  get  a  real DMA count of transfer. The cdrecord command cannot
       tell you if there is an DMA residual count.  It cannot get  the	number
       of  bytes  valid	 in auto sense data.  The cdrecord command cannot tell
       you if device transfers no sense data at all.  It  fetches  too	little
       data in auto request sense (CCS/SCSI-2/SCSI-3 needs >= 18).

       The fifo percent output is computed just after a block of data has been
       written to the CD-Recorder. For this reason, there is never  100%  fifo
       fill while the fifo is in streaming mode.

       You  have 9 seconds to type ^C to abort cdrecord after you see the mes‐
       sage: Starting to write CD at speed %d in %s mode for %s session.

       A typical error message for a SCSI command looks	 like  the  following:
       cdrecord:  I/O  error. test unit ready: scsi sendcmd: no error CDB:  00
       20 00 00 00 00 status: 0x2 (CHECK CONDITION) Sense Bytes: 70 00	05  00
       00  00  00  0A  00  00  00  00 25 00 00 00 00 00 Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal
       Request, Segment 0 Sense Code: 0x25 Qual 0x00 (logical  unit  not  sup‐
       ported)	Fru  0x0  Sense	 flags:	 Blk  0 (not valid) cmd finished after
       0.002s timeout 40s

       The first line gives information about the transport  of	 the  command.
       The text after the first colon gives the error text for the system call
       from the view of the kernel. It usually is I/O error unless other prob‐
       lems  happen.  The  next words contain a short description for the SCSI
       command that fails. The rest of the line tells you if  there  were  any
       problems for the transport of the command over the SCSI bus. The output
       fatal error means that it was not possible  to  transport  the  command
       (that is, no device is present at the requested SCSI address).

       The second line prints the SCSI command descriptor block for the failed

       The third line gives information on the SCSI status  code  returned  by
       the  command  if	 the  transport of the command succeeds. This is error
       information from the SCSI device.

       The fourth line is a hexadecimal dump of the auto-request sense	infor‐
       mation for the command.

       The  fifth  line is the error text for the sense key if available, fol‐
       lowed by the segment number that is only valid if  the  command	was  a
       copy  command. If the error message is not directly related to the cur‐
       rent command, the text deferred error is appended.

       The sixth line is the error text for the sense code and the sense qual‐
       ifier, if available. If the type of the device is known, the sense data
       is decoded from tables in scsierrs.c. The text is followed by the error
       value for a field-replaceable unit.

       The  seventh line prints the block number that is related to the failed
       command and text for several error flags. The block number may  not  be

       The  eighth  line  reports  the timeout set up for this command and the
       time that the command really needed to be finished.

       The following message is not an error: Track 01: Total bytes read/writ‐
       ten:  2048/2048	(1  sectors).	cdrecord: I/O error. flush cache: scsi
       sendcmd: no error CDB:  35 00 00 00 00 00  00  00  00  00  status:  0x2
       (CHECK  CONDITION)  Sense Bytes: F0 00 05 80 00 00 27 0A 00 00 00 00 B5
       00 00 00 00 00 Sense Key: 0x5 Illegal Request, Segment  0  Sense	 Code:
       0xB5  Qual  0x00	 (dummy	 data  blocks  added) Fru 0x0 Sense flags: Blk
       -2147483609 (valid) cmd finished after 0.002s timeout 40s

       It simply notifies that a track that is smaller than the	 minimum  size
       has been expanded to 300 sectors.

       The cdrecord currently only warns if the input data does not fit on the
       disk. If you do not abort the command you get unpredictable results.

       This page has been adapted from information provided by:

       Joerg Schilling

       Seestr. 110 D-13353

       Berlin Germany

       Additional	information	  can	     be	       found	    at‐

       Commands: mkisofs(8)


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