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LN(1)									 LN(1)

       ln - make hard or symbolic links to files

       /usr/bin/ln [-fns] source_file [target]

       /usr/bin/ln [-fns] source_file... target

       /usr/xpg4/bin/ln [-fs] source_file [target]

       /usr/xpg4/bin/ln [-fs] source_file... target

       In  the	first  synopsis	 form,	the ln utility creates a new directory
       entry (link) for the file specified by source_file, at the  destination
       path  specified by target. If target is not specified, the link is made
       in the current directory. This first synopsis form is assumed when  the
       final operand does not name an existing directory; if more than two op‐
       erands are specified and the final is not  an  existing	directory,  an
       error will result.

       In  the	second	synopsis  form, the ln utility creates a new directory
       entry for each file specified by a source_file operand, at  a  destina‐
       tion path in the existing directory named by target.

       The  ln	utility	 may  be  used	to create both hard links and symbolic
       links.  A hard link is a pointer to a  file  and	 is  indistinguishable
       from  the original directory entry. Any changes to a file are effective
       independent of the name used to reference the file. Hard links may  not
       span file systems and may not refer to directories.

       ln  by  default creates hard links. source_file is linked to target. If
       target is a directory, another file named  source_file  is  created  in
       target and linked to the original source_file.

       If  target  is  an existing file and the -f option is not specified, ln
       will write a diagnostic message to standard error, do nothing more with
       the current source_file, and go on to any remaining source_files.

       A  symbolic  link is an indirect pointer to a file; its directory entry
       contains the name of the file to which it is linked. Symbolic links may
       span file systems and may refer to directories.

       File  permissions for target may be different from those displayed with
       an -l listing of the ls(1) command. To display the permissions of  tar‐
       get, use ls -lL. See stat(2) for more information.

       If  /usr/bin/ln	determines that the mode of target forbids writing, it
       prints the mode (see chmod(1)), asks for	 a  response,  and  reads  the
       standard	 input	for one line. If the response is affirmative, the link
       occurs, if permissible. Otherwise, the command exits.

       When creating a hard link, and the source file  is  itself  a  symbolic
       link, the target will be a hard link to the file referenced by the sym‐
       bolic link, not to the symbolic link object itself (source_file).

       The  following  options	are  supported	for   both   /usr/bin/ln   and

	     Links  files  without  questioning	 the user, even if the mode of
	     target forbids writing. This is the default if the standard input
	     is not a terminal.

	     Creates a symbolic link.

	     If	 the  -s  option  is used with two arguments, target may be an
	     existing directory or a  non-existent  file.  If  target  already
	     exists  and is not a directory, an error is returned. source_file
	     may be any path name and need not exist. If it exists, it may  be
	     a	file  or  directory  and may reside on a different file system
	     from target. If target is an existing directory, a file  is  cre‐
	     ated  in  directory  target whose name is source_file or the last
	     component of source_file. This file is a symbolic link that  ref‐
	     erences  source_file.  If target does not exist, a file with name
	     target is created and it  is  a  symbolic	link  that  references

	     If	 the  -s  option  is used with more than two arguments, target
	     must be an existing directory or an error will be	returned.  For
	     each  source_file,	 a link is created in target whose name is the
	     last component of source_file. Each new source_file is a symbolic
	     link to the original source_file. The files and target may reside
	     on different file systems.

       The following option is supported for /usr/bin/ln only:

	     If target is an existing file, writes  a  diagnostic  message  to
	     stderr  and  goes on to any remaining source_files. The -f option
	     overrides	this  option.  This  is	 the  default	behavior   for
	     /usr/bin/ln and /usr/xpg4/bin/ln, and is silently ignored.

       The following operands are supported:

		      A path name of a file to be linked. This can be either a
		      regular or special file. If the -s option is  specified,
		      source_file can also be a directory.

		      The  path name of the new directory entry to be created,
		      or of an existing directory in which the	new  directory
		      entries are to be created.

       See largefile(5) for the description of the behavior of ln when encoun‐
       tering files greater than or equal to 2 Gbyte ( 2^31 bytes).

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that  affect  the execution of ln: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

       The following exit values are returned:

	     All the specified files were linked successfully

	     An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │CSI	       │ Enabled	 │

       │CSI		    │ Enabled	      │
       │Interface Stability │ Standard	      │

       chmod(1),  ls(1),  stat(2),  attributes(5),  environ(5),	 largefile(5),

       A  symbolic  link  to  a	 directory  behaves differently than you might
       expect in certain cases. While an ls(1) command on such a link displays
       the files in the pointed-to directory, entering ls -l displays informa‐
       tion about the link itself:

	 example% ln -s dir link
	 example% ls link
	 file1 file2 file3 file4
	 example% ls -l link
	 lrwxrwxrwx  1 user	       7 Jan 11 23:27 link -> dir

       When you change to a directory (see cd(1))  through  a  symbolic	 link,
       using  /usr/bin/sh or /usr/bin/csh, you wind up in the pointed-to loca‐
       tion within the file system. This means that  the  parent  of  the  new
       working	directory  is not the parent of the symbolic link, but rather,
       the parent of the pointed-to directory.	This  will  also  happen  when
       using  cd with the -P option from /usr/bin/ksh or /usr/xpg4/bin/sh. For
       instance, in the following case, the final working  directory  is  /usr
       and not /home/user/linktest.

	 example% pwd
	 example% ln -s /usr/tmp symlink
	 example% cd symlink
	 example% cd ..
	 example% pwd

       C  shell users can avoid any resulting navigation problems by using the
       pushd and popd built-in commands instead of cd.

				 Mar 25, 2004				 LN(1)

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