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GITREVISIONS(7)			  Git Manual		       GITREVISIONS(7)

       gitrevisions - specifying revisions and ranges for Git


       Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
       the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which walk
       the revision graph (such as git-log(1)), all commits which can be
       reached from that commit. In the latter case one can also specify a
       range of revisions explicitly.

       In addition, some Git commands (such as git-show(1)) also take revision
       parameters which denote other objects than commits, e.g. blobs
       ("files") or trees ("directories of files").

       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
       commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here
       are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
       this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
	   The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
	   leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
	   dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
	   same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
	   whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
	   Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
	   by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
	   abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
	   A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
	   referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
	   heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
	   to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <refname> is
	   disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

	    1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is
	       usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
	       and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);

	    2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;

	    3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

	    4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;

	    5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;

	    6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.

	       HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the
	       working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched
	       from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.
	       ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a
	       drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their
	       operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch
	       back to the state before you ran them.  MERGE_HEAD records the
	       commit(s) which you are merging into your branch when you run
	       git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
	       cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

	       Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
	       the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
	       file. While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
	       preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in


	   @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
	   A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
	   in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
	   1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
	   ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
	   immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
	   log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
	   your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
	   branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
	   certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
	   A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
	   enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior
	   value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
	   value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
	   This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and
	   the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
	   You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
	   reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
	   branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
	   The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
	   before the current one.

       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
	   The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form
	   <branchname>@{u}) refers to the branch that the branch specified by
	   branchname is set to build on top of. A missing branchname defaults
	   to the current one.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
	   commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
	   equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit
	   itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object
	   that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
	   A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
	   is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named commit object,
	   following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
	   <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
	   illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
	   means dereference the object at <rev> recursively until an object
	   of type <type> is found or the object cannot be dereferenced
	   anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
	   commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit
	   object. Similarly, if <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes
	   the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is a short-hand for

	   rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that
	   exists, without requiring rev to be a tag, and without
	   dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an object, it does not
	   have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.

	   rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing tag

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could
	   be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
	   object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that
	   contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug
	   syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching commit
	   which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
	   A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
	   whose commit message matches the specified regular expression. This
	   name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
	   any ref. If the commit message starts with a !  you have to repeat
	   that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something else than !,
	   is reserved for now. The regular expression can match any part of
	   the commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one
	   can use e.g.	 :/^foo.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
	   A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
	   path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
	   :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
	   the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
	   given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
	   current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
	   relative to the working tree’s root directory. This is most useful
	   to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same
	   tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
	   A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
	   colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at the
	   given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
	   names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
	   ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch’s version (typically the
	   current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
	   is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
       parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

	   G   H   I   J
	    \ /	    \ /
	     D	 E   F
	      \	 |  / \
	       \ | /   |
		\|/    |
		 B     C
		  \   /
		   \ /

	   A =	    = A^0
	   B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
	   C = A^2  = A^2
	   D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
	   E = B^2  = A^^2
	   F = B^3  = A^^3
	   G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
	   H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
	   I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
	   J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
       commits, not just a single commit. To these commands, specifying a
       single revision with the notation described in the previous section
       means the set of commits reachable from that commit, following the
       commit ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is
       used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the ones
       reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it.
       When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax
       explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that
       are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1
       r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2
       and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the
       set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or r2 but not
       from both.

       In these two shorthands, you can omit one end and let it default to
       HEAD. For example, origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD and asks
       "What did I do since I forked from the origin branch?" Similarly,
       ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did the origin
       do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would mean HEAD..HEAD which
       is an empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and
       its parent commits exist. The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
       r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.

       To summarize:

	   Include commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

	   Exclude commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

	   Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those
	   that are reachable from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is
	   omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

	   Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but
	   exclude those that are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or
	   <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
	   A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all
	   parents of <rev> (meaning, include anything reachable from its
	   parents, but not the commit itself).

       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
	   A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving
	   commit <rev> and then all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude
	   them (and their ancestors).

       Here are a handful of examples:

	   D		    G H D
	   D F		    G H I J D F
	   ^G D		    H D
	   ^D B		    E I J F B
	   B..C		    C
	   B...C	    G H D E B C
	   ^D B C	    E I J F B C
	   C		    I J F C
	   C^@		    I J F
	   C^!		    C
	   F^! D	    G H D F


       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.9.0			  04/22/2014		       GITREVISIONS(7)

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