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GIT-REV-PARSE(1)		  Git Manual		      GIT-REV-PARSE(1)

       git-rev-parse - Pick out and massage parameters

       git rev-parse [ --option ] <args>...

       Many Git porcelainish commands take mixture of flags (i.e. parameters
       that begin with a dash -) and parameters meant for the underlying git
       rev-list command they use internally and flags and parameters for the
       other commands they use downstream of git rev-list. This command is
       used to distinguish between them.

   Operation Modes
       Each of these options must appear first on the command line.

	   Use git rev-parse in option parsing mode (see PARSEOPT section

	   Use git rev-parse in shell quoting mode (see SQ-QUOTE section
	   below). In contrast to the --sq option below, this mode does only
	   quoting. Nothing else is done to command input.

   Options for --parseopt
	   Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Tells the option parser to echo
	   out the first -- met instead of skipping it.

	   Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Lets the option parser stop at
	   the first non-option argument. This can be used to parse
	   sub-commands that take options themselves.

	   Only meaningful in --parseopt mode. Output the options in their
	   long form if available, and with their arguments stuck.

   Options for Filtering
	   Do not output flags and parameters not meant for git rev-list

	   Do not output flags and parameters meant for git rev-list command.

	   Do not output non-flag parameters.

	   Do not output flag parameters.

   Options for Output
       --default <arg>
	   If there is no parameter given by the user, use <arg> instead.

       --prefix <arg>
	   Behave as if git rev-parse was invoked from the <arg> subdirectory
	   of the working tree. Any relative filenames are resolved as if they
	   are prefixed by <arg> and will be printed in that form.

	   This can be used to convert arguments to a command run in a
	   subdirectory so that they can still be used after moving to the
	   top-level of the repository. For example:

	       prefix=$(git rev-parse --show-prefix)
	       cd "$(git rev-parse --show-toplevel)"
	       eval "set -- $(git rev-parse --sq --prefix "$prefix" "$@")"

	   Verify that exactly one parameter is provided, and that it can be
	   turned into a raw 20-byte SHA-1 that can be used to access the
	   object database. If so, emit it to the standard output; otherwise,
	   error out.

	   If you want to make sure that the output actually names an object
	   in your object database and/or can be used as a specific type of
	   object For example, git rev-parse "$VAR^{commit}" will make sure
	   $VAR names an existing object that is a commit-ish (i.e. a commit,
	   or an annotated tag that points at a commit). To make sure that
	   $VAR names an existing object of any type, git rev-parse
	   "$VAR^{object}" can be used.

       -q, --quiet
	   Only meaningful in --verify mode. Do not output an error message if
	   the first argument is not a valid object name; instead exit with
	   non-zero status silently.

	   Usually the output is made one line per flag and parameter. This
	   option makes output a single line, properly quoted for consumption
	   by shell. Useful when you expect your parameter to contain
	   whitespaces and newlines (e.g. when using pickaxe -S with git
	   diff-*). In contrast to the --sq-quote option, the command input is
	   still interpreted as usual.

	   When showing object names, prefix them with ^ and strip ^ prefix
	   from the object names that already have one.

	   A non-ambiguous short name of the objects name. The option
	   core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict abbreviation

       --short, --short=number
	   Instead of outputting the full SHA-1 values of object names try to
	   abbreviate them to a shorter unique name. When no length is
	   specified 7 is used. The minimum length is 4.

	   Usually the object names are output in SHA-1 form (with possible ^
	   prefix); this option makes them output in a form as close to the
	   original input as possible.

	   This is similar to --symbolic, but it omits input that are not refs
	   (i.e. branch or tag names; or more explicitly disambiguating
	   "heads/master" form, when you want to name the "master" branch when
	   there is an unfortunately named tag "master"), and show them as
	   full refnames (e.g. "refs/heads/master").

   Options for Objects
	   Show all refs found in refs/.

       --branches[=pattern], --tags[=pattern], --remotes[=pattern]
	   Show all branches, tags, or remote-tracking branches, respectively
	   (i.e., refs found in refs/heads, refs/tags, or refs/remotes,

	   If a pattern is given, only refs matching the given shell glob are
	   shown. If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *,
	   or [), it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.

	   Show all refs matching the shell glob pattern pattern. If the
	   pattern does not start with refs/, this is automatically prepended.
	   If the pattern does not contain a globbing character (?, *, or [),
	   it is turned into a prefix match by appending /*.

	   Do not include refs matching <glob-pattern> that the next --all,
	   --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob would otherwise consider.
	   Repetitions of this option accumulate exclusion patterns up to the
	   next --all, --branches, --tags, --remotes, or --glob option (other
	   options or arguments do not clear accumlated patterns).

	   The patterns given should not begin with refs/heads, refs/tags, or
	   refs/remotes when applied to --branches, --tags, or --remotes,
	   respectively, and they must begin with refs/ when applied to --glob
	   or --all. If a trailing /* is intended, it must be given

	   Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix. The
	   <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to avoid
	   listing each and every object in the repository by mistake.

   Options for Files
	   List the GIT_* environment variables that are local to the
	   repository (e.g. GIT_DIR or GIT_WORK_TREE, but not GIT_EDITOR).
	   Only the names of the variables are listed, not their value, even
	   if they are set.

	   Show $GIT_DIR if defined. Otherwise show the path to the .git
	   directory. The path shown, when relative, is relative to the
	   current working directory.

	   If $GIT_DIR is not defined and the current directory is not
	   detected to lie in a Git repository or work tree print a message to
	   stderr and exit with nonzero status.

	   When the current working directory is below the repository
	   directory print "true", otherwise "false".

	   When the current working directory is inside the work tree of the
	   repository print "true", otherwise "false".

	   When the repository is bare print "true", otherwise "false".

       --resolve-git-dir <path>
	   Check if <path> is a valid repository or a gitfile that points at a
	   valid repository, and print the location of the repository. If
	   <path> is a gitfile then the resolved path to the real repository
	   is printed.

	   When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of
	   the top-level directory relative to the current directory
	   (typically a sequence of "../", or an empty string).

	   When the command is invoked from a subdirectory, show the path of
	   the current directory relative to the top-level directory.

	   Show the absolute path of the top-level directory.

   Other Options
       --since=datestring, --after=datestring
	   Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --max-age=
	   parameter for git rev-list.

       --until=datestring, --before=datestring
	   Parse the date string, and output the corresponding --min-age=
	   parameter for git rev-list.

	   Flags and parameters to be parsed.

       A revision parameter <rev> typically, but not necessarily, names a
       commit object. It uses what is called an extended SHA-1 syntax. Here
       are various ways to spell object names. The ones listed near the end of
       this list name trees and blobs contained in a commit.

       <sha1>, e.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735, dae86e
	   The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or a
	   leading substring that is unique within the repository. E.g.
	   dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both name the
	   same commit object if there is no other object in your repository
	   whose object name starts with dae86e.

       <describeOutput>, e.g. v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb
	   Output from git describe; i.e. a closest tag, optionally followed
	   by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a g, and an
	   abbreviated object name.

       <refname>, e.g. master, heads/master, refs/heads/master
	   A symbolic ref name. E.g.  master typically means the commit object
	   referenced by refs/heads/master. If you happen to have both
	   heads/master and tags/master, you can explicitly say heads/master
	   to tell Git which one you mean. When ambiguous, a <refname> is
	   disambiguated by taking the first match in the following rules:

	    1. If $GIT_DIR/<refname> exists, that is what you mean (this is
	       usually useful only for HEAD, FETCH_HEAD, ORIG_HEAD, MERGE_HEAD
	       and CHERRY_PICK_HEAD);

	    2. otherwise, refs/<refname> if it exists;

	    3. otherwise, refs/tags/<refname> if it exists;

	    4. otherwise, refs/heads/<refname> if it exists;

	    5. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname> if it exists;

	    6. otherwise, refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD if it exists.

	       HEAD names the commit on which you based the changes in the
	       working tree.  FETCH_HEAD records the branch which you fetched
	       from a remote repository with your last git fetch invocation.
	       ORIG_HEAD is created by commands that move your HEAD in a
	       drastic way, to record the position of the HEAD before their
	       operation, so that you can easily change the tip of the branch
	       back to the state before you ran them.  MERGE_HEAD records the
	       commit(s) which you are merging into your branch when you run
	       git merge.  CHERRY_PICK_HEAD records the commit which you are
	       cherry-picking when you run git cherry-pick.

	       Note that any of the refs/* cases above may come either from
	       the $GIT_DIR/refs directory or from the $GIT_DIR/packed-refs
	       file. While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is
	       preferred as some output processing may assume ref names in


	   @ alone is a shortcut for HEAD.

       <refname>@{<date>}, e.g. master@{yesterday}, HEAD@{5 minutes ago}
	   A ref followed by the suffix @ with a date specification enclosed
	   in a brace pair (e.g.  {yesterday}, {1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour
	   1 second ago} or {1979-02-26 18:30:00}) specifies the value of the
	   ref at a prior point in time. This suffix may only be used
	   immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
	   log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<ref>). Note that this looks up the state of
	   your local ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local master
	   branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
	   certain times, see --since and --until.

       <refname>@{<n>}, e.g. master@{1}
	   A ref followed by the suffix @ with an ordinal specification
	   enclosed in a brace pair (e.g.  {1}, {15}) specifies the n-th prior
	   value of that ref. For example master@{1} is the immediate prior
	   value of master while master@{5} is the 5th prior value of master.
	   This suffix may only be used immediately following a ref name and
	   the ref must have an existing log ($GIT_DIR/logs/<refname>).

       @{<n>}, e.g. @{1}
	   You can use the @ construct with an empty ref part to get at a
	   reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
	   branch blabla then @{1} means the same as blabla@{1}.

       @{-<n>}, e.g. @{-1}
	   The construct @{-<n>} means the <n>th branch/commit checked out
	   before the current one.

       <branchname>@{upstream}, e.g. master@{upstream}, @{u}
	   The suffix @{upstream} to a branchname (short form
	   <branchname>@{u}) refers to the branch that the branch specified by
	   branchname is set to build on top of. A missing branchname defaults
	   to the current one.

       <rev>^, e.g. HEAD^, v1.5.1^0
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter means the first parent of that
	   commit object.  ^<n> means the <n>th parent (i.e.  <rev>^ is
	   equivalent to <rev>^1). As a special rule, <rev>^0 means the commit
	   itself and is used when <rev> is the object name of a tag object
	   that refers to a commit object.

       <rev>~<n>, e.g. master~3
	   A suffix ~<n> to a revision parameter means the commit object that
	   is the <n>th generation ancestor of the named commit object,
	   following only the first parents. I.e.  <rev>~3 is equivalent to
	   <rev>^^^ which is equivalent to <rev>^1^1^1. See below for an
	   illustration of the usage of this form.

       <rev>^{<type>}, e.g. v0.99.8^{commit}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an object type name enclosed in brace pair
	   means dereference the object at <rev> recursively until an object
	   of type <type> is found or the object cannot be dereferenced
	   anymore (in which case, barf). For example, if <rev> is a
	   commit-ish, <rev>^{commit} describes the corresponding commit
	   object. Similarly, if <rev> is a tree-ish, <rev>^{tree} describes
	   the corresponding tree object.  <rev>^0 is a short-hand for

	   rev^{object} can be used to make sure rev names an object that
	   exists, without requiring rev to be a tag, and without
	   dereferencing rev; because a tag is already an object, it does not
	   have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.

	   rev^{tag} can be used to ensure that rev identifies an existing tag

       <rev>^{}, e.g. v0.99.8^{}
	   A suffix ^ followed by an empty brace pair means the object could
	   be a tag, and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag
	   object is found.

       <rev>^{/<text>}, e.g. HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}
	   A suffix ^ to a revision parameter, followed by a brace pair that
	   contains a text led by a slash, is the same as the :/fix nasty bug
	   syntax below except that it returns the youngest matching commit
	   which is reachable from the <rev> before ^.

       :/<text>, e.g. :/fix nasty bug
	   A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names a commit
	   whose commit message matches the specified regular expression. This
	   name returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
	   any ref. If the commit message starts with a !  you have to repeat
	   that; the special sequence :/!, followed by something else than !,
	   is reserved for now. The regular expression can match any part of
	   the commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one
	   can use e.g.	 :/^foo.

       <rev>:<path>, e.g. HEAD:README, :README, master:./README
	   A suffix : followed by a path names the blob or tree at the given
	   path in the tree-ish object named by the part before the colon.
	   :path (with an empty part before the colon) is a special case of
	   the syntax described next: content recorded in the index at the
	   given path. A path starting with ./ or ../ is relative to the
	   current working directory. The given path will be converted to be
	   relative to the working tree’s root directory. This is most useful
	   to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has the same
	   tree structure as the working tree.

       :<n>:<path>, e.g. :0:README, :README
	   A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
	   colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the index at the
	   given path. A missing stage number (and the colon that follows it)
	   names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage 1 is the common
	   ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch’s version (typically the
	   current branch), and stage 3 is the version from the branch which
	   is being merged.

       Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger. Both commit nodes B and C are
       parents of commit node A. Parent commits are ordered left-to-right.

	   G   H   I   J
	    \ /	    \ /
	     D	 E   F
	      \	 |  / \
	       \ | /   |
		\|/    |
		 B     C
		  \   /
		   \ /

	   A =	    = A^0
	   B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
	   C = A^2  = A^2
	   D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
	   E = B^2  = A^^2
	   F = B^3  = A^^3
	   G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
	   H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
	   I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
	   J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2

       History traversing commands such as git log operate on a set of
       commits, not just a single commit. To these commands, specifying a
       single revision with the notation described in the previous section
       means the set of commits reachable from that commit, following the
       commit ancestry chain.

       To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix ^ notation is
       used. E.g. ^r1 r2 means commits reachable from r2 but exclude the ones
       reachable from r1.

       This set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand for it.
       When you have two commits r1 and r2 (named according to the syntax
       explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask for commits that
       are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable from r1 by ^r1
       r2 and it can be written as r1..r2.

       A similar notation r1...r2 is called symmetric difference of r1 and r2
       and is defined as r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2). It is the
       set of commits that are reachable from either one of r1 or r2 but not
       from both.

       In these two shorthands, you can omit one end and let it default to
       HEAD. For example, origin.. is a shorthand for origin..HEAD and asks
       "What did I do since I forked from the origin branch?" Similarly,
       ..origin is a shorthand for HEAD..origin and asks "What did the origin
       do since I forked from them?" Note that .. would mean HEAD..HEAD which
       is an empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.

       Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit and
       its parent commits exist. The r1^@ notation means all parents of r1.
       r1^! includes commit r1 but excludes all of its parents.

       To summarize:

	   Include commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

	   Exclude commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of) <rev>.

	   Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude those
	   that are reachable from <rev1>. When either <rev1> or <rev2> is
	   omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

	   Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or <rev2> but
	   exclude those that are reachable from both. When either <rev1> or
	   <rev2> is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.

       <rev>^@, e.g. HEAD^@
	   A suffix ^ followed by an at sign is the same as listing all
	   parents of <rev> (meaning, include anything reachable from its
	   parents, but not the commit itself).

       <rev>^!, e.g. HEAD^!
	   A suffix ^ followed by an exclamation mark is the same as giving
	   commit <rev> and then all its parents prefixed with ^ to exclude
	   them (and their ancestors).

       Here are a handful of examples:

	   D		    G H D
	   D F		    G H I J D F
	   ^G D		    H D
	   ^D B		    E I J F B
	   B..C		    C
	   B...C	    G H D E B C
	   ^D B C	    E I J F B C
	   C		    I J F C
	   C^@		    I J F
	   C^!		    C
	   F^! D	    G H D F

       In --parseopt mode, git rev-parse helps massaging options to bring to
       shell scripts the same facilities C builtins have. It works as an
       option normalizer (e.g. splits single switches aggregate values), a bit
       like getopt(1) does.

       It takes on the standard input the specification of the options to
       parse and understand, and echoes on the standard output a string
       suitable for sh(1) eval to replace the arguments with normalized ones.
       In case of error, it outputs usage on the standard error stream, and
       exits with code 129.

       Note: Make sure you quote the result when passing it to eval. See below
       for an example.

   Input Format
       git rev-parse --parseopt input format is fully text based. It has two
       parts, separated by a line that contains only --. The lines before the
       separator (should be more than one) are used for the usage. The lines
       after the separator describe the options.

       Each line of options has this format:

	   <opt_spec><flags>* SP+ help LF

	   its format is the short option character, then the long option name
	   separated by a comma. Both parts are not required, though at least
	   one is necessary.  h,help, dry-run and f are all three correct


	   <flags> are of *, =, ?  or !.

	   ·   Use = if the option takes an argument.

	   ·   Use ?  to mean that the option takes an optional argument. You
	       probably want to use the --stuck-long mode to be able to
	       unambiguously parse the optional argument.

	   ·   Use * to mean that this option should not be listed in the
	       usage generated for the -h argument. It’s shown for --help-all
	       as documented in gitcli(7).

	   ·   Use !  to not make the corresponding negated long option

       The remainder of the line, after stripping the spaces, is used as the
       help associated to the option.

       Blank lines are ignored, and lines that don’t match this specification
       are used as option group headers (start the line with a space to create
       such lines on purpose).

	   some-command [options] <args>...

	   some-command does foo and bar!
	   h,help    show the help

	   foo	     some nifty option --foo
	   bar=	     some cool option --bar with an argument

	     An option group Header
	   C?	     option C with an optional argument"

	   eval "$(echo "$OPTS_SPEC" | git rev-parse --parseopt -- "$@" || echo exit $?)"

       In --sq-quote mode, git rev-parse echoes on the standard output a
       single line suitable for sh(1) eval. This line is made by normalizing
       the arguments following --sq-quote. Nothing other than quoting the
       arguments is done.

       If you want command input to still be interpreted as usual by git
       rev-parse before the output is shell quoted, see the --sq option.

	   $ cat > <<\EOF
	   args=$(git rev-parse --sq-quote "$@")   # quote user-supplied arguments
	   command="git frotz -n24 $args"	   # and use it inside a handcrafted
						   # command line
	   eval "$command"

	   $ sh "a b'c"

       ·   Print the object name of the current commit:

	       $ git rev-parse --verify HEAD

       ·   Print the commit object name from the revision in the $REV shell

	       $ git rev-parse --verify $REV^{commit}

	   This will error out if $REV is empty or not a valid revision.

       ·   Similar to above:

	       $ git rev-parse --default master --verify $REV

	   but if $REV is empty, the commit object name from master will be

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.9.0			  04/22/2014		      GIT-REV-PARSE(1)

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