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cstream(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		    cstream(1)

     cstream — direct data streams, with bandwidth limiting, FIFO, audio,
     duplication and extended reporting support.

     cstream [-b num] [-B num] [-i filename] [-I string] [-l] [-n num]
	     [-o filename] [-O string] [-p filename] [-t num] [-T num]
	     [-v num] [-V] [filename]

     Cstream filters data streams, much like the UNIX tool dd(1).  It has a
     more traditional commandline syntax, support for precise bandwidth limit‐
     ing and reporting and support for FIFOs. Data limits and throughput rate
     calculation will work for files > 4 GB.

     Cstream reads from the standard input and writes to the standard output,
     if no filenames are given. It will also 'generate' or 'sink' data if


     -b num    Set the block size used for read/write to num.  The default is
	       8192 bytes.

     -B num    Buffer input up to num bytes before writing. The default is the
	       blocksize. It is an error to set this to anything below the
	       blocksize. Useful when writing tapes and similar that prefer
	       few large writes of many small.

     -c num    Concurrent operation. Use a separate process for output. This
	       is especially useful in combination with the -B option.
	       0 = use one process only (default)
	       1 = read process will buffer
	       2 = write process will buffer
	       3 = both processes will buffer.
		   In combination with a large buffer size this will often
		   load your memory heavily, every time the reader transfers
		   the buffer it collected to the writer. If you use -c 3 and
		   have a buffer size of 128 Megabytes 256 MB of memory will
		   be touched at once.

     -i num

     -o num    Set the file names to use for input or output, respectively. If
	       the output file name is "-", data will just be discarded. If
	       the input file name is "-", data will be generated 'out of the
	       void'. If these options aren't given, stdin/stout will be used.
	       If you need to give -o or -i options and want stdin/stdout,
	       specify the empty string, like this:

	       cstream -i''

	       If TCP support has been compiled in (default), hostname:port‐
	       number will try to connect to the specified host at the speci‐
	       fied port and :portnumber will open a TCP socket on the local
	       machine and wait for a connection to arrive. SECURITY NOTE:
	       cstream includes no mechanism to restrict the hosts that may
	       connect to this port. Unless your machine has other network
	       filters, anyone will be able to connect.

     -I string

     -O string
	       Specify the type of input and output file, respectively.
	       If string
		   includes 'f', a fifo will be created.
	       If string
		   includes 'a', the file will be assumed to be a opensound-
		   compatible audio device and will be switched to CD-like
	       If string
		   includes 't', a copy of the stream will be sent to file
		   descriptor 3.
	       If string
		   includes 'N', TCP will not be used for that file even if
		   the name has a ":".

     -l	       Include line count in statistics.

     -n num    Limit the total amount of data to num.  If there is more input
	       available, it will be discarded, cstream will exit after the
	       limit has been reached. If there is less input, the limit will
	       not be reached and no error will be signaled.

	       num may have a trailing 'k', 'm' or 'g' which means Kilobytes,
	       Megabytes or Gigabytes (where Kilo = 1024). This applies to all
	       numeric options.

     -p filename
	       Write the process id of cstream to filename.  If cstream uses a
	       separate writer process (option -c), this is the pid of the
	       parent (reader) process.

     -t num    Limit the throughput of the data stream to num bytes/second.
	       Limiting is done at the input side, you can rely on cstream not
	       accepting more than this rate. If the number you give is posi‐
	       tive, cstream accumulates errors and tries to keep the overall
	       rate at the specified value, for the whole session. If you give
	       a negative number, it is an upper limit for each read/write
	       system call pair. In other words: the negative number will
	       never exceed that limit, the positive number will exceed it to
	       make good for previous underutilization.

     -T num    Report throughput every num seconds.

     -v num    Set verbose level to num.  By default, it is set to 0, which
	       means no messages are displayed as long as no errors occur. A
	       value of 1 means that total amount of data and throughput will
	       be displayed at the end of program run. A value of 2 means the
	       transfer rate since the end of the first read/write pair will
	       also be reported (useful when there is an initial delay). A
	       value of 3 means there will also be separate measurements for
	       read and write. This option is resource-consuming and currently
	       isn't implemented. A value of 4 means that notices about each
	       single read/write will be displayed. High values include all
	       message types of lower values.

     -V	       Print version number to stdout and exit with 0.

     filename  A single filename as the last argument without an option switch
	       will be used as input file if -i has not been used.


     SIGINFO   Sending SIGUSR1 (or SIGINFO, which is usually mapped to Con‐
	       trol-T on you keyboard) to cstream causes it to display
	       throughput rates to stderr. The stream will continue as if
	       nothing happened.

     SIGUSR2   Exit and report throughput rates, if requested.

     SIGHUP    I found myself sending SIGHUP accidentally too often. But
	       ignoring or misusing SIGHUP is not an option for me. Thus, when
	       cstream received SIGHUP, it will wait 5 seconds for another
	       SIGHUP, to give users a chance to correct a possible mistake.
	       If no additional SIGHUP is received, cstream kills itself with

     cstream -o tmpfile -v 1 -n 384m -i -
	     Writes 384 Megabytes of unspecified data to file tmpfile and dis‐
	     play verbose throughput rate. Makes a good benchmark, the speed
	     of /dev/null varies too much from system to system.

     cstream -i tmpfile -v 1 -n 384m -o -
	     Read the same file back in and discard data.

     cstream -b 2000  -t 10000 /var/log/messages
	     Will display the file in a more or less watchable speed.

     dump 0sf 400000 - / | cstream -v 1 -b 32768 -o /dev/rst0 -p pidfile

     kill -USR1 `cat pidfile`
	     Write the output from dump(1) to tape. Each time the signal is
	     sent, the throughput and data rate so far will be displayed.

     cstream -t 176400 -i /dev/dsp0 -I f -o -
	     Makes kind of a soundcard emulator which may be used to test
	     audio applications that need something to write to that limits
	     the data rate as a real soundcard does. This obviously doesn't
	     work when the application tries to write data using mmap(2) and
	     the application has to ignore errors when it tries to set sound‐
	     card parameters using ioctl(2).

     cstream -t 176400 -i /dev/dsp0 -I f -o /dev/dsp1 -O f
	     Similar soundcard emulator, except that it allows you to grab the
	     data your applications sends to it from the other fifo, while
	     still having precise timing.

     cstream -Oa -o /dev/dsp0 myhost.mydomain.com:17324
	     Connects port 3333 on host myhost.mydomain.com and whatever data
	     it finds there will be sent to the soundcard, with appropriate
	     settings for CD quality stereo play.

     cstream -i myaudiofile.raw -o :17324
	     This will open a TCP server on port 17324 and waits until someone
	     connects (for example, the commandline from the previous exam‐
	     ple). Then it will send the contents of myaudiofile.raw down the
	     TCP stream (for the previous audio example, typically a CD audio
	     track like you get from the tosha or cdparanoia utilities).

     cstream -OD -o myfile
	     Write to file myfile with O_DIRECT.  That usually means that the
	     filesystem buffer cache will not try to cache this file.  You can
	     use that to prevent copying operations from eating up physical
	     memory.  Note that when cstream encounters a write error it will
	     switch the output file from O_DIRECT to a normal file and write
	     all further blocks without O_DIRECT if writes without O_DIRECT
	     succeed.  In practice that usually means that your last block, if
	     not a multiple of the filesystem block size, will still be writ‐
	     ten into the file (the maximum amount of data written without
	     O_DIRECT is your blocksize minus one).  That way cstream ensures
	     that the output file has the length of the input, however odd the
	     length was and no matter what restrictions your OS places on
	     O_DIRECT output.  Again, cstream will *not* pad the output to the
	     block size, you get the same file and file size as if not using
	     O_DIRECT, at the cost of switching to non-O_DIRECT whenever a
	     block is not the right size.

     cstream -i :3333 | dd obs=8192 | ./cstream -omyfile -v7 -OD
	     This is what you need to do to buffer TCP input, so that the last
	     cstream will not switch away from O_DIRECT prematurely because of
	     short reads.  If your input can do short reads (e.g. from TCP),
	     and you want to ensure that O_DIRECT stays in effect, you need a
	     buffer between the TCP stream and the O_DIRECT stream.  Since
	     cstream does not yet support different input and output block
	     sizes, dd is suitable here.  Note that this is only necessary if
	     the OS requires multiples of the filesystem block size for
	     O_DIRECT.	At the time of this writing this construct is needed
	     on Linux for using TCP streams with O_DIRECT, but it is not
	     needed on FreeBSD.

     cstream -OS -o myfile
	     Writes to file myfile with O_SYNC.	 This means by the time the
	     system call returns the data is known to be on disk.  This is not
	     the same thing as O_DIRECT.  O_DIRECT can do its own buffering,
	     with O_SYNC there is no buffering at all.	At the time of this
	     writing, O_SYNC on both Linux and FreeBSD is very slow (1/5th to
	     1/10th of normal write) and O_DIRECT is reasonably fast (1/4th to
	     1/2 of normal write).  You can combined O_SYNC and O_DIRECT.

     Exit code 0 means success.

     Exit code 1 means a commandline syntax usage error.

     Exit code 2 means other errors, especially system errors.

     There should be an option to begin writing directly after the first read
     ended and then fill the buffer with reads in the background.  Right now
     writing will not begin before the reader has filled the buffer completely
     for the first time.

     Not a bug: the code to do O_DIRECT is reasonably sophisticated.  It will
     fall back to normal I/O on errors.	 But before doing that it knows about
     both filesystem blocksize requirements (will default I/O blocksize to
     whatever the filesystem of the output file is in) and page alignment
     requirements (I/O will happen from a page-aligned buffer).	 However, the
     combination of concurrent read/writes (-c options) and O_DIRECT has not
     been tested beyond basic verification that it gets some tests right.

     dd(1), mkfifo(2)

     cstream was initially written by Martin Cracauer in 1998.	For updates
     and more information see http://www.cons.org/cracauer/cstream.html

BSD				March, 30, 1999				   BSD

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