SEND man page on 4.4BSD

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SEND(2)			    BSD System Calls Manual		       SEND(2)

     send, sendto, sendmsg — send a message from a socket

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/socket.h>

     send(int s, const void *msg, size_t len, int flags);

     sendto(int s, const void *msg, size_t len, int flags,
	 const struct sockaddr *to, int tolen);

     sendmsg(int s, const struct msghdr *msg, int flags);

     Send(), sendto(), and sendmsg() are used to transmit a message to another
     socket.  Send() may be used only when the socket is in a connected state,
     while sendto() and sendmsg() may be used at any time.

     The address of the target is given by to with tolen specifying its size.
     The length of the message is given by len.	 If the message is too long to
     pass atomically through the underlying protocol, the error EMSGSIZE is
     returned, and the message is not transmitted.

     No indication of failure to deliver is implicit in a send().  Locally
     detected errors are indicated by a return value of -1.

     If no messages space is available at the socket to hold the message to be
     transmitted, then send() normally blocks, unless the socket has been
     placed in non-blocking I/O mode.  The select(2) call may be used to
     determine when it is possible to send more data.

     The flags parameter may include one or more of the following:

     #define MSG_OOB	    0x1	 /* process out-of-band data */
     #define MSG_DONTROUTE  0x4	 /* bypass routing, use direct interface */

     The flag MSG_OOB is used to send “out-of-band” data on sockets that sup‐
     port this notion (e.g.  SOCK_STREAM); the underlying protocol must also
     support “out-of-band” data.  MSG_DONTROUTE is usually used only by diag‐
     nostic or routing programs.

     See recv(2) for a description of the msghdr structure.

     The call returns the number of characters sent, or -1 if an error

     Send(), sendto(), and sendmsg() fail if:

     [EBADF]	 An invalid descriptor was specified.

     [ENOTSOCK]	 The argument s is not a socket.

     [EFAULT]	 An invalid user space address was specified for a parameter.

     [EMSGSIZE]	 The socket requires that message be sent atomically, and the
		 size of the message to be sent made this impossible.

     [EAGAIN]	 The socket is marked non-blocking and the requested operation
		 would block.

     [ENOBUFS]	 The system was unable to allocate an internal buffer.	The
		 operation may succeed when buffers become available.

     [ENOBUFS]	 The output queue for a network interface was full.  This gen‐
		 erally indicates that the interface has stopped sending, but
		 may be caused by transient congestion.

     fcntl(2), recv(2), select(2), getsockopt(2), socket(2), write(2)

     The send function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution      February 21, 1994     4.2 Berkeley Distribution

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