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MOUNT(2)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		      MOUNT(2)

       mount - mount file system

       #include <sys/mount.h>

       int mount(const char *source, const char *target,
		 const char *filesystemtype, unsigned long mountflags,
		 const void *data);

       mount()	attaches the file system specified by source (which is often a
       device name, but can also be a directory name or a dummy) to the direc‐
       tory specified by target.

       Appropriate privilege (Linux: the CAP_SYS_ADMIN capability) is required
       to mount file systems.

       Since Linux 2.4 a single file system can be visible at  multiple	 mount
       points, and multiple mounts can be stacked on the same mount point.

       Values  for  the	 filesystemtype	 argument  supported by the kernel are
       listed in  /proc/filesystems  (like  "minix",  "ext2",  "ext3",	"jfs",
       "xfs",  "reiserfs",  "msdos",  "proc", "nfs", "iso9660" etc.).  Further
       types may become available when the appropriate modules are loaded.

       The mountflags argument may have the magic number  0xC0ED  (MS_MGC_VAL)
       in  the top 16 bits (this was required in kernel versions prior to 2.4,
       but is no longer required and ignored if specified), and various	 mount
       flags   (as  defined  in	 <linux/fs.h>  for  libc4  and	libc5  and  in
       <sys/mount.h> for glibc2) in the low order 16 bits:

       MS_BIND (Linux 2.4 onwards)
	      Perform a bind mount, making a file or a directory subtree visi‐
	      ble  at  another	point  within  a file system.  Bind mounts may
	      cross file system boundaries  and	 span  chroot(2)  jails.   The
	      filesystemtype  and  data arguments are ignored.	Up until Linux
	      2.6.26, mountflags was also ignored (the bind mount has the same
	      mount  options  as  the  underlying  mount  point).  Since Linux
	      2.6.26, the MS_RDONLY flag is honored when making a bind mount.

       MS_DIRSYNC (since Linux 2.5.19)
	      Make directory changes on this file system  synchronous.	 (This
	      property	can be obtained for individual directories or subtrees
	      using chattr(1).)

	      Permit mandatory locking on files in this file system.   (Manda‐
	      tory  locking  must  still  be  enabled  on a per-file basis, as
	      described in fcntl(2).)

	      Move a subtree.  source specifies an existing  mount  point  and
	      target  specifies	 the  new location.  The move is atomic: at no
	      point is the subtree unmounted.  The filesystemtype, mountflags,
	      and data arguments are ignored.

	      Do not update access times for (all types of) files on this file

	      Do not allow access to devices (special files) on this file sys‐

	      Do  not update access times for directories on this file system.
	      This flag provides a subset of  the  functionality  provided  by
	      MS_NOATIME; that is, MS_NOATIME implies MS_NODIRATIME.

	      Do not allow programs to be executed from this file system.

	      Do  not  honor  set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits when executing
	      programs from this file system.

	      Mount file system read-only.

       MS_RELATIME (Since Linux 2.6.20)
	      When a file on this file system is  accessed,  only  update  the
	      file's last access time (atime) if the current value of atime is
	      less than or equal to the file's last modification time  (mtime)
	      or  last	status change time (ctime).  This option is useful for
	      programs, such as mutt(1), that need to know  when  a  file  has
	      been  read  since it was last modified.  Since Linux 2.6.30, the
	      kernel defaults to the behavior provided by  this	 flag  (unless
	      MS_NOATIME  was  specified),  and	 the  MS_STRICTATIME  flag  is
	      required to obtain traditional semantics.	  In  addition,	 since
	      Linux  2.6.30,  the file's last access time is always updated if
	      it is more than 1 day old.

	      Remount an existing mount.  This allows you to change the mount‐
	      flags  and  data	of an existing mount without having to unmount
	      and remount the file system.  source and target  should  be  the
	      same  values  specified in the initial mount() call; filesystem‐
	      type is ignored.

	      The following mountflags can be changed: MS_RDONLY,  MS_SYNCHRO‐
	      NOUS,  MS_MANDLOCK;  before  kernel  2.6.16, the following could
	      also be changed: MS_NOATIME and  MS_NODIRATIME;  and,  addition‐
	      ally, before kernel 2.4.10, the following could also be changed:

       MS_SILENT (since Linux 2.6.17)
	      Suppress the display of certain (printk()) warning  messages  in
	      the  kernel log.	This flag supersedes the misnamed and obsolete
	      MS_VERBOSE flag (available since Linux 2.4.12),  which  has  the
	      same meaning.

       MS_STRICTATIME (Since Linux 2.6.30)
	      Always  update  the  last access time (atime) when files on this
	      file system are accessed.	 (This was the default behavior before
	      Linux  2.6.30.)	Specifying  this  flag overrides the effect of
	      setting the MS_NOATIME and MS_RELATIME flags.

	      Make writes on this  file	 system	 synchronous  (as  though  the
	      O_SYNC  flag to open(2) was specified for all file opens to this
	      file system).

       From Linux 2.4 onwards, the MS_NODEV, MS_NOEXEC,	 and  MS_NOSUID	 flags
       are  settable  on a per-mount-point basis.  From kernel 2.6.16 onwards,
       MS_NOATIME and MS_NODIRATIME are also  settable	on  a  per-mount-point
       basis.	The  MS_RELATIME  flag	is  also settable on a per-mount-point

       The data argument is interpreted by the different file systems.	 Typi‐
       cally it is a string of comma-separated options understood by this file
       system.	See mount(8) for details of the	 options  available  for  each
       filesystem type.

       On  success,  zero is returned.	On error, -1 is returned, and errno is
       set appropriately.

       The error values given below result from	 filesystem  type  independent
       errors.	 Each  filesystem type may have its own special errors and its
       own special behavior.  See the kernel source code for details.

       EACCES A component of a path was not searchable.	 (See also  path_reso‐
	      lution(7).)   Or,	 mounting a read-only filesystem was attempted
	      without giving the MS_RDONLY flag.  Or, the block device	source
	      is located on a filesystem mounted with the MS_NODEV option.

       EBUSY  source  is  already  mounted.   Or, it cannot be remounted read-
	      only, because it still holds files open  for  writing.   Or,  it
	      cannot  be mounted on target because target is still busy (it is
	      the working directory of some task, the mount point  of  another
	      device, has open files, etc.).

       EFAULT One  of  the  pointer  arguments points outside the user address

       EINVAL source had an invalid superblock.	 Or,  a	 remount  (MS_REMOUNT)
	      was  attempted,  but  source  was not already mounted on target.
	      Or, a move (MS_MOVE) was attempted, but source was not  a	 mount
	      point, or was '/'.

       ELOOP  Too  many	 links	encountered during pathname resolution.	 Or, a
	      move was attempted, while target is a descendant of source.

       EMFILE (In case no block device is required:) Table of dummy devices is

	      A pathname was longer than MAXPATHLEN.

       ENODEV filesystemtype not configured in the kernel.

       ENOENT A pathname was empty or had a nonexistent component.

       ENOMEM The  kernel  could not allocate a free page to copy filenames or
	      data into.

	      source is not a block device (and a device was required).

	      target, or a prefix of source, is not a directory.

       ENXIO  The major number of the block device source is out of range.

       EPERM  The caller does not have the required privileges.

       This function is Linux-specific and should  not	be  used  in  programs
       intended to be portable.

       The  original  MS_SYNC flag was renamed MS_SYNCHRONOUS in 1.1.69 when a
       different MS_SYNC was added to <mman.h>.

       Before Linux 2.4 an attempt to execute a	 set-user-ID  or  set-group-ID
       program	on  a filesystem mounted with MS_NOSUID would fail with EPERM.
       Since Linux 2.4 the set-user-ID and set-group-ID bits are just silently
       ignored in this case.

   Per-process Namespaces
       Starting	 with  kernel  2.4.19, Linux provides per-process mount names‐
       paces.  A mount namespace is the set of file  system  mounts  that  are
       visible	to a process.  Mount-point namespaces can be (and usually are)
       shared between multiple processes, and changes to the namespace	(i.e.,
       mounts  and unmounts) by one process are visible to all other processes
       sharing the same namespace.  (The pre-2.4.19  Linux  situation  can  be
       considered  as  one in which there was a single namespace was shared by
       every process on the system.)

       A child process created by fork(2) shares its parent's mount namespace;
       the mount namespace is preserved across an execve(2).

       A process can obtain a private mount namespace if: it was created using
       the clone() CLONE_NEWNS flag, in which case its new namespace  is  ini‐
       tialized	 to  be	 a  copy  of  the namespace of the process that called
       clone(); or it calls unshare(2) with the CLONE_NEWNS flag, which causes
       the  caller's mount namespace to obtain a private copy of the namespace
       that it was previously sharing with other  processes,  so  that	future
       mounts  and  unmounts  by  the  caller are invisible to other processes
       (except child processes that the caller subsequently creates) and  vice

       The Linux-specific /proc/PID/self file exposes the list of mount points
       in the mount namespace of  the  process	with  the  specified  ID;  see
       proc(5) for details.

       umount(2), path_resolution(7), mount(8), umount(8)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.22 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at

Linux				  2009-06-26			      MOUNT(2)

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