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GIT-REBASE(1)			  Git Manual			 GIT-REBASE(1)

       git-rebase - Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head

       git rebase [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
	       [<upstream>] [<branch>]
       git rebase [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
	       --root [<branch>]
       git rebase --continue | --skip | --abort | --edit-todo

       If <branch> is specified, git rebase will perform an automatic git
       checkout <branch> before doing anything else. Otherwise it remains on
       the current branch.

       If <upstream> is not specified, the upstream configured in
       branch.<name>.remote and branch.<name>.merge options will be used; see
       git-config(1) for details. If you are currently not on any branch or if
       the current branch does not have a configured upstream, the rebase will

       All changes made by commits in the current branch but that are not in
       <upstream> are saved to a temporary area. This is the same set of
       commits that would be shown by git log <upstream>..HEAD (or git log
       HEAD, if --root is specified).

       The current branch is reset to <upstream>, or <newbase> if the --onto
       option was supplied. This has the exact same effect as git reset --hard
       <upstream> (or <newbase>). ORIG_HEAD is set to point at the tip of the
       branch before the reset.

       The commits that were previously saved into the temporary area are then
       reapplied to the current branch, one by one, in order. Note that any
       commits in HEAD which introduce the same textual changes as a commit in
       HEAD..<upstream> are omitted (i.e., a patch already accepted upstream
       with a different commit message or timestamp will be skipped).

       It is possible that a merge failure will prevent this process from
       being completely automatic. You will have to resolve any such merge
       failure and run git rebase --continue. Another option is to bypass the
       commit that caused the merge failure with git rebase --skip. To check
       out the original <branch> and remove the .git/rebase-apply working
       files, use the command git rebase --abort instead.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "topic":

		     A---B---C topic
	       D---E---F---G master

       From this point, the result of either of the following commands:

	   git rebase master
	   git rebase master topic

       would be:

			     A'--B'--C' topic
	       D---E---F---G master

       NOTE: The latter form is just a short-hand of git checkout topic
       followed by git rebase master. When rebase exits topic will remain the
       checked-out branch.

       If the upstream branch already contains a change you have made (e.g.,
       because you mailed a patch which was applied upstream), then that
       commit will be skipped. For example, running ‘git rebase master` on the
       following history (in which A’ and A introduce the same set of changes,
       but have different committer information):

		     A---B---C topic
	       D---E---A'---F master

       will result in:

			      B'---C' topic
	       D---E---A'---F master

       Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one branch to
       another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch from the latter
       branch, using rebase --onto.

       First let’s assume your topic is based on branch next. For example, a
       feature developed in topic depends on some functionality which is found
       in next.

	       o---o---o---o---o  master
		     o---o---o---o---o	next
				       o---o---o  topic

       We want to make topic forked from branch master; for example, because
       the functionality on which topic depends was merged into the more
       stable master branch. We want our tree to look like this:

	       o---o---o---o---o  master
		   |		\
		   |		 o'--o'--o'  topic
		     o---o---o---o---o	next

       We can get this using the following command:

	   git rebase --onto master next topic

       Another example of --onto option is to rebase part of a branch. If we
       have the following situation:

				       H---I---J topicB
			     E---F---G	topicA
	       A---B---C---D  master

       then the command

	   git rebase --onto master topicA topicB

       would result in:

			    H'--I'--J'	topicB
			   | E---F---G	topicA
	       A---B---C---D  master

       This is useful when topicB does not depend on topicA.

       A range of commits could also be removed with rebase. If we have the
       following situation:

	       E---F---G---H---I---J  topicA

       then the command

	   git rebase --onto topicA~5 topicA~3 topicA

       would result in the removal of commits F and G:

	       E---H'---I'---J'	 topicA

       This is useful if F and G were flawed in some way, or should not be
       part of topicA. Note that the argument to --onto and the <upstream>
       parameter can be any valid commit-ish.

       In case of conflict, git rebase will stop at the first problematic
       commit and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use git diff to
       locate the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For
       each file you edit, you need to tell Git that the conflict has been
       resolved, typically this would be done with

	   git add <filename>

       After resolving the conflict manually and updating the index with the
       desired resolution, you can continue the rebasing process with

	   git rebase --continue

       Alternatively, you can undo the git rebase with

	   git rebase --abort

	   Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
	   rebase. False by default.

	   If set to true enable --autosquash option by default.

	   If set to true enable --autostash option by default.

       --onto <newbase>
	   Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the --onto
	   option is not specified, the starting point is <upstream>. May be
	   any valid commit, and not just an existing branch name.

	   As a special case, you may use "A...B" as a shortcut for the merge
	   base of A and B if there is exactly one merge base. You can leave
	   out at most one of A and B, in which case it defaults to HEAD.

	   Upstream branch to compare against. May be any valid commit, not
	   just an existing branch name. Defaults to the configured upstream
	   for the current branch.

	   Working branch; defaults to HEAD.

	   Restart the rebasing process after having resolved a merge

	   Abort the rebase operation and reset HEAD to the original branch.
	   If <branch> was provided when the rebase operation was started,
	   then HEAD will be reset to <branch>. Otherwise HEAD will be reset
	   to where it was when the rebase operation was started.

	   Keep the commits that do not change anything from its parents in
	   the result.

	   Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.

	   Edit the todo list during an interactive rebase.

       -m, --merge
	   Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default)
	   merge strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames
	   on the upstream side.

	   Note that a rebase merge works by replaying each commit from the
	   working branch on top of the <upstream> branch. Because of this,
	   when a merge conflict happens, the side reported as ours is the
	   so-far rebased series, starting with <upstream>, and theirs is the
	   working branch. In other words, the sides are swapped.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
	   Use the given merge strategy. If there is no -s option git
	   merge-recursive is used instead. This implies --merge.

	   Because git rebase replays each commit from the working branch on
	   top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using the
	   ours strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>, which
	   makes little sense.

       -X <strategy-option>, --strategy-option=<strategy-option>
	   Pass the <strategy-option> through to the merge strategy. This
	   implies --merge and, if no strategy has been specified, -s
	   recursive. Note the reversal of ours and theirs as noted above for
	   the -m option.

       -q, --quiet
	   Be quiet. Implies --no-stat.

       -v, --verbose
	   Be verbose. Implies --stat.

	   Show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase. The
	   diffstat is also controlled by the configuration option

       -n, --no-stat
	   Do not show a diffstat as part of the rebase process.

	   This option bypasses the pre-rebase hook. See also githooks(5).

	   Allows the pre-rebase hook to run, which is the default. This
	   option can be used to override --no-verify. See also githooks(5).

	   Ensure at least <n> lines of surrounding context match before and
	   after each change. When fewer lines of surrounding context exist
	   they all must match. By default no context is ever ignored.

       -f, --force-rebase
	   Force the rebase even if the current branch is a descendant of the
	   commit you are rebasing onto. Normally non-interactive rebase will
	   exit with the message "Current branch is up to date" in such a
	   situation. Incompatible with the --interactive option.

	   You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful
	   after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the
	   topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully
	   without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
	   revert-a-faulty-merge How-To[1] for details).

       --fork-point, --no-fork-point
	   Use git merge-base --fork-point to find a better common ancestor
	   between upstream and branch when calculating which commits have
	   have been introduced by branch (see git-merge-base(1)).

	   If no non-option arguments are given on the command line, then the
	   default is --fork-point @{u} otherwise the upstream argument is
	   interpreted literally unless the --fork-point option is specified.

       --ignore-whitespace, --whitespace=<option>
	   These flag are passed to the git apply program (see git-apply(1))
	   that applies the patch. Incompatible with the --interactive option.

       --committer-date-is-author-date, --ignore-date
	   These flags are passed to git am to easily change the dates of the
	   rebased commits (see git-am(1)). Incompatible with the
	   --interactive option.

       -i, --interactive
	   Make a list of the commits which are about to be rebased. Let the
	   user edit that list before rebasing. This mode can also be used to
	   split commits (see SPLITTING COMMITS below).

       -p, --preserve-merges
	   Instead of ignoring merges, try to recreate them.

	   This uses the --interactive machinery internally, but combining it
	   with the --interactive option explicitly is generally not a good
	   idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).

       -x <cmd>, --exec <cmd>
	   Append "exec <cmd>" after each line creating a commit in the final
	   history. <cmd> will be interpreted as one or more shell commands.

	   This option can only be used with the --interactive option (see

	   You may execute several commands by either using one instance of
	   --exec with several commands:

	       git rebase -i --exec "cmd1 && cmd2 && ..."

	   or by giving more than one --exec:

	       git rebase -i --exec "cmd1" --exec "cmd2" --exec ...

	   If --autosquash is used, "exec" lines will not be appended for the
	   intermediate commits, and will only appear at the end of each
	   squash/fixup series.

	   Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of limiting
	   them with an <upstream>. This allows you to rebase the root
	   commit(s) on a branch. When used with --onto, it will skip changes
	   already contained in <newbase> (instead of <upstream>) whereas
	   without --onto it will operate on every change. When used together
	   with both --onto and --preserve-merges, all root commits will be
	   rewritten to have <newbase> as parent instead.

       --autosquash, --no-autosquash
	   When the commit log message begins with "squash! ..." (or "fixup!
	   ..."), and there is a commit whose title begins with the same ...,
	   automatically modify the todo list of rebase -i so that the commit
	   marked for squashing comes right after the commit to be modified,
	   and change the action of the moved commit from pick to squash (or
	   fixup). Ignores subsequent "fixup! " or "squash! " after the first,
	   in case you referred to an earlier fixup/squash with git commit

	   This option is only valid when the --interactive option is used.

	   If the --autosquash option is enabled by default using the
	   configuration variable rebase.autosquash, this option can be used
	   to override and disable this setting.

	   Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation begins,
	   and apply it after the operation ends. This means that you can run
	   rebase on a dirty worktree. However, use with care: the final stash
	   application after a successful rebase might result in non-trivial

	   With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
	   fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones. This ensures that the
	   entire history of the rebased branch is composed of new commits.

	   Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.

	   You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as
	   this option recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can
	   be remerged successfully without needing to "revert the reversion"
	   (see the revert-a-faulty-merge How-To[1] for details).

       The merge mechanism (git-merge and git-pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
       can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git-merge and/or git-pull.

	   This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
	   another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
	   tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
	   considered generally safe and fast.

	   This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When
	   there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way
	   merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses
	   that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
	   reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
	   mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
	   2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
	   handle merges involving renames. This is the default merge strategy
	   when pulling or merging one branch.

	   The recursive strategy can take the following options:

	       This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
	       cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other tree
	       that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge
	       result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from
	       our side.

	       This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which
	       does not even look at what the other tree contains at all. It
	       discards everything the other tree did, declaring our history
	       contains all that happened in it.

	       This is the opposite of ours.

	       With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to
	       avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due to unimportant
	       matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use this
	       when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also
	       git-diff(1) --patience.

	       Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm, which
	       can help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant matching
	       lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also git-
	       diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

	   ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol
	       Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
	       unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes
	       mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored. See also
	       git-diff(1) -b, -w, and --ignore-space-at-eol.

	       ·   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
		   line, our version is used;

	       ·   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their
		   version includes a substantial change, their version is

	       ·   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

	       This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages
	       of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This option is
	       meant to be used when merging branches with different clean
	       filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
	       branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in
	       gitattributes(5) for details.

	       Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the
	       merge.renormalize configuration variable.

	       Controls the similarity threshold used for rename detection.
	       See also git-diff(1) -M.

	       This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where
	       the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be shifted to
	       match with each other when merging. Instead, the specified path
	       is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make the shape
	       of two trees to match.

	   This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a
	   complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
	   to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the
	   default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one

	   This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the
	   merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively
	   ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be
	   used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
	   that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive
	   merge strategy.

	   This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B,
	   if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match
	   the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the same
	   level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.

       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default,
       recursive), if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted on
       one of the branches, that change will be present in the merged result;
       some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because only the
       heads and the merge base are considered when performing a merge, not
       the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore considers the
       reverted change as no change at all, and substitutes the changed
       version instead.

       You should understand the implications of using git rebase on a
       repository that you share. See also RECOVERING FROM UPSTREAM REBASE

       When the git-rebase command is run, it will first execute a
       "pre-rebase" hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity
       checks and reject the rebase if it isn’t appropriate. Please see the
       template pre-rebase hook script for an example.

       Upon completion, <branch> will be the current branch.

       Rebasing interactively means that you have a chance to edit the commits
       which are rebased. You can reorder the commits, and you can remove them
       (weeding out bad or otherwise unwanted patches).

       The interactive mode is meant for this type of workflow:

	1. have a wonderful idea

	2. hack on the code

	3. prepare a series for submission

	4. submit

       where point 2. consists of several instances of

       a) regular use

	1. finish something worthy of a commit

	2. commit

       b) independent fixup

	1. realize that something does not work

	2. fix that

	3. commit it

       Sometimes the thing fixed in b.2. cannot be amended to the not-quite
       perfect commit it fixes, because that commit is buried deeply in a
       patch series. That is exactly what interactive rebase is for: use it
       after plenty of "a"s and "b"s, by rearranging and editing commits, and
       squashing multiple commits into one.

       Start it with the last commit you want to retain as-is:

	   git rebase -i <after-this-commit>

       An editor will be fired up with all the commits in your current branch
       (ignoring merge commits), which come after the given commit. You can
       reorder the commits in this list to your heart’s content, and you can
       remove them. The list looks more or less like this:

	   pick deadbee The oneline of this commit
	   pick fa1afe1 The oneline of the next commit

       The oneline descriptions are purely for your pleasure; git rebase will
       not look at them but at the commit names ("deadbee" and "fa1afe1" in
       this example), so do not delete or edit the names.

       By replacing the command "pick" with the command "edit", you can tell
       git rebase to stop after applying that commit, so that you can edit the
       files and/or the commit message, amend the commit, and continue

       If you just want to edit the commit message for a commit, replace the
       command "pick" with the command "reword".

       If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
       "pick" for the second and subsequent commits with "squash" or "fixup".
       If the commits had different authors, the folded commit will be
       attributed to the author of the first commit. The suggested commit
       message for the folded commit is the concatenation of the commit
       messages of the first commit and of those with the "squash" command,
       but omits the commit messages of commits with the "fixup" command.

       git rebase will stop when "pick" has been replaced with "edit" or when
       a command fails due to merge errors. When you are done editing and/or
       resolving conflicts you can continue with git rebase --continue.

       For example, if you want to reorder the last 5 commits, such that what
       was HEAD~4 becomes the new HEAD. To achieve that, you would call git
       rebase like this:

	   $ git rebase -i HEAD~5

       And move the first patch to the end of the list.

       You might want to preserve merges, if you have a history like this:


       Suppose you want to rebase the side branch starting at "A" to "Q". Make
       sure that the current HEAD is "B", and call

	   $ git rebase -i -p --onto Q O

       Reordering and editing commits usually creates untested intermediate
       steps. You may want to check that your history editing did not break
       anything by running a test, or at least recompiling at intermediate
       points in history by using the "exec" command (shortcut "x"). You may
       do so by creating a todo list like this one:

	   pick deadbee Implement feature XXX
	   fixup f1a5c00 Fix to feature XXX
	   exec make
	   pick c0ffeee The oneline of the next commit
	   edit deadbab The oneline of the commit after
	   exec cd subdir; make test

       The interactive rebase will stop when a command fails (i.e. exits with
       non-0 status) to give you an opportunity to fix the problem. You can
       continue with git rebase --continue.

       The "exec" command launches the command in a shell (the one specified
       in $SHELL, or the default shell if $SHELL is not set), so you can use
       shell features (like "cd", ">", ";" ...). The command is run from the
       root of the working tree.

	   $ git rebase -i --exec "make test"

       This command lets you check that intermediate commits are compilable.
       The todo list becomes like that:

	   pick 5928aea one
	   exec make test
	   pick 04d0fda two
	   exec make test
	   pick ba46169 three
	   exec make test
	   pick f4593f9 four
	   exec make test

       In interactive mode, you can mark commits with the action "edit".
       However, this does not necessarily mean that git rebase expects the
       result of this edit to be exactly one commit. Indeed, you can undo the
       commit, or you can add other commits. This can be used to split a
       commit into two:

       ·   Start an interactive rebase with git rebase -i <commit>^, where
	   <commit> is the commit you want to split. In fact, any commit range
	   will do, as long as it contains that commit.

       ·   Mark the commit you want to split with the action "edit".

       ·   When it comes to editing that commit, execute git reset HEAD^. The
	   effect is that the HEAD is rewound by one, and the index follows
	   suit. However, the working tree stays the same.

       ·   Now add the changes to the index that you want to have in the first
	   commit. You can use git add (possibly interactively) or git gui (or
	   both) to do that.

       ·   Commit the now-current index with whatever commit message is
	   appropriate now.

       ·   Repeat the last two steps until your working tree is clean.

       ·   Continue the rebase with git rebase --continue.

       If you are not absolutely sure that the intermediate revisions are
       consistent (they compile, pass the testsuite, etc.) you should use git
       stash to stash away the not-yet-committed changes after each commit,
       test, and amend the commit if fixes are necessary.

       Rebasing (or any other form of rewriting) a branch that others have
       based work on is a bad idea: anyone downstream of it is forced to
       manually fix their history. This section explains how to do the fix
       from the downstream’s point of view. The real fix, however, would be to
       avoid rebasing the upstream in the first place.

       To illustrate, suppose you are in a situation where someone develops a
       subsystem branch, and you are working on a topic that is dependent on
       this subsystem. You might end up with a history like the following:

	       o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o  master
		     o---o---o---o---o	subsystem
				       *---*---*  topic

       If subsystem is rebased against master, the following happens:

	       o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o  master
		    \			    \
		     o---o---o---o---o	     o'--o'--o'--o'--o'	 subsystem
				       *---*---*  topic

       If you now continue development as usual, and eventually merge topic to
       subsystem, the commits from subsystem will remain duplicated forever:

	       o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o  master
		    \			    \
		     o---o---o---o---o	     o'--o'--o'--o'--o'--M  subsystem
				      \				/
				       *---*---*-..........-*--*  topic

       Such duplicates are generally frowned upon because they clutter up
       history, making it harder to follow. To clean things up, you need to
       transplant the commits on topic to the new subsystem tip, i.e., rebase
       topic. This becomes a ripple effect: anyone downstream from topic is
       forced to rebase too, and so on!

       There are two kinds of fixes, discussed in the following subsections:

       Easy case: The changes are literally the same.
	   This happens if the subsystem rebase was a simple rebase and had no

       Hard case: The changes are not the same.
	   This happens if the subsystem rebase had conflicts, or used
	   --interactive to omit, edit, squash, or fixup commits; or if the
	   upstream used one of commit --amend, reset, or filter-branch.

   The easy case
       Only works if the changes (patch IDs based on the diff contents) on
       subsystem are literally the same before and after the rebase subsystem

       In that case, the fix is easy because git rebase knows to skip changes
       that are already present in the new upstream. So if you say (assuming
       you’re on topic)

	       $ git rebase subsystem

       you will end up with the fixed history

	       o---o---o---o---o---o---o---o  master
					     o'--o'--o'--o'--o'	 subsystem
							       *---*---*  topic

   The hard case
       Things get more complicated if the subsystem changes do not exactly
       correspond to the ones before the rebase.

	   While an "easy case recovery" sometimes appears to be successful
	   even in the hard case, it may have unintended consequences. For
	   example, a commit that was removed via git rebase --interactive
	   will be resurrected!

       The idea is to manually tell git rebase "where the old subsystem ended
       and your topic began", that is, what the old merge-base between them
       was. You will have to find a way to name the last commit of the old
       subsystem, for example:

       ·   With the subsystem reflog: after git fetch, the old tip of
	   subsystem is at subsystem@{1}. Subsequent fetches will increase the
	   number. (See git-reflog(1).)

       ·   Relative to the tip of topic: knowing that your topic has three
	   commits, the old tip of subsystem must be topic~3.

       You can then transplant the old subsystem..topic to the new tip by
       saying (for the reflog case, and assuming you are on topic already):

	       $ git rebase --onto subsystem subsystem@{1}

       The ripple effect of a "hard case" recovery is especially bad: everyone
       downstream from topic will now have to perform a "hard case" recovery

       The todo list presented by --preserve-merges --interactive does not
       represent the topology of the revision graph. Editing commits and
       rewording their commit messages should work fine, but attempts to
       reorder commits tend to produce counterintuitive results.

       For example, an attempt to rearrange

	   1 --- 2 --- 3 --- 4 --- 5


	   1 --- 2 --- 4 --- 3 --- 5

       by moving the "pick 4" line will result in the following history:

	   1 --- 2 --- 4 --- 5

       Part of the git(1) suite

	1. revert-a-faulty-merge How-To

Git 1.9.0			  04/22/2014			 GIT-REBASE(1)

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