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DIR(5)			    BSD File Formats Manual			DIR(5)

     dir, dirent — directory file format

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/dir.h>

     Directories provide a convenient hierarchical method of grouping files
     while obscuring the underlying details of the storage medium.  A direc‐
     tory file is differentiated from a plain file by a flag in its inode(5)
     entry.  It consists of records (directory entries) each of which contains
     information about a file and a pointer to the file itself.	 Directory
     entries may contain other directories as well as plain files; such nested
     directories are refered to as subdirectories.  A hierarchy of directories
     and files is formed in this manner and is called a file system (or
     referred to as a file system tree).

     Each directory file contains two special directory entries; one is a
     pointer to the directory itself called dot ‘.’ and the other a pointer to
     its parent directory called dot-dot ‘..’.	Dot and dot-dot are valid
     pathnames, however, the system root directory ‘/’, has no parent and dot-
     dot points to itself like dot.

     File system nodes are ordinary directory files on which has been grafted
     a file system object, such as a physical disk or a partitioned area of
     such a disk.  (See mount(1) and mount(8).)

     The directory entry format is defined in the file ⟨dirent.h⟩:

     #ifndef _DIRENT_H_
     #define _DIRENT_H_

      * The dirent structure defines the format of directory entries returned by
      * the getdirentries(2) system call.
      * A directory entry has a struct dirent at the front of it, containing its
      * inode number, the length of the entry, and the length of the name
      * contained in the entry.	 These are followed by the name padded to a 4
      * byte boundary with null bytes.	All names are guaranteed null terminated.
      * The maximum length of a name in a directory is MAXNAMLEN.

     struct dirent {
	     u_int32_t d_fileno;	     /* file number of entry */
	     u_int16_t d_reclen;	     /* length of this record */
	     u_int8_t  d_type;		     /* file type, see below */
	     u_int8_t  d_namlen;	     /* length of string in d_name */
     #ifdef _POSIX_SOURCE
	     char    d_name[255 + 1];	     /* name must be no longer than this */
     #define MAXNAMLEN	     255
	     char    d_name[MAXNAMLEN + 1];  /* name must be no longer than this */

      * File types
     #define DT_UNKNOWN	      0
     #define DT_FIFO	      1
     #define DT_CHR	      2
     #define DT_DIR	      4
     #define DT_BLK	      6
     #define DT_REG	      8
     #define DT_LNK	     10
     #define DT_SOCK	     12
     #define DT_WHT	     14

      * Convert between stat structure types and directory types.
     #define IFTODT(mode)    (((mode) & 0170000) >> 12)
     #define DTTOIF(dirtype) ((dirtype) << 12)

     #ifdef _POSIX_SOURCE
     typedef void *  DIR;

     #define d_ino	     d_fileno	     /* backward compatibility */

     /* definitions for library routines operating on directories. */
     #define DIRBLKSIZ	     1024

     /* structure describing an open directory. */
     typedef struct _dirdesc {
	     int     dd_fd;	     /* file descriptor associated with directory */
	     long    dd_loc;	     /* offset in current buffer */
	     long    dd_size;	     /* amount of data returned by getdirentries */
	     char    *dd_buf;	     /* data buffer */
	     int     dd_len;	     /* size of data buffer */
	     long    dd_seek;	     /* magic cookie returned by getdirentries */
	     long    dd_rewind;	     /* magic cookie for rewinding */
	     int     dd_flags;	     /* flags for readdir */
     } DIR;

     #define dirfd(dirp)     ((dirp)->dd_fd)

     /* flags for opendir2 */
     #define DTF_HIDEW	     0x0001  /* hide whiteout entries */
     #define DTF_NODUP	     0x0002  /* don't return duplicate names */
     #define DTF_REWIND	     0x0004  /* rewind after reading union stack */
     #define __DTF_READALL   0x0008  /* everything has been read */

     #ifndef NULL
     #define NULL    0

     #endif /* _POSIX_SOURCE */

     #ifndef KERNEL

     #include <sys/cdefs.h>

     DIR *opendir __P((const char *));
     struct dirent *readdir __P((DIR *));
     void rewinddir __P((DIR *));
     int closedir __P((DIR *));
     #ifndef _POSIX_SOURCE
     DIR *__opendir2 __P((const char *, int));
     long telldir __P((const DIR *));
     void seekdir __P((DIR *, long));
     int scandir __P((const char *, struct dirent ***,
	 int (*)(struct dirent *), int (*)(const void *, const void *)));
     int alphasort __P((const void *, const void *));
     int getdirentries __P((int, char *, int, long *));
     #endif /* not POSIX */

     #endif /* !KERNEL */

     #endif /* !_DIRENT_H_ */

     fs(5) inode(5)

     A dir file format appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution	  May 3, 1995	     4.2 Berkeley Distribution

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