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CSCOPE(1)							     CSCOPE(1)

       cscope - interactively examine a C program

       cscope [-bCcdehkLlqRTUuVvX] [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-iname‐
       file] [-0123456789pattern] [-pn] [-sdir] [files]

       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user  to
       browse through C source files for specified elements of code.

       By  default, cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y)
       source files in the current directory.  cscope may also be invoked  for
       source files named on the command line. In either case, cscope searches
       the standard directories for #include files that it does	 not  find  in
       the  current  directory.	  cscope uses a symbol cross-reference, called
       cscope.out by default, to locate	 functions,  function  calls,  macros,
       variables, and preprocessor symbols in the files.

       cscope  builds  the symbol cross-reference the first time it is used on
       the source files for the program being browsed. On a subsequent invoca‐
       tion,  cscope  rebuilds	the  cross-reference only if a source file has
       changed or the list of source files is different. When the cross-refer‐
       ence  is	 rebuilt, the data for the unchanged files are copied from the
       old cross-reference, which makes rebuilding  faster  than  the  initial

       Some  command line arguments can only occur as the only argument in the
       execution of cscope.  They cause the program to	just  print  out  some
       output and exit immediately:

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       --help Same as -h

	      Same as -V

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use  only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is,
	      do not compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

	      Read symbol reference lines from symfile.	 (A  symbol  reference
	      file  is	created	 by > and >>, and can also be read using the <
	      command,	described  under  ``Issuing   Subsequent   Requests'',

	      Use  reffile  as	the  cross-reference  file name instead of the
	      default "cscope.out".

	      Look in incdir (before looking in $INCDIR,  the  standard	 place
	      for  header files, normally /usr/include) for any #include files
	      whose names do not begin with ``/'' and that are	not  specified
	      on  the  command	line or in namefile below. (The #include files
	      may be specified with either double quotes or  angle  brackets.)
	      The  incdir  directory  is  searched  in addition to the current
	      directory (which is searched first) and the standard list (which
	      is  searched  last).  If more than one occurrence of -I appears,
	      the directories are searched in the order	 they  appear  on  the
	      command line.

	      Browse  through all source files whose names are listed in name‐
	      file (file  names	 separated  by	spaces,	 tabs,	or  new-lines)
	      instead	of  the	 default  name	list  file,  which  is	called
	      cscope.files. If this option is specified,  cscope  ignores  any
	      file  names appearing on the command line. The argument namefile
	      can be set to ``-'' to accept a list of files from the  standard
	      input.   Filenames  in the namefile that contain whitespace have
	      to be enclosed in "double quotes".   Inside  such	 quoted	 file‐
	      names,  any  double-quote	 and  backslash	 characters have to be
	      escaped by backslashes.

       -k     ``Kernel Mode'', turns off the use of the	 default  include  dir
	      (usually	/usr/include) when building the database, since kernel
	      source trees generally do not use it.

       -L     Do a single search with line-oriented output when used with  the
	      -num pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

	      Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -Ppath Prepend  path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-refer‐
	      ence file so you do not have to change to	 the  directory	 where
	      the  cross-reference  file  was built. This option is only valid
	      with the -d option.

       -pn    Display the last n file path components instead of  the  default
	      (1). Use 0 not to display the file name at all.

       -q     Enable  fast  symbol  lookup  via an inverted index. This option
	      causes  cscope  to  create   2   more   files   (default	 names
	      ``'' and ``cscope.po.out'') in addition to the nor‐
	      mal database. This allows a faster symbol search algorithm  that
	      provides	 noticeably   faster   lookup  performance  for	 large

       -R     Recurse subdirectories during search for source files.

       -sdir  Look in dir for additional source files. This option is  ignored
	      if source files are given on the command line.

       -T     Use  only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.
	      A regular expression containing special characters other than  a
	      period  (.)  will	 not match any symbol if its minimum length is
	      greater than eight characters.

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the  time	 stamp
	      on the database even if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally  build the cross-reference file (assume that all
	      files have changed).

       -v     Be more verbose in line-oriented mode.  Output progress  updates
	      during database building and searches.

       -X     Remove the cscope reference file and inverted indexes when exit‐

       files  A list of file names to operate on.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the  cscope.files

   Requesting the initial search
       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:
       Find assignments to this symbol:

       Press  the  <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the desired input
       field, type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

   Issuing subsequent requests
       If the search is successful, any of these single-character commands can
       be used:

	      Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

	      Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or
	      move to the previous matching line (if  the  cursor  is  in  the
	      matching line list.)

       <Down> Move  to	the  next  menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or
	      move to the next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching
	      line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read  lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (cre‐
	      ated by > or >>), just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter all lines through a shell command and display the result‐
	      ing lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe  all	 lines	to  a  shell  command and display them without
	      changing them.

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

	      Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle ignore/use letter case  when  searching.  (When  ignoring
	      letter  case,  search  for  ``FILE''  will  match	 ``File''  and

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one
       of the above commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After the text to be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the
       new text, and then it will display the lines containing the  old	 text.
       Select the lines to be changed with these single-character commands:

	      Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

	      Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys
	      If  your	terminal  has  arrow keys that work in vi, you can use
	      them to move around the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful
	      to  move	to the previous input field instead of using the <Tab>
	      key repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>, <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they
	      will act as the ^l, +, and - commands, respectively.

   Line-Oriented interface
       The  -l	option	lets  you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface
       would not be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line  starting
       with  the  field	 number	 (counting from 0) immediately followed by the
       search pattern, for example, ``lmain'' finds the definition of the main

       If  you	just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L
       and -num pattern options, and you won't get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For each reference found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the  file
       name,  function	name, line number, and line text, separated by spaces,
       for example, main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note that the editor is not  called  to	display	 a  single  reference,
       unlike the screen-oriented interface.

       You can use the c command to toggle ignore/use letter case when search‐
       ing. (When  ignoring  letter  case,  search  for	 ``FILE''  will	 match
       ``File'' and ``file''.)

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first charac‐
       ter of an input line is ``^d'' or ``q''.

	      Overrides the EDITOR and VIEWER variables. Use this if you  wish
	      to  use  a  different  editor with cscope than that specified by
	      your EDITOR/VIEWER variables.

	      Format of the line number flag  for  your	 editor.  By  default,
	      cscope  invokes  your  editor  via the equivalent of ``editor +N
	      file'', where ``N'' is the line number that  the	editor	should
	      jump  to. This format is used by both emacs and vi. If your edi‐
	      tor needs something different, specify it in this variable, with
	      ``%s'' as a placeholder for the line number.  Ex: if your editor
	      needs to be invoked as ``editor -#103 file'' to go to line  103,
	      set this variable to ``-#%s''.

	      Set  this variable to ``yes'' if your editor needs to be invoked
	      with the line number option after the filename to be edited.  To
	      continue the example from CSCOPE_LINEFLAG, above: if your editor
	      needs to see ``editor  file  -#number'',	set  this  environment
	      variable. Users of most standard editors (vi, emacs) do not need
	      to set this variable.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

	      Colon-separated list  of	directories  to	 search	 for  #include

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

	      Colon-separated  list  of	 directories  to search for additional
	      source files.

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

	      Terminal information directory full path name. If your  terminal
	      is  not  in the standard terminfo directory, see curses and ter‐
	      minfo for how to make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less),  which  overrides
	      EDITOR (see above).

       VPATH  A	 colon-separated  list	of  directories, each of which has the
	      same directory structure below  it.  If  VPATH  is  set,	cscope
	      searches for source files in the directories specified; if it is
	      not set, cscope searches only in the current directory.

	      Default files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and the list
	      of source files (overridden by the -i option).

	      Symbol cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which
	      is put in the home directory if it cannot be created in the cur‐
	      rent directory.
	      Default  files containing the inverted index used for quick sym‐
	      bol searching (-q option). If you use the -f  option  to	rename
	      the cross-reference file (so it's not cscope.out), the names for
	      these inverted index files will be created by adding
	       .in and .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you
	      indicated	 -f  xyz,  then	 these files would be named and

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces, tabs,  vtabs,  form  feeds  or  carriage
	      returns, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

       white  is  zero	or  more  spaces,  tabs,  vtabs,  form feeds, carriage
	      returns or newlines

	      are zero or more argument	 declarations  (arg_decs  may  include
	      comments and white space)

       It  is  not necessary for a function declaration to start at the begin‐
       ning of a line. The return type may precede the function	 name;	cscope
       will still recognize the declaration. Function definitions that deviate
       from this form will not be recognized by cscope.

       The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu  option  Find
       functions  called  by  this function: input field will only display the
       first function called in the line, that is, for this function

		return (f() + g());

       the display would be

	  Functions called by this function: e
	  File Function Line
	  a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition  or	call  may  not	be  recognized
       because	of braces inside #if statements. Similarly, the use of a vari‐
       able may be incorrectly recognized as a definition.

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will  be  incorrectly
       recognized as a global definition, for example,

	#if AR16WR

       Preprocessor  statements	 can  also prevent the recognition of a global
       definition, for example,

	char flag
	     = -1

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as a
       function call, for example,

		void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope  recognizes  C++	classes	 by looking for the class keyword, but
       doesn't recognize that a struct is also a class, so it  doesn't	recog‐
       nize inline member function definitions in a structure. It also doesn't
       expect the class keyword in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes  X
       as a definition in

	typedef class X	 *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

	Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor  does  it  recognize	 function  definitions with a function pointer

	ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
	  int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))

The Santa Cruz Operation	 January 2007			     CSCOPE(1)

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