MAN man page on Archlinux

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MAN(1)			      Manual pager utils			MAN(1)

       man - an interface to the on-line reference manuals

       man  [-C	 file]	[-d]  [-D]  [--warnings[=warnings]]  [-R encoding] [-L
       locale] [-m system[,...]] [-M path] [-S list]  [-e  extension]  [-i|-I]
       [--regex|--wildcard]   [--names-only]  [-a]  [-u]  [--no-subpages]  [-P
       pager] [-r prompt] [-7] [-E encoding] [--no-hyphenation] [--no-justifi‐
       cation]	[-p  string]  [-t]  [-T[device]]  [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]] [-Z]
       [[section] page ...] ...
       man -k [apropos options] regexp ...
       man -K [-w|-W] [-S list] [-i|-I] [--regex] [section] term ...
       man -f [whatis options] page ...
       man -l [-C file] [-d] [-D] [--warnings[=warnings]]  [-R	encoding]  [-L
       locale]	[-P  pager]  [-r  prompt]  [-7] [-E encoding] [-p string] [-t]
       [-T[device]] [-H[browser]] [-X[dpi]] [-Z] file ...
       man -w|-W [-C file] [-d] [-D] page ...
       man -c [-C file] [-d] [-D] page ...
       man [-?V]

       man is the system's manual pager. Each page argument given  to  man  is
       normally	 the  name of a program, utility or function.  The manual page
       associated with each of these arguments is then found and displayed.  A
       section,	 if  provided, will direct man to look only in that section of
       the manual.  The default action is to search in all  of	the  available
       sections	 following  a  pre-defined order ("1 n l 8 3 0 2 5 4 9 6 7" by
       default,	  unless   overridden	by   the    SECTION    directive    in
       /etc/man_db.conf),  and to show only the first page found, even if page
       exists in several sections.

       The table below shows the section numbers of the manual followed by the
       types of pages they contain.

       1   Executable programs or shell commands
       2   System calls (functions provided by the kernel)
       3   Library calls (functions within program libraries)
       4   Special files (usually found in /dev)
       5   File formats and conventions eg /etc/passwd
       6   Games
       7   Miscellaneous  (including  macro  packages  and  conventions), e.g.
	   man(7), groff(7)
       8   System administration commands (usually only for root)
       9   Kernel routines [Non standard]

       A manual page consists of several sections.

       Conventional  section  names  include  NAME,  SYNOPSIS,	CONFIGURATION,
       SEE ALSO.

       The following conventions apply to the SYNOPSIS section and can be used
       as a guide in other sections.

       bold text	  type exactly as shown.
       italic text	  replace with appropriate argument.
       [-abc]		  any or all arguments within [ ] are optional.
       -a|-b		  options delimited by | cannot be used together.

       argument ...	  argument is repeatable.
       [expression] ...	  entire expression within [ ] is repeatable.

       Exact rendering may vary depending on the output device.	 For instance,
       man will usually not be able to render italics when running in a termi‐
       nal, and will typically use underlined or coloured text instead.

       The command or function illustration is a pattern that should match all
       possible invocations.  In some cases it is advisable to illustrate sev‐
       eral exclusive invocations as is shown in the SYNOPSIS section of  this
       manual page.

       man ls
	   Display the manual page for the item (program) ls.

       man -a intro
	   Display,  in	 succession,  all  of the available intro manual pages
	   contained within the manual.	 It is possible to quit	 between  suc‐
	   cessive displays or skip any of them.

       man -t alias | lpr -Pps
	   Format  the manual page referenced by `alias', usually a shell man‐
	   ual page, into the default troff or groff format and pipe it to the
	   printer  named  ps.	 The default output for groff is usually Post‐
	   Script.  man --help should advise as to which processor is bound to
	   the -t option.

       man -l -Tdvi ./foo.1x.gz > ./foo.1x.dvi
	   This	 command  will	decompress  and format the nroff source manual
	   page ./foo.1x.gz into a device independent (dvi) file.   The	 redi‐
	   rection is necessary as the -T flag causes output to be directed to
	   stdout with no pager.  The output could be viewed  with  a  program
	   such	 as  xdvi or further processed into PostScript using a program
	   such as dvips.

       man -k printf
	   Search the short descriptions and manual page names for the keyword
	   printf  as  regular expression.  Print out any matches.  Equivalent
	   to apropos -r printf.

       man -f smail
	   Lookup the manual pages referenced by smail and print out the short
	   descriptions of any found.  Equivalent to whatis -r smail.

       Many  options are available to man in order to give as much flexibility
       as possible to the user.	 Changes can be made to the search path,  sec‐
       tion  order,  output  processor,	 and  other  behaviours and operations
       detailed below.

       If set, various environment variables are interrogated to determine the
       operation  of  man.   It	 is  possible  to set the `catch all' variable
       $MANOPT to any string in command line format with  the  exception  that
       any  spaces  used as part of an option's argument must be escaped (pre‐
       ceded by a backslash).  man will parse $MANOPT prior to parsing its own
       command	line.	Those options requiring an argument will be overridden
       by the same options found on the command line.  To  reset  all  of  the
       options set in $MANOPT, -D can be specified as the initial command line
       option.	This will allow man to `forget' about the options specified in
       $MANOPT although they must still have been valid.

       The  manual  pager  utilities  packaged as man-db make extensive use of
       index database caches.  These caches contain information such as	 where
       each  manual  page  can	be found on the filesystem and what its whatis
       (short one line description of the man page) contains, and allow man to
       run  faster  than  if it had to search the filesystem each time to find
       the appropriate manual page.  If requested using	 the  -u  option,  man
       will  ensure  that  the caches remain consistent, which can obviate the
       need to manually run software to update traditional whatis  text	 data‐

       If  man	cannot	find a mandb initiated index database for a particular
       manual page hierarchy, it will still search for	the  requested	manual
       pages,  although	 file globbing will be necessary to search within that
       hierarchy.  If whatis or apropos fails to find an index it will try  to
       extract information from a traditional whatis database instead.

       These  utilities	 support  compressed  source  nroff  files  having, by
       default, the extensions of .Z, .z and .gz.  It is possible to deal with
       any  compression	 extension, but this information must be known at com‐
       pile time.  Also, by default, any cat  pages  produced  are  compressed
       using gzip.  Each `global' manual page hierarchy such as /usr/share/man
       or /usr/X11R6/man may have any directory as  its	 cat  page  hierarchy.
       Traditionally  the cat pages are stored under the same hierarchy as the
       man pages, but for reasons such as those specified in the File  Hierar‐
       chy  Standard  (FHS),  it  may  be better to store them elsewhere.  For
       details on how to do this, please read manpath(5).  For details on  why
       to do this, read the standard.

       International  support is available with this package.  Native language
       manual pages are accessible (if available on your system)  via  use  of
       locale  functions.   To	activate  such support, it is necessary to set
       either $LC_MESSAGES, $LANG  or  another	system	dependent  environment
       variable to your language locale, usually specified in the POSIX 1003.1
       based format:


       If the desired page is available in your locale, it will	 be  displayed
       in lieu of the standard (usually American English) page.

       Support	for  international message catalogues is also featured in this
       package and can be activated in the same way, again if  available.   If
       you  find  that	the  manual pages and message catalogues supplied with
       this package are not available in your native language  and  you	 would
       like  to supply them, please contact the maintainer who will be coordi‐
       nating such activity.

       For information regarding other features and extensions available  with
       this manual pager, please read the documents supplied with the package.

       man  will search for the desired manual pages within the index database
       caches. If the -u option is given, a cache consistency  check  is  per‐
       formed  to  ensure the databases accurately reflect the filesystem.  If
       this option is always given, it is not generally necessary to run mandb
       after the caches are initially created, unless a cache becomes corrupt.
       However, the cache consistency check can be slow on systems  with  many
       manual  pages  installed, so it is not performed by default, and system
       administrators may wish to run mandb every week or so to keep the data‐
       base  caches  fresh.   To forestall problems caused by outdated caches,
       man will fall back to file globbing if a cache lookup fails, just as it
       would if no cache was present.

       Once  a	manual page has been located, a check is performed to find out
       if a relative preformatted `cat' file already exists and is newer  than
       the nroff file.	If it does and is, this preformatted file is (usually)
       decompressed and then displayed, via use of a pager.  The pager can  be
       specified  in  a number of ways, or else will fall back to a default is
       used (see option -P for details).  If no cat is found or is older  than
       the  nroff  file, the nroff is filtered through various programs and is
       shown immediately.

       If a cat file can be produced (a relative cat directory exists and  has
       appropriate  permissions),  man will compress and store the cat file in
       the background.

       The filters are deciphered by a number of means. Firstly,  the  command
       line option -p or the environment variable $MANROFFSEQ is interrogated.
       If -p was not used and the environment variable was not set,  the  ini‐
       tial  line  of  the nroff file is parsed for a preprocessor string.  To
       contain a valid preprocessor string, the first line must resemble

       '\" <string>

       where string can be any combination of letters described by  option  -p

       If  none of the above methods provide any filter information, a default
       set is used.

       A formatting pipeline is formed from the filters and the	 primary  for‐
       matter  (nroff or [tg]roff with -t) and executed.  Alternatively, if an
       executable program mandb_nfmt (or mandb_tfmt with -t) exists in the man
       tree  root,  it	is executed instead.  It gets passed the manual source
       file, the preprocessor string, and optionally the device specified with
       -T or -E as arguments.

       Non argument options that are duplicated either on the command line, in
       $MANOPT, or both, are not harmful.  For options that require  an	 argu‐
       ment, each duplication will override the previous argument value.

   General options
       -C file, --config-file=file
	      Use  this	 user  configuration  file  rather than the default of

       -d, --debug
	      Print debugging information.

       -D, --default
	      This option is normally issued as	 the  very  first  option  and
	      resets  man's  behaviour	to  its	 default.  Its use is to reset
	      those options that may have been set in  $MANOPT.	  Any  options
	      that follow -D will have their usual effect.

	      Enable  warnings from groff.  This may be used to perform sanity
	      checks on the source text of manual pages.  warnings is a comma-
	      separated	 list  of  warning  names;  if it is not supplied, the
	      default is "mac".	 See the “Warnings” node in info groff	for  a
	      list of available warning names.

   Main modes of operation
       -f, --whatis
	      Equivalent to whatis.  Display a short description from the man‐
	      ual page, if available. See whatis(1) for details.

       -k, --apropos
	      Equivalent to apropos.  Search the short	manual	page  descrip‐
	      tions  for keywords and display any matches.  See apropos(1) for

       -K, --global-apropos
	      Search for text in all manual  pages.   This  is	a  brute-force
	      search,  and is likely to take some time; if you can, you should
	      specify a section to reduce the number of pages that need to  be
	      searched.	  Search terms may be simple strings (the default), or
	      regular expressions if the --regex option is used.

       -l, --local-file
	      Activate `local' mode.  Format and display  local	 manual	 files
	      instead  of  searching  through  the system's manual collection.
	      Each manual page argument will be interpreted as an nroff source
	      file in the correct format.  No cat file is produced.  If '-' is
	      listed as one of the arguments, input will be taken from	stdin.
	      When  this  option  is  not used, and man fails to find the page
	      required, before displaying the error message,  it  attempts  to
	      act as if this option was supplied, using the name as a filename
	      and looking for an exact match.

       -w, --where, --path, --location
	      Don't actually display the manual pages, but do print the	 loca‐
	      tion(s) of the source nroff files that would be formatted.

       -W, --where-cat, --location-cat
	      Don't  actually display the manual pages, but do print the loca‐
	      tion(s) of the cat files that would be displayed.	 If -w and  -W
	      are both specified, print both separated by a space.

       -c, --catman
	      This  option  is	not for general use and should only be used by
	      the catman program.

       -R encoding, --recode=encoding
	      Instead of formatting the manual page in the usual  way,	output
	      its  source converted to the specified encoding.	If you already
	      know the encoding of the source file,  you  can  also  use  man‐
	      conv(1)  directly.   However,  this option allows you to convert
	      several manual pages to a	 single	 encoding  without  having  to
	      explicitly  state	 the encoding of each, provided that they were
	      already installed in a structure similar to a manual page	 hier‐

   Finding manual pages
       -L locale, --locale=locale
	      man will normally determine your current locale by a call to the
	      C function setlocale(3) which interrogates  various  environment
	      variables, possibly including $LC_MESSAGES and $LANG.  To tempo‐
	      rarily override the determined value, use this option to	supply
	      a	 locale	 string	 directly  to man.  Note that it will not take
	      effect until the search for pages actually begins.  Output  such
	      as  the  help  message will always be displayed in the initially
	      determined locale.

       -m system[,...], --systems=system[,...]
	      If this system has access to  other  operating  system's	manual
	      pages,  they can be accessed using this option.  To search for a
	      manual page from NewOS's manual page collection, use the	option
	      -m NewOS.

	      The  system  specified  can  be a combination of comma delimited
	      operating system names.  To include a search of the native oper‐
	      ating  system's manual pages, include the system name man in the
	      argument string.	This option will override the $SYSTEM environ‐
	      ment variable.

       -M path, --manpath=path
	      Specify  an alternate manpath to use.  By default, man uses man‐
	      path derived code to determine the path to search.  This	option
	      overrides the $MANPATH environment variable and causes option -m
	      to be ignored.

	      A path specified as a manpath must be the root of a manual  page
	      hierarchy	 structured  into  sections as described in the man-db
	      manual (under "The manual page system").	To view	 manual	 pages
	      outside such hierarchies, see the -l option.

       -S list, -s list, --sections=list
	      List  is	a  colon-  or comma-separated list of `order specific'
	      manual sections to search.  This option overrides	 the  $MANSECT
	      environment  variable.   (The  -s	 spelling is for compatibility
	      with System V.)

       -e sub-extension, --extension=sub-extension
	      Some systems incorporate large packages of manual pages, such as
	      those  that accompany the Tcl package, into the main manual page
	      hierarchy.  To get around the problem of having two manual pages
	      with  the	 same name such as exit(3), the Tcl pages were usually
	      all assigned to section l.  As this is unfortunate,  it  is  now
	      possible	to put the pages in the correct section, and to assign
	      a specific `extension' to them, in this case, exit(3tcl).	 Under
	      normal  operation,  man  will  display  exit(3) in preference to
	      exit(3tcl).  To negotiate this situation and to avoid having  to
	      know  which  section  the page you require resides in, it is now
	      possible to give man a  sub-extension  string  indicating	 which
	      package  the page must belong to.	 Using the above example, sup‐
	      plying the option -e tcl to man  will  restrict  the  search  to
	      pages having an extension of *tcl.

       -i, --ignore-case
	      Ignore  case  when  searching  for  manual  pages.   This is the

       -I, --match-case
	      Search for manual pages case-sensitively.

	      Show all pages with any part of  either  their  names  or	 their
	      descriptions  matching  each  page argument as a regular expres‐
	      sion, as with apropos(1).	 Since there is usually no  reasonable
	      way  to  pick a "best" page when searching for a regular expres‐
	      sion, this option implies -a.

	      Show all pages with any part of  either  their  names  or	 their
	      descriptions matching each page argument using shell-style wild‐
	      cards, as with apropos(1) --wildcard.  The  page	argument  must
	      match  the  entire  name or description, or match on word bound‐
	      aries in the description.	 Since there is usually no  reasonable
	      way  to  pick  a "best" page when searching for a wildcard, this
	      option implies -a.

	      If the --regex or --wildcard option is  used,  match  only  page
	      names,  not page descriptions, as with whatis(1).	 Otherwise, no

       -a, --all
	      By default, man will exit after  displaying  the	most  suitable
	      manual  page  it finds.  Using this option forces man to display
	      all the manual pages with names that match the search criteria.

       -u, --update
	      This option causes man to perform an `inode  level'  consistency
	      check on its database caches to ensure that they are an accurate
	      representation of the filesystem.	 It will only  have  a	useful
	      effect if man is installed with the setuid bit set.

	      By default, man will try to interpret pairs of manual page names
	      given on the command line as equivalent to a single manual  page
	      name  containing	a  hyphen or an underscore.  This supports the
	      common pattern of programs that implement a  number  of  subcom‐
	      mands,  allowing	them to provide manual pages for each that can
	      be accessed using similar syntax as would be used to invoke  the
	      subcommands themselves.  For example:

		$ man -aw git diff

	      To disable this behaviour, use the --no-subpages option.

		$ man -aw --no-subpages git diff

   Controlling formatted output
       -P pager, --pager=pager
	      Specify  which  output  pager to use.  By default, man uses less
	      -s.  This option overrides the $MANPAGER	environment  variable,
	      which  in turn overrides the $PAGER environment variable.	 It is
	      not used in conjunction with -f or -k.

	      The value may be a simple command name or a command  with	 argu‐
	      ments, and may use shell quoting (backslashes, single quotes, or
	      double quotes).  It may not use pipes to connect	multiple  com‐
	      mands;  if  you  need that, use a wrapper script, which may take
	      the file to display either as an argument or on standard input.

       -r prompt, --prompt=prompt
	      If a recent version of less is  used  as	the  pager,  man  will
	      attempt  to  set	its  prompt  and  some	sensible options.  The
	      default prompt looks like

	       Manual page name(sec) line x

	      where name denotes the manual page name, sec denotes the section
	      it  was  found  under  and  x  the current line number.  This is
	      achieved by using the $LESS environment variable.

	      Supplying -r with a string  will	override  this	default.   The
	      string  may  contain  the text $MAN_PN which will be expanded to
	      the name of the current manual page and its  section  name  sur‐
	      rounded  by `(' and `)'.	The string used to produce the default
	      could be expressed as

	      \ Manual\ page\ \$MAN_PN\ ?ltline\ %lt?L/%L.:
	      byte\ %bB?s/%s..?\ (END):?pB\ %pB\\%..
	      (press h for help or q to quit)

	      It is broken into three lines here for the sake  of  readability
	      only.   For its meaning see the less(1) manual page.  The prompt
	      string is first evaluated by  the	 shell.	  All  double  quotes,
	      back-quotes  and	backslashes in the prompt must be escaped by a
	      preceding backslash.  The prompt string may end in an escaped  $
	      which  may  be followed by further options for less.  By default
	      man sets the -ix8 options.

	      The $MANLESS environment variable described below may be used to
	      set  a  default prompt string if none is supplied on the command

       -7, --ascii
	      When viewing a pure ascii(7) manual page on a 7 bit terminal  or
	      terminal	emulator,  some	 characters  may not display correctly
	      when using the latin1(7)	device	description  with  GNU	nroff.
	      This  option  allows  pure ascii manual pages to be displayed in
	      ascii with the latin1 device.  It will not translate any	latin1
	      text.   The  following  table  shows the translations performed:
	      some parts of it may only be displayed properly when  using  GNU
	      nroff's latin1(7) device.

	      Description	 Octal	 latin1	  ascii
	      continuation	  255	   ‐	    -
	      bullet   (middle	  267	   ·	    o
	      acute accent	  264	   ´	    '
	      multiplication	  327	   ×	    x

	      If the latin1 column displays correctly, your  terminal  may  be
	      set  up  for latin1 characters and this option is not necessary.
	      If the latin1 and ascii columns are identical, you  are  reading
	      this  page  using	 this  option  or man did not format this page
	      using the latin1 device description.  If the  latin1  column  is
	      missing  or corrupt, you may need to view manual pages with this

	      This option is ignored when using options -t, -H, -T, or -Z  and
	      may be useless for nroff other than GNU's.

       -E encoding, --encoding=encoding
	      Generate output for a character encoding other than the default.
	      For backward compatibility, encoding may be an nroff device such
	      as  ascii,  latin1, or utf8 as well as a true character encoding
	      such as UTF-8.

       --no-hyphenation, --nh
	      Normally, nroff will automatically hyphenate text at line breaks
	      even in words that do not contain hyphens, if it is necessary to
	      do so to lay out words on	 a  line  without  excessive  spacing.
	      This  option  disables automatic hyphenation, so words will only
	      be hyphenated if they already contain hyphens.

	      If you are writing a manual page	and  simply  want  to  prevent
	      nroff  from hyphenating a word at an inappropriate point, do not
	      use this option, but consult the	nroff  documentation  instead;
	      for instance, you can put "\%" inside a word to indicate that it
	      may be hyphenated at that point, or put "\%" at the start	 of  a
	      word to prevent it from being hyphenated.

       --no-justification, --nj
	      Normally, nroff will automatically justify text to both margins.
	      This option disables full justification, leaving justified  only
	      to the left margin, sometimes called "ragged-right" text.

	      If  you  are  writing  a	manual page and simply want to prevent
	      nroff from  justifying  certain  paragraphs,  do	not  use  this
	      option,	but  consult  the  nroff  documentation	 instead;  for
	      instance, you  can  use  the  ".na",  ".nf",  ".fi",  and	 ".ad"
	      requests to temporarily disable adjusting and filling.

       -p string, --preprocessor=string
	      Specify  the  sequence  of  preprocessors to run before nroff or
	      troff/groff.  Not all installations will have a full set of pre‐
	      processors.   Some  of the preprocessors and the letters used to
	      designate them are: eqn (e), grap (g), pic (p), tbl (t),	vgrind
	      (v),  refer (r).	This option overrides the $MANROFFSEQ environ‐
	      ment variable.  zsoelim is always run as	the  very  first  pre‐

       -t, --troff
	      Use  groff  -mandoc  to  format the manual page to stdout.  This
	      option is not required in conjunction with -H, -T, or -Z.

       -T[device], --troff-device[=device]
	      This option is used to change groff (or possibly troff's) output
	      to  be suitable for a device other than the default.  It implies
	      -t.  Examples (provided with Groff-1.17)	include	 dvi,  latin1,
	      ps, utf8, X75 and X100.

       -H[browser], --html[=browser]
	      This  option  will  cause groff to produce HTML output, and will
	      display that output in a web browser.  The choice of browser  is
	      determined  by the optional browser argument if one is provided,
	      by the $BROWSER  environment  variable,  or  by  a  compile-time
	      default  if  that	 is unset (usually lynx).  This option implies
	      -t, and will only work with GNU troff.

       -X[dpi], --gxditview[=dpi]
	      This option displays the output of groff in a  graphical	window
	      using the gxditview program.  The dpi (dots per inch) may be 75,
	      75-12, 100, or 100-12, defaulting to 75; the -12 variants use  a
	      12-point	base  font.   This  option  implies  -T	 with the X75,
	      X75-12, X100, or X100-12 device respectively.

       -Z, --ditroff
	      groff will run troff and then use an appropriate	post-processor
	      to  produce  output  suitable  for  the chosen device.  If groff
	      -mandoc is groff, this option is passed to groff and  will  sup‐
	      press the use of a post-processor.  It implies -t.

   Getting help
       -?, --help
	      Print a help message and exit.

	      Print a short usage message and exit.

       -V, --version
	      Display version information.

       0      Successful program execution.

       1      Usage, syntax or configuration file error.

       2      Operational error.

       3      A child process returned a non-zero exit status.

       16     At  least one of the pages/files/keywords didn't exist or wasn't

	      If $MANPATH is set, its value is used as the path to search  for
	      manual pages.

	      The  contents of $MANROFFOPT are added to the command line every
	      time man invokes the formatter (nroff, troff, or groff).

	      If $MANROFFSEQ is set, its value is used to determine the set of
	      preprocessors  to	 pass  each  manual page through.  The default
	      preprocessor list is system dependent.

	      If $MANSECT is set, its value is a colon-delimited list of  sec‐
	      tions  and  it  is  used	to  determine which manual sections to
	      search and in what order.	 The default is "1 n l 8 3 0 2 5 4 9 6
	      7",    unless   overridden   by	the   SECTION	directive   in

	      If $MANPAGER or $PAGER is set ($MANPAGER is used in preference),
	      its value is used as the name of the program used to display the
	      manual page.  By default, less -s is used.

	      The value may be a simple command name or a command  with	 argu‐
	      ments, and may use shell quoting (backslashes, single quotes, or
	      double quotes).  It may not use pipes to connect	multiple  com‐
	      mands;  if  you  need that, use a wrapper script, which may take
	      the file to display either as an argument or on standard input.

	      If $MANLESS is set, its value will be used as the default prompt
	      string for the less pager, as if it had been passed using the -r
	      option (so any occurrences of the text $MAN_PN will be  expanded
	      in  the  same  way).  For example, if you want to set the prompt
	      string unconditionally to “my prompt string”,  set  $MANLESS  to
	      ‘-Psmy prompt string’.  Using the -r option overrides this envi‐
	      ronment variable.

	      If $BROWSER is set, its value is a colon-delimited list of  com‐
	      mands,  each  of	which  in  turn	 is used to try to start a web
	      browser for man --html.  In each command, %s is  replaced	 by  a
	      filename	containing  the HTML output from groff, %% is replaced
	      by a single percent sign (%), and %c is replaced by a colon (:).

       SYSTEM If $SYSTEM is set, it will have the same effect  as  if  it  had
	      been specified as the argument to the -m option.

       MANOPT If $MANOPT is set, it will be parsed prior to man's command line
	      and is expected to be in a similar format.  As all of the	 other
	      man  specific  environment variables can be expressed as command
	      line options, and are thus  candidates  for  being  included  in
	      $MANOPT it is expected that they will become obsolete.  N.B. All
	      spaces that should be interpreted as part of an  option's	 argu‐
	      ment must be escaped.

	      If  $MANWIDTH  is	 set, its value is used as the line length for
	      which manual pages should be formatted.  If it is not set,  man‐
	      ual  pages  will	be formatted with a line length appropriate to
	      the current terminal (using an ioctl(2) if available, the	 value
	      of  $COLUMNS,  or	 falling  back	to 80 characters if neither is
	      available).  Cat pages will only be saved when the default  for‐
	      matting  can  be	used, that is when the terminal line length is
	      between 66 and 80 characters.

	      Normally, when output is not being directed to a terminal	 (such
	      as  to a file or a pipe), formatting characters are discarded to
	      make it easier to read the result without special	 tools.	  How‐
	      ever,  if	 $MAN_KEEP_FORMATTING  is  set to any non-empty value,
	      these formatting characters are retained.	 This  may  be	useful
	      for  wrappers  around  man that can interpret formatting charac‐

	      Normally, when output is being directed to a  terminal  (usually
	      to  a  pager), any error output from the command used to produce
	      formatted versions of manual pages is discarded to avoid	inter‐
	      fering  with  the pager's display.  Programs such as groff often
	      produce relatively  minor	 error	messages  about	 typographical
	      problems	such as poor alignment, which are unsightly and gener‐
	      ally confusing when displayed along with the manual page.	  How‐
	      ever,   some   users   want   to	 see   them   anyway,  so,  if
	      $MAN_KEEP_STDERR is set to any  non-empty	 value,	 error	output
	      will be displayed as usual.

	      Depending	 on system and implementation, either or both of $LANG
	      and $LC_MESSAGES will be interrogated for	 the  current  message
	      locale.  man will display its messages in that locale (if avail‐
	      able).  See setlocale(3) for precise details.

	      man-db configuration file.

	      A global manual page hierarchy.

	      A traditional global index database cache.

	      An FHS compliant global index database cache.

       apropos(1),  groff(1),	less(1),   manpath(1),	 nroff(1),   troff(1),
       whatis(1),  zsoelim(1),	setlocale(3), manpath(5), ascii(7), latin1(7),
       man(7), catman(8), mandb(8), the man-db package manual, FSSTND

       1990, 1991 - Originally written by John W. Eaton (

       Dec 23 1992: Rik Faith ( applied bug fixes supplied by
       Willem Kasdorp (

       30th April 1994 - 23rd February 2000: Wilf. (
       has been developing and maintaining this package with the help of a few
       dedicated people.

       30th   October	1996   -  30th	March  2001:  Fabrizio	Polacco	 <fpo‐> maintained and enhanced this package for  the	Debian
       project, with the help of all the community.

       31st  March  2001  - present day: Colin Watson <> is
       now developing and maintaining man-db.				  2014-04-10				MAN(1)

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