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voldg(8)							      voldg(8)

       voldg - Manages Logical Storage Manager disk groups

       /sbin/voldg   init   groupname	{medianame=accessname}	 [nconfig=con‐
       fig-copies | all | default] [minor=base-minor]

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-f] reminor [diskgroup] new-base-minor

       /sbin/voldg [-tfC] [-n newname] [-o shared | private] [-o  convert_old]
       import diskgroup

       /sbin/voldg [-n newname] [-h newhostid] deport diskgroup...

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-k] adddisk {medianame=accessname}

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-k] rmdisk {medianame...}

       /sbin/voldg [-q] list [diskgroup...]

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-qa] free [medianame...]

       /sbin/voldg [-g diskgroup] [-q] spare [medianame...]

       /sbin/voldg flush [diskgroup...]

       /sbin/voldg  [-g diskgroup] [-k] repldisk unassoc-medianame=spare-medi‐

       Specifies the disk group for the operation, either by name or  by  disk
       group  ID.  If  no  disk	 group	is specified, the rootdg disk group is
       implied.	 Clears the previous name of the specified disk group.	Forces
       an  operation  that  the Logical Storage Manager (LSM) considers poten‐
       tially dangerous or of questionable use. This permits a limited set  of
       operations  that	 would otherwise be disallowed.	 Some operations might
       be disallowed even with this option.  Keeps (when used with  rmdisk  or
       repldisk)  or  reapplies (when used with adddisk) the previous LSM disk
       media records for the named disk.   Typically  used  when  replacing  a
       failed  disk  to	 keep the LSM structure of the affected volume or disk
       group intact. This option sets any plexes requiring recovery to	STALE.
       Assigns	a  new host name to the disk group.  Assigns a new name to the
       disk group.  Used with import.  Converts the disk group's configuration
       databases and kernel change logs as appropriate for the system on which
       the disk group is being imported. When manually importing a disk	 group
       to  a  cluster  from  a standalone system, use -o shared. When manually
       importing a disk group to a standalone system from a  cluster,  use  -o
       private.	  Used	with  import  to  import  disk	groups deported before
       upgrading the LSM software from	pre-Version  5.0  to  Version  5.0  or
       higher.	 This option upgrades the disk group's metadata to the current
       format and examines all volumes to determine if they use	 Block	Change
       Logging	(BCL).	If  such  volumes  are	found,	LSM displays a message
       instructing you to use the vollogcnvt utility to convert BCLs to	 Dirty
       Region  Logs (DRLs). The disk group is imported but logging is disabled
       on volumes that use BCL. The volume is usable and data continues to  be
       written to all mirrors, but if a disk in the volume fails or the system
       crashes, the entire volume will be resynchronized to recover the	 data.
       Suppresses  headers  in	output	fields.	 If  used with diskgroup, this
       option is ignored.  Displays information about  space  on  spare	 disks
       (which  is not really allocatable) in addition to regular free space in
       the disk group. Normally, spare	disk  information  is  not  displayed.
       Performs the operation temporarily.

	      When  used with import, the disk group will not be reimported on
	      reboot. Normally, an imported  disk  group  will	be  reimported
	      automatically  when  the system is rebooted, if at least some of
	      the disks in the disk group remain accessible and usable. If you
	      do  not  want  the  disk	group to be reimported when the system
	      reboots, import it with the -t option.

	      Can be used with -n newname to temporarily assign	 a  new	 minor
	      number  or  name	to  a volume or disk group, respectively. When
	      used with -n newname when	 importing  a  disk  group,  the  disk
	      group's  stored name is retained, but the disk group is known to
	      the new host as newname.	This allows the disk group to be reim‐
	      ported on the original host with its former name.

       Defines	a  new	disk  group  composed  of the disks identified by disk
       access names. This operation assigns  an	 internal  unique  ID  to  the
       group,  stores  a reference to the group on all of the named disks that
       have a disk header, and stores a disk group record in the disk  group's
       configuration  database.	 At least one of the disks specified must have
       space allocated for a configuration copy.

	      If a medianame is specified for use with a particular disk, that
	      medianame	 will name the disk media record used to reference the
	      disk within the disk group (for operations such  as  rmdisk  and
	      subdisk creations). If no medianame is specified, the disk media
	      name defaults to accessname. See voldisk(8) for more information
	      on defining and initializing disk access records.

	      The  init	 operation can be used to initialize a root disk group
	      configuration, which is identified by the special	 name  rootdg.
	      Disks  should  be	 initialized and added to the disk group right
	      after rootdg is created.

	      If the autoconfiguration functionality of LSM is	disabled,  add
	      the  names of disks that have copies of the rootdg configuration
	      database to the /etc/vol/volboot bootstrap file. See voldctl(8).

	      The nconfig attribute can be used to specify the number of  con‐
	      figuration  database copies and kernel log copies that are main‐
	      tained for a disk group.

	      The value of config-copies can be	 one  of  the  following:  LSM
	      maintains	 the copies and their number and distribution through‐
	      out the disks and controllers in the disk group.	All configura‐
	      tion  and	 kernel	 log copies on all disks in the disk group are

	      This policy places extra overhead on the system,	because	 every
	      copy  of	the  configuration database must be updated with every
	      configuration change.  The specified number of copies  is	 main‐
	      tained  (or all copies, if the number you specify is larger than
	      the number of available copies on all disks).

	      When a specific number (or default) is requested,	 configuration
	      copies  are scattered approximately evenly through the disk con‐
	      trollers in the disk group. If SCSI disks	 with  multiple	 disks
	      per target are found, each such target is treated similarly to a
	      controller (that is, configuration copies are evenly distributed
	      among  such targets). With the default policy, one configuration
	      and log copy is maintained for each controller, and one configu‐
	      ration and log copy is also maintained for each SCSI target that
	      has multiple disks; if this does not  result  in	allocating  at
	      least four copies, additional copies are spread through the con‐
	      trollers and targets.


	      If a policy other than all is used, some disks will not have up-
	      to-date, online configuration and log copies. As a result, it is
	      possible that some number of disk failures  will	leave  a  disk
	      group  unusable,	even  if  some	disks in the disk group remain
	      usable. However, the default policy allocates a sufficient  num‐
	      ber of copies, in a sufficient spread of locations, so that such
	      a scenario is very unlikely to occur. The default policy is  the
	      recommended policy.

	      Refer  to	 voldisk(8)  for more information on configuration and
	      log copies and for information on how to create  them.   Because
	      disk  groups can be moved between systems, LSM lets you allocate
	      volume device numbers in separate ranges for  each  disk	group.
	      That  way,  you can choose ranges such that all disk groups in a
	      group of machines can be moved  without  causing	device	number
	      collisions.  Collisions may occur because LSM stores device num‐
	      bers in disk group configurations, so that the same numbers  can
	      be  used	after  a  reboot (which is necessary for use with NFS,
	      which requires persistency of device numbers).  If  two  systems
	      use  the same device numbers for a set of volumes, and if a disk
	      group from one machine is moved to the other, LSM can be	forced
	      to temporarily remap some devices.

	      A	 base  volume  device minor number can be set for a disk group
	      with the minor operand. Volume device numbers for a  disk	 group
	      are  chosen  to  have  minor numbers starting at this base minor
	      number. On Tru64	UNIX  systems,	minor  numbers	can  range  up
	      through 1048576. If no more than 1000 volumes would ever be cre‐
	      ated in any one disk group, then 1048 different ranges of	 minor
	      numbers  are  available  for different disk groups. A reasonably
	      sized range should be left at the end for temporary device  num‐
	      ber  remappings (in the event that two device numbers still con‐

	      If the minor attribute is not  specified	on  the	 init  command
	      line,  LSM  chooses  a  random number of at least 1000 that is a
	      multiple of 1000 and yields a usable range of 1000  device  num‐
	      bers.  This default number is chosen such that it does not over‐
	      lap within a range of 1000 of any currently imported disk groups
	      and  does not overlap any currently allocated volume device num‐


	      The default policy is likely to ensure that a  small  number  of
	      disk  groups  can	 be  merged  successfully  between  a  set  of
	      machines. However, in cases where disk  groups  will  be	merged
	      automatically  using  fail-over  mechanisms,  you	 should select
	      ranges that avoid overlap.  Changes the base minor number for  a
	      disk  group,  and	 renumbers  all devices in the disk group to a
	      range starting at that number. If the device  for	 a  volume  is
	      open, the old device number will remain in effect until the sys‐
	      tem is rebooted or until the disk group is  deported  and	 reim‐
	      ported. Also, if you close an open volume, you can execute voldg
	      reminor again to cause the renumbering to	 take  effect  without
	      rebooting or reimporting.

	      A	 new device number can also overlap with a temporary renumber‐
	      ing for a volume device, which will also	require	 a  reboot  or
	      reimport	for  the new device numbering to take effect. A tempo‐
	      rary renumbering can happen in the  following  situations:  When
	      two  volumes (for example, volumes in two different disk groups)
	      share the same permanently assigned device number, in which case
	      one of the volumes is renumbered temporarily to use an alternate
	      device number When the persistent device number for a volume  is
	      changed, but the active device number cannot be changed to match
	      The active number can  be	 left  unchanged  after	 a  persistent
	      device  number  change either because the volume device was open
	      or because the new number was in use as the active device number
	      for another volume.

	      The  voldg reminor operation will fail if you try to use a range
	      of numbers currently in use as a persistent  (not	 a  temporary)
	      device number. You can force use of the number range with the -f
	      option. With the -f option, some device renumberings  might  not
	      take effect until a reboot or a reimport (just as with open vol‐
	      umes).  Also, if you force volumes in two disk groups to use the
	      same  device  number,  one  of  the  volumes will be temporarily
	      renumbered on the next reboot. The volume device	to  be	renum‐
	      bered  is	 selected  at random, except that device numberings in
	      the rootdg disk group take precedence over all others.

	      The -f option should be used only when swapping the device  num‐
	      ber  ranges  used	 by  two or more disk groups. See EXAMPLES for
	      more information.	 Imports a disk group to  make	the  specified
	      disk  group  available on the local machine. This makes any con‐
	      figuration information stored with the  disk  group  accessible,
	      including	 any  disk  and volume configurations. You specify the
	      disk group to import with the diskgroup argument, which  can  be
	      either  the  administrative  disk group name or the disk group's
	      unique ID.

	      Normally, a disk group is not imported if some disks in the disk
	      group  cannot  be	 found	by  the	 local host. You can force the
	      import with the -f option if, for example, one of the  disks  is
	      currently unusable or inaccessible.


	      Take  care  when	using  the -f option, because it can cause the
	      same disk group to be imported twice  from  disjointed  sets  of
	      disks, causing the disk group to become inconsistent.

	      When  a  disk group is imported, all disks in the disk group are
	      stamped with the host's ID, which is usually the host name. Nor‐
	      mally,  a	 disk group cannot be imported if any of its disks are
	      stamped with a nonmatching host ID. This	provides  a  check  in
	      cases where disks can be accessed from more than one host.

	      If  you  are  certain  that a disk is not in use by another host
	      (such as because a disk group was not cleanly deported), use the
	      -C option to clear the existing host ID on all disks in the disk
	      group as part of the import. You can also clear a host ID	 using
	      the voldisk clearimport command.

	      You  can	rename	a  disk	 group	on import using the -n newname
	      option. If you do not want the name change to be permanent,  use
	      the -n option with the -t option. This retains the original name
	      of the disk group but presents the disk group to	the  importing
	      host  under the new name.	 Disables access to the specified disk
	      group. You cannot deport a disk group if any volumes in the disk
	      group are open. When you deport a disk group, the host ID, which
	      is usually the host name, is cleared on all disks	 in  the  disk
	      group unless you specify a new host ID using the -h option. This
	      is to prevent automatically importing the disk  group  when  the
	      system reboots.

	      You  can rename a disk group when you deport it with the -n new‐
	      name option. You can also assign the disk group to an  alternate
	      host  by	specifying  the	 host ID (voldctl(8)) of the alternate
	      host with the -h newhostid option.  This allows the  disk	 group
	      to  be  automatically  imported when the alternate host reboots.
	      See EXAMPLES.  Adds the specified disk or disks to a disk	 group
	      (rootdg  by  default).  The  disk must not already be part of an
	      imported disk group. The accessname component to a disk specifi‐
	      cation  argument	names  a  disk access record (a device address
	      specification) used to access the disk.  If a  medianame	compo‐
	      nent is specified, it names the disk media record used to define
	      the disk within the disk group. If  no  medianame	 component  is
	      specified,  the disk media record will have the same name as the
	      disk access record.

	      Adding a disk to a disk group causes the disk group's configura‐
	      tion  to	be  copied  onto the disk (if the disk has regions for
	      configuration copies).  Also, the disk is stamped with the  sys‐
	      tem's host ID, which is usually the host name, as defined in the
	      /etc/vol/volboot file.  Removes the specified disk or disks from
	      a	 disk  group  (rootdg  by  default).  The  last disk cannot be
	      removed from its disk group. It is not possible  to  remove  the
	      last  disk  containing  a	 valid disk group configuration or log
	      copy from its disk group.

	      Normally, the rmdisk operation fails if subdisk records point to
	      the named disk media records. However, if the -k option is spec‐
	      ified, the disk media  records  will  be	kept,  although	 in  a
	      removed state, and the subdisk records will still point to them.
	      The subdisks, and any plexes that refer to  them,	 are  unusable
	      until the disk is again added using the -k option to the adddisk
	      operation. Any volumes that become unusable, because all	plexes
	      become unusable, are disabled.


	      Use  extra  care with the -k option because this option can dis‐
	      able active volumes.  Lists the contents of disk groups.	If  no
	      diskgroup	 argument  is specified, all disk groups are listed in
	      an abbreviated one-line format. If a diskgroup argument is spec‐
	      ified,  a	 longer	 format is displayed indicating the status and
	      configuration of the disk group and a listing of the disks  that
	      contain  copies  of  its	configuration database and kernel log.
	      Lists free space that can be used for allocating subdisks. If  a
	      disk  group is specified, the output is limited to the indicated
	      disk group; otherwise, space is listed from all disk groups.  If
	      disks are specified by disk media name, the output is restricted
	      to the indicated disks.

	      A region of free space is identified by disk media name, a phys‐
	      ical device tag, an offset relative to the beginning of the pub‐
	      lic region for the media, and a length.

	      The physical device tag is  a  reference	that  indicates	 which
	      physical	device	defines	 the disk media. It appears as a trun‐
	      cated disk access name.  If  a  particular  physical  device  is
	      split  into  several  Logical  Storage Manager disk objects, the
	      device tag for each disk object will be the  same.  Device  tags
	      can be compared to identify space that is on the same or on dif‐
	      ferent physical disks.  Lists spare space that can be  used  for
	      relocating  subdisks  during recovery. If a disk group is speci‐
	      fied, the output is limited to the indicated disk group;	other‐
	      wise,  spare  space from all disk groups is listed. If disks are
	      specified by disk media name, the output is  restricted  to  the
	      indicated disks.

	      A	 region	 of  spare  space  is identified by disk media name, a
	      physical device tag, an offset relative to the beginning of  the
	      public region for the media, and a length.

	      The  physical  device  tag  is  a reference that indicates which
	      physical device defines the disk media. It appears  as  a	 trun‐
	      cated disk access name.  Rewrites all on-disk structures managed
	      by the Logical Storage Manager for the named disk groups.	  This
	      rewrites	all disk headers, configuration copies, and kernel log
	      copies.  Also, if any configuration copies  were	disabled  (for
	      example  as  a  result of I/O failures), this will rewrite those
	      configuration copies and attempt to  enable  them.   Dissociates
	      the  disk	 access	 record	 from  the  disk media record named by
	      spare-medianame and reassociates it with the  unassociated  disk
	      media  record named by unassoc-medianame. Both unassoc-medianame
	      and spare-medianame must be members of the disk group  named  by
	      the  diskgroup  argument (rootdg by default). However, if the -k
	      option is specified, the disk media records for the  spare-medi‐
	      aname will be kept, although in a removed state.

       The  voldg  utility  performs  basic  administrative operations on disk
       groups.	Operations include the creation of disk groups,	 the  addition
       of  disks  to  a	 disk  group,  and disk group imports and deports. The
       behavior of the voldg utility depends upon the keyword specified as the
       first operand.

       A groupname argument must be a disk group name.

       A  diskgroup  argument  can  be	either	a  disk	 group	name or a disk
       group ID.

       An accessname argument refers to a disk access name (also  referred  to
       as  a  disk  device  name),  as stored in the root configuration by the
       voldisk utility (for example, dsk5).  A medianame argument is an admin‐
       istrative  name used to define a disk within a disk group (for example,

       To swap the number ranges for two disk groups, use the -f  option  when
       renumbering  the	 first	disk group to use the range of the second disk
       group. Renumbering the second disk group to the first  range  does  not
       require the -f option:

	      #	 voldg	-f  reminor  dg-1  dg2-base-minor # voldg reminor dg-2
	      dg1-base-minor To move a rootdg disk group from one  host	 to  a
	      second  host  (for  example, so you can make repairs to the root
	      volume) and then move the disk group  back  to  the  originating
	      host,  which can then be rebooted on the repaired disk group, do
	      the following: Identify the disk group ID for  the  rootdg  disk
	      group  with  voldisk  -s list.  On the other host, use that disk
	      group ID to import that rootdg using -C to clear	import	locks,
	      -t  for  a temporary import, and -n to specify an alternate name
	      (to avoid collision with the rootdg disk	group  on  the	second

	      #	 voldg	-tC  -n tempname import rootdg_id After repair, deport
	      the disk group using -h to restore the first host ID:

	      # voldg -h orig_host_id deport tempname

	      To deport a disk group to be used as the rootdg disk group for a
	      new  machine:  Deport  the  disk	group,	renaming it rootdg and
	      assigning the new host ID: # voldg -n rootdg -h newhostid deport
	      diskgroup Connect the disks to the new host.  Boot the new host.
	      The system finds the configuration automatically and imports the
	      new  rootdg  disk	 group.	 To import disk groups deported from a
	      pre-Version 5.0 version of LSM onto a system running Version 5.0
	      or  higher  and upgrade their metadata format, enter: # voldg -o
	      convert_old  import diskgroup

	      If the disk group contains volumes that use BCL,	the  following
	      message is displayed:

	      lsm:voldg:WARNING:Logging disabled on volume. Need to convert to
	      DRL.  lsm:voldg:WARNING:Run the vollogcnvt command to  automati‐
	      cally convert logging.

       Commands: vold(8), voldisk(8), vollogcnvt(8), volplex(8), volume(8)

       Other: volintro(8)


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