URT(1)URT(1)NAMEurt - overview of the Utah Raster Toolkit
applymap Apply color map to image data.
avg4 Simple 2x2 downsizing filter.
crop Crop image.
cubitorle Convert Cubicomp format to RLE.
dvirle Typeset TeX ".dvi" files as RLE images.
fant Image scale/rotate with anti-aliasing.
get4d Display on SGI Iris/4D display.
get_orion Display on "Orion" display.
getap Display on Apollo.
getbob Display under HP window system.
getcx3d Display RLE on Chromatics CX3D.
getfb Display using BRL generic fb library.
getgmr Display on Grinnell GMR-27 frame buffer.
getiris Display on SGI 2400/3000 w/o window manager.
getmac Display on Mac under MPW.
getmex Display on SGI under the window manager.
getqcr Display on Matrix QCR camera.
getren Display on HP SRX.
getsun Display using SunTools.
getx10 Display on X10 display.
getx11 Display using X11.
giftorle Convert GIF files to RLE.
graytorle Convert separate rrr ggg bbb files to RLE.
mcut Median cut color quantization.
mergechan Merge colors from multiple images.
painttorle Convert MacPaint to RLE.
pgmtorle Convert PBMPLUS pgm format to RLE.
ppmtorle Convert PBMPLUS ppm format to RLE.
pyrmask Generate "pyramid" filter mask.
rastorle Convert Sun Raster to RLE.
rawtorle Convert various raw formats to RLE.
read98721 Read the screen of an HP 98721 "Renaissance" to an RLE file.
repos Reposition an image.
rlatorle Convert Wavefront RLA format to RLE.
rleClock Draws a clock face.
rleaddcom Add comments to an RLE file.
rleaddeof Add an EOF code to an RLE file.
rlebg Generate a "background".
rlebox Find bounding box of an image.
rlecomp Image composition.
rledither Floyd-Steinberg dither an image to a given colormap.
rleflip Flip an image or rotate it 90.
rlehdr Print info about an RLE file.
rlehisto Make a histogram of an image.
rleldmap Load a new colormap into a file.
rlemandl Make a Mandelbrot image.
rlenoise Add noise to an image.
rlepatch Patch smaller images on a big one.
rleprint Print all pixel values in image.
rlequant Variance based color quantization.
rlescale Generate a "gray scale".
rleselect Select images from an RLE file.
rlesetbg Set the background color of an image file.
rleskel Skeleton tool. Programming example.
rlespiff Simple contrast enhancement.
rlesplice Splice two images horizontally or vertically.
rlesplit Split concatenated images into files.
rlestereo Combine two images into a "red-green" stereo pair.
rleswap Swap or select color channels.
rletoabA60 Convert RLE to Abekas A60 format.
rletoabA62 Convert to Abekas A62 format.
rletoascii Make a line-printer/CRT version of an RLE image.
rletogif Convert RLE images to GIF format.
rletogray Convert RLE to separate rrr ggg bbb files.
rletopaint Convert RLE to MacPaint.
rletoppm Convert RLE to PBMPLUS ppm format.
rletops Convert RLE to (B&W) PostScript.
rletorast Convert RLE to Sun Raster.
rletoraw Convert RLE to rgbrgb raw format.
rletorla Convert RLE to Wavefront RLA format.
rletotiff Convert RLE to TIFF 24 bit format.
rlezoom Scale image by sub- or super-sampling.
smush Generic filtering.
targatorle Convert TARGA to RLE.
tifftorle Convert TIFF 24 bit images to RLE.
to8 24 to 8 bit ordered dither color conversion.
tobw Color→B&W conversion.
unexp Convert "exp" format to normal colors.
unslice Paste together "slices" into a full image.
wasatchrle Convert Wasatch paint system to RLE.
The Utah Raster Toolkit is a collection of programs and C routines for
dealing with raster images commonly encountered in computer graphics.
A device and system independent image format stores images and informa‐
tion about them. Called the RLE(5) format, it uses run length encoding
to reduce storage space for most images.
The programs (tools) currently included in the toolkit are listed
above, together with a short description of each one. Most of the
tools read one or more input RLE files and produce an output RLE file.
Some generate RLE files from other information, and some read RLE files
and produce output of a different form.
An input file is almost always specified by mentioning its name on the
command line. Some commands, usually those which take an indefinite
number of non-file arguments (e.g., rleaddcom) require a -i flag to
introduce the input file name. If the input file name is absent the
tool will usually read from the standard input. An input file name of
"-" also signals that the input should be taken from the standard
On Unix systems, there are two other specially treated file name forms.
A file name starting with the character '|' will be passed to sh(1) to
run as a command. The output from the command will be read by the
tool. A file whose name ends in ".Z" (and which does not begin with a
'|') will be decompressed by the compress(1) program. Both of these
options supply input to the tool through a pipe. Consequently, certain
programs (those that must read their input twice) cannot take advantage
of these features. This is noted in the manual pages for the affected
An output file is almost always specified using the option -o outfile.
If the option is missing, or if outfile is "-", then the output will be
written to the standard output.
On Unix systems, the special file name forms above may also be used for
output files. File names starting with '|' are taken as a command to
which the tool output will be sent. If the file name ends in ".Z",
then compress will be used to produce a compressed output file.
Several images may be concatenated together into a single file, and
most of the tools will properly process all the images. Those that
will not are noted in their respective man pages.
Picture comments. Images stored in RLE form may have attached com‐
ments. There are some comments that are interpreted, created or manip‐
ulated by certain of the tools. In the list below, a word enclosed in
<> is a place-holder for a value. The <> do not appear in the actual
Images are sometimes computed with a particular ``gamma'' value
-- that is, the pixel values in the image are related to the
actual intensity by a power law, pixel_value=inten‐
sity^image_gamma. Some of the display programs, and the
buildmap(3) function will look for this comment and automati‐
cally build a "compensation table" to transform the pixel values
back to true intensity values.
The display_gamma is just 1/image_gamma. That is, it is the
``gamma'' of the display for which the image was computed. If
an image_gamma comment is not present, but a display_gamma is,
the displayed image will be gamma corrected as above. The to8
program produces a display_gamma comment.
The length of the colormap stored in the RLE header must be a
power of two. However, the number of useful entries in the col‐
ormap may be smaller than this. This comment can be used to
tell some of the display programs (getx11, in particular) how
many of the colormap entries are used. The assumption is that
entries 0 - colormap_length-1 are used. This comment is pro‐
duced by mcut, rlequant, and rledither.
This comment is used by getx11 to set the window title. If
present, the comment is used instead of the file name. (No
other programs currently pay attention to this comment.) The
comments IMAGE_TITLE, title, and TITLE are also recognized, in
that order. No programs produce this comment.
All toolkit programs (with the exception of rleaddcom) create or
add to a HISTORY comment. Each tool appends a line to this com‐
ment that contains its command line arguments and the time it
was run. Thus, the image contains a history of all the things
that were done to it. No programs interpret this comment.
This comment should be present in a file stored in ``exponen‐
tial'' form. See unexp(1) and float_to_exp(3) for more informa‐
tion. The unexp program expects to see this comment.
SEE ALSOcompress(1), sh(1), RLE(5).
Many people contributed to the Utah Raster Toolkit. This manual page
was written by Spencer W. Thomas, University of Michigan.
4th Berkeley Distribution June 17, 1990 URT(1)