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SYSTAT(1)		  BSD General Commands Manual		     SYSTAT(1)

     systat — display system statistics on a crt

     systat [-display] [refresh-interval]

     Systat displays various system statistics in a screen oriented fashion
     using the curses screen display library, curses(3).

     While systat is running the screen is usually divided into two windows
     (an exception is the vmstat display which uses the entire screen).	 The
     upper window depicts the current system load average.  The information
     displayed in the lower window may vary, depending on user commands.  The
     last line on the screen is reserved for user input and error messages.

     By default systat displays the processes getting the largest percentage
     of the processor in the lower window.  Other displays show swap space
     usage, disk I/O statistics (a la iostat(1)), virtual memory statistics (a
     la vmstat(1)), network ``mbuf'' utilization, and network connections (a
     la netstat(1)).

     Input is interpreted at two different levels.  A ``global'' command
     interpreter processes all keyboard input.	If this command interpreter
     fails to recognize a command, the input line is passed to a per-display
     command interpreter.  This allows each display to have certain display-
     specific commands.

     Command line options:

     -display	       The - flag expects display to be one of: pigs, iostat,
		       swap, mbufs, vmstat or netstat.	These displays can
		       also be requested interactively (without the “-”) and
		       are described in full detail below.

     refresh-interval  The refresh-value specifies the screen refresh time
		       interval in seconds.

     Certain characters cause immediate action by systat.  These are

     ^L		 Refresh the screen.

     ^G		 Print the name of the current ``display'' being shown in the
		 lower window and the refresh interval.

     ^Z		 Stop systat.

     :		 Move the cursor to the command line and interpret the input
		 line typed as a command.  While entering a command the cur‐
		 rent character erase, word erase, and line kill characters
		 may be used.

     The following commands are interpreted by the ``global'' command inter‐

     help	 Print the names of the available displays on the command

     load	 Print the load average over the past 1, 5, and 15 minutes on
		 the command line.

     stop	 Stop refreshing the screen.

     [start] [number]
		 Start (continue) refreshing the screen.  If a second,
		 numeric, argument is provided it is interpreted as a refresh
		 interval (in seconds).	 Supplying only a number will set the
		 refresh interval to this value.

     quit	 Exit systat.  (This may be abbreviated to q.)

     The available displays are:

     pigs	 Display, in the lower window, those processes resident in
		 main memory and getting the largest portion of the processor
		 (the default display).	 When less than 100% of the processor
		 is scheduled to user processes, the remaining time is
		 accounted to the ``idle'' process.

     iostat	 Display, in the lower window, statistics about processor use
		 and disk throughput.  Statistics on processor use appear as
		 bar graphs of the amount of time executing in user mode
		 (``user''), in user mode running low priority processes
		 (``nice''), in system mode (``system''), and idle (``idle'').
		 Statistics on disk throughput show, for each drive, kilobytes
		 of data transferred, number of disk transactions performed,
		 and average seek time (in milliseconds).  This information
		 may be displayed as bar graphs or as rows of numbers which
		 scroll downward.  Bar graphs are shown by default;

		 The following commands are specific to the iostat display;
		 the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

		 numbers     Show the disk I/O statistics in numeric form.
			     Values are displayed in numeric columns which
			     scroll downward.
		 bars	     Show the disk I/O statistics in bar graph form
		 msps	     Toggle the display of average seek time (the
			     default is to not display seek times).

     swap	 Show information about swap space usage on all the swap areas
		 compiled into the kernel.  The first column is the device
		 name of the partition.	 The next column is the total space
		 available in the partition.  The Used column indicates the
		 total blocks used so far; the graph shows the percentage of
		 space in use on each partition.  If there are more than one
		 swap partition in use, a total line is also shown.  Areas
		 known to the kernel, but not in use are shown as not avail‐

     mbufs	 Display, in the lower window, the number of mbufs allocated
		 for particular uses, i.e. data, socket structures, etc.

     vmstat	 Take over the entire display and show a (rather crowded) com‐
		 pendium of statistics related to virtual memory usage,
		 process scheduling, device interrupts, system name transla‐
		 tion cacheing, disk I/O etc.

		 The upper left quadrant of the screen shows the number of
		 users logged in and the load average over the last one, five,
		 and fifteen minute intervals.	Below this line are statistics
		 on memory utilization.	 The first row of the table reports
		 memory usage only among active processes, that is processes
		 that have run in the previous twenty seconds.	The second row
		 reports on memory usage of all processes.  The first column
		 reports on the number of physical pages claimed by processes.
		 The second column reports the number of physical pages that
		 are devoted to read only text pages.  The third and fourth
		 columns report the same two figures for virtual pages, that
		 is the number of pages that would be needed if all processes
		 had all of their pages.  Finally the last column shows the
		 number of physical pages on the free list.

		 Below the memory display is the disk usage display.  It
		 reports the number of seeks, transfers, and number of kilo‐
		 byte blocks transferred per second averaged over the refresh
		 period of the display (by default, five seconds).  For some
		 disks it also reports the average milliseconds per seek.
		 Note that the system only keeps statistics on at most four

		 Below the disk display is a list of the average number of
		 processes (over the last refresh interval) that are runnable
		 (`r'), in page wait (`p'), in disk wait other than paging
		 (`d'), sleeping (`s'), and swapped out but desiring to run
		 (`w').	 Below the queue length listing is a numerical listing
		 and a bar graph showing the amount of system (shown as `='),
		 user (shown as `>'), nice (shown as `-'), and idle time
		 (shown as ` ').

		 At the bottom left are statistics on name translations.  It
		 lists the number of names translated in the previous inter‐
		 val, the number and percentage of the translations that were
		 handled by the system wide name translation cache, and the
		 number and percentage of the translations that were handled
		 by the per process name translation cache.

		 Under the date in the upper right hand quadrant are statis‐
		 tics on paging and swapping activity.	The first two columns
		 report the average number of pages brought in and out per
		 second over the last refresh interval due to page faults and
		 the paging daemon.  The third and fourth columns report the
		 average number of pages brought in and out per second over
		 the last refresh interval due to swap requests initiated by
		 the scheduler.	 The first row of the display shows the aver‐
		 age number of disk transfers per second over the last refresh
		 interval; the second row of the display shows the average
		 number of pages transferred per second over the last refresh

		 Below the paging statistics is a line listing the average
		 number of total reclaims ('Rec'), intransit blocking page
		 faults (`It'), swap text pages found in free list (`F/S'),
		 file system text pages found in free list (`F/F'), reclaims
		 from free list pages freed by the clock daemon (`Fre'), and
		 sequential process pages freed (`SFr') per second over the
		 refresh interval.

		 Below this line are statistics on the average number of zero
		 filled pages (`zf') and demand filled text pages (`xf') per
		 second over the refresh period.  The first row indicates the
		 number of requests that were resolved, the second row shows
		 the number that were set up, and the last row shows the per‐
		 centage of setup requests that were actually used.  Note that
		 this percentage is usually less than 100%, however it may
		 exceed 100% if a large number of requests are actually used
		 long after they were set up during a period when no new pages
		 are being set up.  Thus this figure is most interesting when
		 observed over a long time period, such as from boot time (see
		 below on getting such a display).

		 Below the page fill statistics is a column that lists the
		 average number of context switches (`Csw'), traps (`Trp';
		 includes page faults), system calls (`Sys'), interrupts
		 (`Int'), characters output to DZ ports using pseudo-DMA
		 (`Pdm'), network software interrupts (`Sof'), page faults
		 (`Flt'), pages scanned by the page daemon (`Scn'), and revo‐
		 lutions of the page daemon's hand (`Rev') per second over the
		 refresh interval.

		 Running down the right hand side of the display is a break‐
		 down of the interrupts being handled by the system.  At the
		 top of the list is the total interrupts per second over the
		 time interval.	 The rest of the column breaks down the total
		 on a device by device basis.  Only devices that have inter‐
		 rupted at least once since boot time are shown.

		 The following commands are specific to the vmstat display;
		 the minimum unambiguous prefix may be supplied.

		 boot	       Display cumulative statistics since the system
			       was booted.
		 run	       Display statistics as a running total from the
			       point this command is given.
		 time	       Display statistics averaged over the refresh
			       interval (the default).
		 zero	       Reset running statistics to zero.

     netstat	 Display, in the lower window, network connections.  By
		 default, network servers awaiting requests are not displayed.
		 Each address is displayed in the format ``host.port'', with
		 each shown symbolically, when possible.  It is possible to
		 have addresses displayed numerically, limit the display to a
		 set of ports, hosts, and/or protocols (the minimum unambigu‐
		 ous prefix may be supplied):

		 all	       Toggle the displaying of server processes
			       awaiting requests (this is the equivalent of
			       the -a flag to netstat 1).
		 numbers       Display network addresses numerically.
		 names	       Display network addresses symbolically.
		 protocol      Display only network connections using the
			       indicated protocol (currently either ``tcp'' or
		 ignore [items]
			       Do not display information about connections
			       associated with the specified hosts or ports.
			       Hosts and ports may be specified by name
			       (``vangogh'', ``ftp''), or numerically.	Host
			       addresses use the Internet dot notation
			       (``'').  Multiple items may be speci‐
			       fied with a single command by separating them
			       with spaces.
		 display [items]
			       Display information about the connections asso‐
			       ciated with the specified hosts or ports.  As
			       for ignore, [items] may be names or numbers.
		 show [ports|hosts]
			       Show, on the command line, the currently
			       selected protocols, hosts, and ports.  Hosts
			       and ports which are being ignored are prefixed
			       with a `!'.  If ports or hosts is supplied as
			       an argument to show, then only the requested
			       information will be displayed.
		 reset	       Reset the port, host, and protocol matching
			       mechanisms to the default (any protocol, port,
			       or host).

     Commands to switch between displays may be abbreviated to the minimum
     unambiguous prefix; for example, ``io'' for ``iostat''.  Certain informa‐
     tion may be discarded when the screen size is insufficient for display.
     For example, on a machine with 10 drives the iostat bar graph displays
     only 3 drives on a 24 line terminal.  When a bar graph would overflow the
     allotted screen space it is truncated and the actual value is printed
     ``over top'' of the bar.

     The following commands are common to each display which shows information
     about disk drives.	 These commands are used to select a set of drives to
     report on, should your system have more drives configured than can nor‐
     mally be displayed on the screen.

     ignore [drives]
	 Do not display information about the drives indicated.	 Multiple
	 drives may be specified, separated by spaces.
     display [drives]
	 Display information about the drives indicated.  Multiple drives may
	 be specified, separated by spaces.

     /vmunix	    For the namelist.
     /dev/kmem	    For information in main memory.
     /dev/drum	    For information about swapped out processes.
     /etc/hosts	    For host names.
     /etc/networks  For network names.
     /etc/services  For port names.

     The systat program appeared in 4.3BSD.

     Takes 2-10 percent of the cpu.  Certain displays presume a minimum of 80
     characters per line.  The vmstat display looks out of place because it is
     (it was added in as a separate display rather than created as a new pro‐

4.3 Berkeley Distribution      December 30, 1993     4.3 Berkeley Distribution

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