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STAT(2)			    BSD System Calls Manual		       STAT(2)

     stat, lstat, fstat — get file status

     #include <sys/types.h>
     #include <sys/stat.h>

     stat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     lstat(const char *path, struct stat *sb);

     fstat(int fd, struct stat *sb);

     The stat() function obtains information about the file pointed to by
     path.  Read, write or execute permission of the named file is not
     required, but all directories listed in the path name leading to the file
     must be searchable.

     Lstat() is like stat() except in the case where the named file is a sym‐
     bolic link, in which case lstat() returns information about the link,
     while stat() returns information about the file the link references.
     Unlike other filesystem objects, symbolic links do not have an owner,
     group, access mode, times, etc.  Instead, these attributes are taken from
     the directory that contains the link.  The only attributes returned from
     an lstat() that refer to the symbolic link itself are the file type
     (S_IFLNK), size, blocks, and link count (always 1).

     The fstat() obtains the same information about an open file known by the
     file descriptor fd.

     The sb argument is a pointer to a stat() structure as defined by
     ⟨sys/stat.h⟩ (shown below) and into which information is placed concern‐
     ing the file.

     struct stat {
	 dev_t	  st_dev;    /* device inode resides on */
	 ino_t	  st_ino;    /* inode's number */
	 mode_t	  st_mode;   /* inode protection mode */
	 nlink_t  st_nlink;  /* number or hard links to the file */
	 uid_t	  st_uid;    /* user-id of owner */
	 gid_t	  st_gid;    /* group-id of owner */
	 dev_t	  st_rdev;   /* device type, for special file inode */
	 struct timespec st_atimespec;	/* time of last access */
	 struct timespec st_mtimespec;	/* time of last data modification */
	 struct timespec st_ctimespec;	/* time of last file status change */
	 off_t	  st_size;   /* file size, in bytes */
	 quad_t	  st_blocks; /* blocks allocated for file */
	 u_long	  st_blksize;/* optimal file sys I/O ops blocksize */
	 u_long	  st_flags;  /* user defined flags for file */
	 u_long	  st_gen;    /* file generation number */

     The time-related fields of struct stat are as follows:

     st_atime	  Time when file data last accessed.  Changed by the mknod(2),
		  utimes(2) and read(2) system calls.

     st_mtime	  Time when file data last modified.  Changed by the mknod(2),
		  utimes(2) and write(2) system calls.

     st_ctime	  Time when file status was last changed (inode data modifica‐
		  tion).  Changed by the chmod(2), chown(2), link(2),
		  mknod(2), rename(2), unlink(2), utimes(2) and write(2) sys‐
		  tem calls.

     The size-related fields of the struct stat are as follows:

     st_blksize	    The optimal I/O block size for the file.

     st_blocks	    The actual number of blocks allocated for the file in
		    512-byte units.  As short symbolic links are stored in the
		    inode, this number may be zero.

     The status information word st_mode has the following bits:

     #define S_IFMT 0170000	      /* type of file */
     #define	    S_IFIFO  0010000  /* named pipe (fifo) */
     #define	    S_IFCHR  0020000  /* character special */
     #define	    S_IFDIR  0040000  /* directory */
     #define	    S_IFBLK  0060000  /* block special */
     #define	    S_IFREG  0100000  /* regular */
     #define	    S_IFLNK  0120000  /* symbolic link */
     #define	    S_IFSOCK 0140000  /* socket */
     #define S_ISUID 0004000  /* set user id on execution */
     #define S_ISGID 0002000  /* set group id on execution */
     #define S_ISVTX 0001000  /* save swapped text even after use */
     #define S_IRUSR 0000400  /* read permission, owner */
     #define S_IWUSR 0000200  /* write permission, owner */
     #define S_IXUSR 0000100  /* execute/search permission, owner */

     For a list of access modes, see ⟨sys/stat.h⟩, access(2) and chmod(2).

     Upon successful completion a value of 0 is returned.  Otherwise, a value
     of -1 is returned and errno is set to indicate the error.

     Previous versions of the system used different types for the st_dev,
     st_uid, st_gid, st_rdev, st_size, st_blksize and st_blocks fields.

     Stat() and lstat() will fail if:

     [ENOTDIR]	     A component of the path prefix is not a directory.

     [EINVAL]	     The pathname contains a character with the high-order bit

     [ENAMETOOLONG]  A component of a pathname exceeded 255 characters, or an
		     entire path name exceeded 1023 characters.

     [ENOENT]	     The named file does not exist.

     [EACCES]	     Search permission is denied for a component of the path

     [ELOOP]	     Too many symbolic links were encountered in translating
		     the pathname.

     [EFAULT]	     Sb or name points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]	     An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to
		     the file system.

     Fstat() will fail if:

     [EBADF]   fd is not a valid open file descriptor.

     [EFAULT]  Sb points to an invalid address.

     [EIO]     An I/O error occurred while reading from or writing to the file

     chmod(2), chown(2), utimes(2) symlink(7)

     Applying fstat to a socket (and thus to a pipe) returns a zero'd buffer,
     except for the blocksize field, and a unique device and inode number.

     The stat() and fstat() function calls are expected to conform to IEEE Std
     1003.1-1988 (“POSIX”).

     A lstat function call appeared in 4.2BSD.

4th Berkeley Distribution	  May 1, 1995	     4th Berkeley Distribution

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