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       getutxent, getutxid, getutxline, pututxline, setutxent, endutxent, utm‐
       pxname, getutmp, getutmpx, updwtmp, updwtmpx - user accounting database

       #include <utmpx.h>

       struct utmpx *getutxent(void);

       struct utmpx *getutxid(const struct utmpx *id);

       struct utmpx *getutxline(const struct utmpx *line);

       struct utmpx *pututxline(const struct utmpx *utmpx);

       void setutxent(void);

       void endutxent(void);

       int utmpxname(const char *file);

       void getutmp(struct utmpx *utmpx, struct utmp *utmp);

       void getutmpx(struct utmp *utmp, struct utmpx *utmpx);

       void updwtmp(char *wfile, struct utmp *utmp);

       void updwtmpx(char *wfilex, struct utmpx *utmpx);

       These  functions	 provide access to the user accounting database, utmpx
       (see utmpx(4)). Entries in the database are described  by  the  defini‐
       tions and data structures in <utmpx.h>.

       The utmpx structure contains the following members:

	 char		      ut_user[32];   /* user login name */
	 char		      ut_id[4];	     /* /etc/inittab id */
					     /* (usually line #) */
	 char		      ut_line[32];   /* device name */
					     /* (console, lnxx) */
	 pid_t		      ut_pid;	     /* process id */
	 short		      ut_type;	     /* type of entry */
	 struct exit_status   ut_exit;	     /* exit status of a process */
					     /* marked as DEAD_PROCESS */
	 struct timeval	      ut_tv;	     /* time entry was made */
	 int		      ut_session;    /* session ID, used for */
					     /* windowing */
	 short		      ut_syslen;     /* significant length of */
					     /* ut_host */
					     /* including terminating null */
	 char		      ut_host[257];  /* host name, if remote */

       The exit_status structure includes the following members:

	 short	 e_termination;	  /* termination status */
	 short	 e_exit;	  /* exit status */

       The getutxent() function reads in the next entry from a utmpx database.
       If the database is not already open, it opens it. If it reaches the end
       of the database, it fails.

       The  getutxid() function searches forward from the current point in the
       utmpx database  until  it  finds	 an  entry  with  a  ut_type  matching
       id->ut_type,  if	 the  type specified is RUN_LVL, BOOT_TIME, DOWN_TIME,
       OLD_TIME, or NEW_TIME. If the type specified  in	 id  is	 INIT_PROCESS,
       LOGIN_PROCESS,  USER_PROCESS,  or  DEAD_PROCESS,	 then  getutxid() will
       return a pointer to the first entry whose type is one of these four and
       whose ut_id member matches id->ut_id. If the end of database is reached
       without a match, it fails.

       The getutxline() function searches forward from the  current  point  in
       the utmpx database until it finds an entry of the type LOGIN_PROCESS or
       USER_PROCESS which also has a ut_line string matching the line->ut_line
       string.	 If  the  end  of  the database is reached without a match, it

       The pututxline() function writes the supplied utmpx structure into  the
       utmpx  database.	  It  uses getutxid() to search forward for the proper
       place if it finds that it is not already at the proper  place.	It  is
       expected	 that normally the user of pututxline() will have searched for
       the proper entry using one of the getutx() routines.   If  so,  pututx‐
       line()  will not search.	 If pututxline() does not find a matching slot
       for the new entry, it will add a new entry to the end of the  database.
       It returns a pointer to the  utmpx structure. When called by a non-root
       user, pututxline() invokes a setuid() root program to verify and	 write
       the  entry, since the utmpx database is normally writable only by root.
       In this event, the ut_name member must correspond to  the  actual  user
       name  associated	 with  the process; the	 ut_type member must be either
       USER_PROCESS or DEAD_PROCESS; and the ut_line member must be  a	device
       special file and be writable by the user.

       The setutxent() function resets the input stream to the beginning. This
       should be done before each search for a new entry if it is desired that
       the entire database be examined.

       The endutxent() function closes the currently open database.

       The  utmpxname()	 function  allows  the	user to change the name of the
       database file examined from /var/adm/utmpx  to  any  other  file,  most
       often  /var/adm/wtmpx.  If  the	file  does not exist, this will not be
       apparent until the first attempt to reference the file  is  made.   The
       utmpxname() function does not open the file, but closes the old file if
       it is currently open and saves the new file name.  The  new  file  name
       must  end with the "x" character to allow the name of the corresponding
       utmp file to be easily obtainable.; otherwise, an error value of	 0  is
       returned. The function returns 1 on success.

       The  getutmp() function copies the information stored in the members of
       the utmpx structure to the corresponding members of the utmp structure.
       If  the	information in any member of  utmpx does not fit in the corre‐
       sponding utmp member, the data is silently truncated. (See getutent(3C)
       for  utmp structure)

       The getutmpx() function copies the information stored in the members of
       the utmp structure to the corresponding members of the utmpx structure.
       (See getutent(3C) for  utmp structure)

       The updwtmp() function can be used in two ways.

       If wfile is /var/adm/wtmp, the utmp format record supplied by the call‐
       er is converted to a utmpx format record and the /var/adm/wtmpx file is
       updated (because the /var/adm/wtmp file no longer exists, operations on
       wtmp are converted to operations on wtmpx by the library functions.

       If wfile is a file other than /var/adm/wtmp, it is assumed to be an old
       file in utmp format and is updated directly with the utmp format record
       supplied by the caller.

       The updwtmpx() function writes the  contents  of	 the  utmpx  structure
       pointed to by utmpx to the database.

   utmpx structure
       The  values  of	the  e_termination  and	 e_exit members of the ut_exit
       structure are valid only for records of type DEAD_PROCESS.   For	 utmpx
       entries	created	 by  init(1M),	 these values are set according to the
       result of the wait() call that init performs on the  process  when  the
       process	exits. See the wait(3C), manual page for the values init uses.
       Applications creating utmpx entries can set ut_exit  values  using  the
       following code example:

	 u->ut_exit.e_termination = WTERMSIG(process->p_exit)
	 u->ut_exit.e_exit = WEXITSTATUS(process->p_exit)

       See  wait.h(3HEAD)  for	descriptions  of  the WTERMSIG and WEXITSTATUS

       The ut_session member is not acted upon by the operating system. It  is
       used by applications interested in creating utmpx entries.

       For  records  of type USER_PROCESS, the nonuser() and nonuserx() macros
       use the value of the ut_exit.e_exit member to  mark  utmpx  entries  as
       real  logins (as opposed to multiple xterms started by the same user on
       a window system).  This allows the system utilities that display	 users
       to  obtain  an accurate indication of the number of actual users, while
       still permitting each pty to have a utmpx record (as most  applications
       expect.). The NONROOT_USER macro defines the value that login places in
       the ut_exit.e_exit member.

       Upon successful completion, getutxent(), getutxid(),  and  getutxline()
       each  return  a	pointer	 to a utmpx structure containing a copy of the
       requested entry in the user  accounting	database.   Otherwise  a  null
       pointer is returned.

       The  return  value may point to a static area which is overwritten by a
       subsequent call to getutxid () or getutxline().

       Upon successful completion, pututxline() returns a pointer to  a	 utmpx
       structure  containing  a copy of the entry added to the user accounting
       database.  Otherwise a null pointer is returned.

       The endutxent() and setutxent() functions return no value.

       A null pointer is returned upon failure to read,	 whether  for  permis‐
       sions or having reached the end of file, or upon failure to write.

       These  functions	 use buffered standard I/O for input, but pututxline()
       uses an unbuffered write to avoid  race	conditions  between  processes
       trying to modify the utmpx and wtmpx files.

       Applications  should not access the utmpx and wtmpx databases directly,
       but should use these functions to ensure that these databases are main‐
       tained consistently.

			 user access and accounting information

			 history of user access and accounting information

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │Interface Stability │ See below.      │
       │MT-Level	    │ Unsafe	      │

       The  endutxent(),  getutxent(), getutxid(), getutxline(), pututxline(),
       and setutxent() functions are Standard.

       getutent(3C),   ttyslot(3C),   wait(3C),	   wait.h(3HEAD),    utmpx(4),
       attributes(5), standards(5)

       The  most  current  entry  is  saved  in	 a static structure.  Multiple
       accesses require that it be copied before further accesses are made. On
       each  call  to  either getutxid() or getutxline(), the routine examines
       the static structure before performing more I/O. If the contents of the
       static  structure  match what it is searching for, it looks no further.
       For this reason, to use getutxline() to search for multiple occurrences
       it  would  be  necessary	 to zero out the static after each success, or
       getutxline() would just return the same structure over and over	again.
       There  is one exception to the rule about emptying the structure before
       further reads are done.	The implicit read done by pututxline() (if  it
       finds that it is not already at the correct place in the file) will not
       hurt the contents of the static structure returned by the  getutxent(),
       getutxid(),  or	getutxline()  routines,	 if the user has just modified
       those contents and passed the pointer back to pututxline().

				 Jul 27, 2004			 GETUTXENT(3C)

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