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printcap(4)							   printcap(4)

       printcap - Printer capability data base


       The printcap file is used to describe printer characteristics. The for‐
       mat of the printcap file is a simplified version	 of  the  /etc/termcap
       database format.

       The  lpd line printer daemon accesses the /etc/printcap file every time
       a file is passed to the spooler for printing. The print spooling system
       uses  the  printcap  file  to  obtain  information  about  each printer
       attached to the system and about remote printers.  Each	entry  in  the
       printcap file describes a single printer.

       When  the  local line printer driver supports indentation, the lpd line
       printer daemon must understand how to invoke this capability.

       The default printer for your system usually has	the  device  reference
       lp,  although  environment variable PRINTER can be used to override the
       default printer reference. The print commands (for example,  lpr,  lpq,
       and  lprm) support the -Pprinter option, which enables you to specify a
       specific printer.


       See the RESTRICTIONS section for information on using printconfig.

   Printer Characteristic Symbols
       Each printer has various characteristics that tell the lpd line printer
       daemon  how to communicate with the printing device defined in the /dev
       directory. A table in this section  lists  the  printer	characteristic
       symbols	and  provides  the following information for each: The symbol,
       which is a 2-character mnemonic. The symbol must be  specified  exactly
       as  it  appears in this column.	Type of data expressed by the entry as
       str, num, or bool.  When the characteristic defined by  the  symbol  is
       referenced  as  a  string variable (str) in the Type column, it must be
       followed by an = (equal sign) together with a string value; when you do
       not  define  the string value, it either remains a NULL string and con‐
       tains no data or takes the value specified in the Default column.  When
       the Type column defines a symbol type as bool, it may only be logically
       true (yes) or logically false (no).

	      When the parameter you define is a numerical variable,  it  must
	      be  followed  with  a # (pound sign) together with the numerical
	      value you assign; when you do not define the numerical parameter
	      it takes the value specified in the Default column of the table.
	      A summary of the printer characteristic that the	symbol	speci‐

	      Symbols whose descriptions are followed by "(I18N)" are provided
	      to  meet	country-specific  printing  requirements.   Refer   to
	      i18n_printing(5)	for  information  about when these symbols are
	      valid in a printer entry.

	      The following is an example of a printcap entry:


	      Entries can continue onto multiple lines by specifying the back‐
	      slash  (\) as the last character of a line.  Empty fields can be
	      included for readability (here between the last field on a  line
	      and the first field on the next line).

	      Comments	can be included on lines beginning with the pound sign

	      Refer to the RESTRICTIONS section for information on blank  spa‐
	      ces and tab characters.

       Name   Type   Default	      Description
       af     str    NULL	      Name of accounting file
       br     num    none	      If  lp  is  a tty, set the baud rate
				      (ioctl call).
       cf     str    NULL	      The cifplot data filter.
       ct     str    dev	      The connection  type.   The  choices
				      are:  dev,  LAT  (or  lat),  and tcp
       df     str    NULL	      The tex data filter (DVI format).
       fc     num    0		      If lp is	a  tty,	 clear	flag  bits
       ff     str    \f		      String to send for a form feed.
       fo     bool   false	      Print a form feed when the device is
       fs     num    0		      Like fc, but set bits.
       gf     str    NULL	      The graph data filter (plot format).
       hl     bool   false	      Print the burst header page last.
       if     str    NULL	      Name  of	text  filter   that   does
       jj     bool   NULL	      Turns  on	 (or restores) the ability
				      of lpd to keep one connection  to	 a
				      printer open for all pending jobs in
				      the queue.  Zero (0) is off (one job
				      per  connection),	 1 is on (multiple
				      jobs per connection).
       lf     str    /dev/con‐	      Error logging filename.
       lo     str    lock	      Name of lock file.
       lp     str    /dev/lp	      Device name to open for output.  For
				      network (TCP/IP) printers, enter the
				      name  a  @hostname/servicename.  The
				      servicename is defined in	 /etc/ser‐
				      vices with the port number.
       mj     num    1000	      Maximum  number  of jobs that can be
				      submitted to  a  print  queue.   The
				      limit  is	 1,000,000 (ranging from 0
				      to 999,999).

       mx     num    1000	      Maximum	file   size   (in   BUFSIZ
				      blocks).	Zero = unlimited.
       nf     str    NULL	      The  ditroff data filter (for device
				      independent troff).
       of     str    NULL	      Name of output filtering program.
       on     str    NULL	      Supported in clusters  only.   Valid
				      entries	are   localhost	 and/or	 a
				      comma-separated list of cluster mem‐
				      ber (host) names.
       pl     num    66		      Page length (in lines).
       pw     num    132	      Page width (in columns).
       px     num    0		      Page width in pixels (horizontal).
       py     num    0		      Page length in pixels (vertical).
       rf     str    NULL	      Filter  for  printing  FORTRAN style
				      text files.
       rm     str    NULL	      Machine  name  for  remote  printer.
				      (Required	 for remote printers.) Use
				      the string @dpa to define an inbound
				      gateway  for  the	 Advanced Printing
       rp     str    lp		      Remote   printer	 name	 argument.
				      (Required	  for	remote	printers.)
				      Specify a logical printer name, such
				      as  lpr1,	 for the Advanced Printing
       rs     bool   false	      Restrict remote users to those  with
				      local accounts.
       rw     bool   false	      Open  the printer device for reading
				      and writing.
       sb     bool   false	      Short banner (one line only).
       sc     bool   false	      Suppress multiple copies.
       sd     str    /usr/spool/lpd   Spool  directory.	 (Required for LAT
				      and remote printers.)
       sf     bool   false	      Suppress form feeds.
       sh     bool   false	      Suppress	printing  of  burst   page
       st     str    status	      Status filename.
       tf     str    NULL	      The  troff  data filter (for the cat
       tr     str    NULL	      Trailer string to print  when  queue
       vf     str    NULL	      The raster image filter.
       xc     num    0		      If  lp  is  a  tty, clear local mode
				      bits (tty).
       xf     str    NULL	      Pass-through filter.
       xs     num    0		      Like xc, but set bits.
       ya     str    NULL	      Additional parameters for print fil‐
				      ter (I18N).
       yd     str    NULL	      Secondary	  device   name	 for  font
				      faulting (I18N).
       yp     str    NULL	      Printer  ID  conforming  to   Wototo
				      standard (I18N).
       ys     num    0		      Size   of	 SoftODL  character  cache
       yt     str    "fifo"	      SoftODL character replacement strat‐
				      egy (I18N).

       When  the  local line printer driver supports indentation, the lpd line
       printer daemon must understand how to invoke this capability.

   LAT Printing Characteristics
       The following table lists the LAT printing characteristics:

       Name   Type   Default	  Description
       ct     str    LAT	  Remote printing using	 LAT
				  as the transport
       lp     str    /dev/ttyWX	  Device  name	to  open for
				  output where WX is  a	 LAT

   Network (TCP/IP) Printing Characteristics
       The following table lists typical TCP/IP printing characteristics for a
       DEClaser3500 printer.  The entry in the /etc/services file reads:

       dlaser35	   10001/tcp

       Examples of print symbol settings are set as follows: Has  a  value  of
       tcp   to	  specify  network  printing  using  TCP/IP  Has  a  value  of
       @prthub/dlaser35 which specifies service name dlaser35 on node prthub

   Advanced Printing Software
       If Advanced Printing Software is installed you must specify the	string
       @dpa  for  the  rm  characteristic  and specify a queue name for the rp

       Refer to the Advanced Printing Software documentation for more informa‐
       tion on setting up the printing environment.

   Filter and Flags
       The  lpd	 line  printer daemon creates a pipeline of filters to process
       files for various different printer  device.  The  filters  you	select
       depend  on  the	flags that are passed to the lpr command. The pipeline
       setup is:

       Flag   Filter	Description
       none   if	regular text
       -p     pr | if	regular text + pr
       -c     cf	cifplot
       -d     df	DVI (tex)
       -g     gf	plot
       -n     nf	ditroff
       -f     rf	FORTRAN
       -t     tf	troff
       -v     vf	raster image

       The if filter is invoked with arguments according to the following for‐
       mat: if	[-c]  -wwidth -llength -iindent -nlogin -hhost acct-file

       The xf pass-through filter is specified when output is preformatted and
       does not require special filtering.

       The -c flag is passed only when the -l  flag  (pass  control-characters
       literally)  is  specified  to the lpr command. The -wwidth and -llength
       parameters specify the page width and  length  (from  the  assigned  or
       default values of pw and pl respectively in the printcap file) in char‐
       acters. The -n and -h flags specify the login name and hostname of  the
       owner  of  the  job, respectively.  The acct-file is passed from the af
       entry in the printcap file.

       The if filter is opened for all individual jobs, which makes  it	 suit‐
       able  for  accounting.  When the if filter is not specified, the system
       uses the of filter as the default value.	 The  of  filter  however,  is
       opened only once and is only given the -wwidth and -llength flags.

       All  other filters are called according to the following format: filter
       -xwidth -ylength -nlogin -h host acct-file

       In this format, -xwidth and -ylength are represented in pixels as spec‐
       ified by the px and py entries, respectively, in the printcap file.

       All filters take standard input (stdin) as the source file and standard
       output (stdout) as the destination. The printer may log either to stan‐
       dard error (stderr) or use syslogd, and must not ignore the SIGINT sig‐

       Error messages generated by the line printer programs (that is, the lp*
       programs)  are  logged  by  syslogd  using  the lpr facility.  Messages
       printed on the stderr of one of the filters are sent to the correspond‐
       ing lf file specified in the printcap file. The filters may, of course,
       also use syslogd.

       Error messages sent to the console have a carriage return  and  a  line
       feed appended to them, rather than just a line feed.

       Editing	the  /etc/printcap  file manually is not recommended.  Use the
       appropriate configuration utilities to add printers and symbols.	 If  a
       printcap	 file  is  corrupted,  you  will  see an error message to this
       effect.	A likely cause of such corruption is the presence  of  tab  or
       space  characters in a blank line or following a continuation character
       (\).  Use the following command to find incorrect tabs or spaces in the
       printcap file:

       $ cat -e /etc/printcap | more

       The preceding command marks the end of each line with a dollar sign ($)
       so that trailing tabs and spaces are easily visible.

       The following restrictions apply when using older versions of  printcap
       files,  at  Digital  UNIX  Version  3.2	or earlier: The system assigns
       printers names lp[0-9]*, [0-9]*, and for the default printer, lp.   For
       example,	  the	default	  printer  may	have  a	 name  field  such  as
       lp0|0|lp|default|declaser3500:...    and	  another   printer   may   be
       lp7|7|some_alias|another	 alias:....  As a result, the system will have
       difficulty with printers that have less than  two  names	 or  that  use
       these  reserved names as aliases.  Some of the attribute value checking
       is different.  For example, some fields that were not required now are,
       and  some  attributes values that were legal no longer are.  The print‐
       config utility requires that all comments be associated with a printer.
       As  a  result,  comments appearing after the last printer will be trun‐
       cated (deleted). As a work around, invoke  printconfig  with  the  menu
       interface as follows:

	      printconfig -ui menu

	      this  command  invokes  lprsetup	which is fully compatible with
	      earlier printcap files.

       Commands: lpq(1), lpr(1), lprm(1), lpc(8), lpd(8), lprsetup(8), pac(8)

       Files: termcap(4)

       Others: i18n_printing(5)

       System Administration

       Network Administration: Connections


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