ogated(8)ogated(8)NAMEogated - The gateway routing daemon
/usr/sbin/ogated [-t [i] [e] [r] [p] [u] [R] [H]] [logfile]
The ogateddaemon processes multiple routing protocols according to the
configuration set in ogated.conf file.
Logs all external errors due to EGP, exterior routing errors, and EGP
state changes. Traces all HELLO packets received. Logs all internal
errors and interior routing errors. Traces all EGP packets sent and
received. Traces all RIP packets received. Logs all routing changes.
If used alone, the -t option starts the -i, -e, -r, and -p trace
options. When used with another option, the -t option has no effect and
only the accompanying options are recognized. Note that when other
options are used, the -t option must be used with them and must be the
first option given in the command line. Logs all routing updates sent.
The ogated daemon always logs fatal errors. If no log file is specified
and none of the preceding trace options are set, all messages are sent
to the /dev/null file.
The ogated daemon manages multiple routing protocols, including the
Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP),
and Local Network Protocol (HELLO). The ogated process can be config‐
ured to perform all or any combination of these routing protocols. It
replaces daemons that use the HELLO routing protocol; for example,
routed (8) and egpup (8). The configuration for the ogated daemon is
by default stored in the /etc/ogated.conf file, and can be changed at
compile time in the file defs.h. The ogated daemon stores its process
ID in the /var/run/ogated.pid file.
When a routing update indicates that the route in use is being deleted,
the ogated daemon waits for 2 minutes before deleting the route. Be
aware that unpredictable results may occur when the ogated and routed
daemons are run together on the same host.
Start the ogated daemon with a log file that you specify on the command
line. You can also enter one or more trace options on the command line
or specify the options in the traceoptions stanza of the ogated.conf
configuration file. When trace options are specified without a log
file, all trace output is sent to the controlling terminal.
By default, the ogated daemon forks and detaches itself from the con‐
When certain networks are restricted from using the Internet network,
the ogated daemon uses both the syslogd daemon at the LOG_WARNING log
level and the LOG_DAEMON facility to record all invalid networks.
If you use the EGP when you supply the default route (by the RIP or
HELLO gateway) and all EGP neighbors are lost, the default route is not
advertised until at least one EGP neighbor is regained.
The RIP both propagates and listens to host routes. This allows the
ogated daemon to handle point-to-point links with consistency. The
ogated daemon also supports the RIP_TRACE commands.
The ogated daemon detects changes made to the network interfaces and
its own start-up options while it is running. Thus, you need not
restart the ogated daemon if you change the configuration. However, if
the net mask, subnet mask, broadcast address, or interface metric is
changed, use the ifconfig(8) command to mark the interface down and
then up 30 seconds later.
Subnet interfaces are supported. Subnet information is passed through
interfaces to other subnets of the same network.
The ogated daemon listens to host and network REDIRECT signals. The
daemon tries to take an action for its own internal tables. This action
is parallel to the action the kernel takes on the REDIRECT signal.
In addition, the ogated daemon cancels (times out) all routes learned
from REDIRECT signals in 6 minutes. The daemon then deletes the route
from the kernel routing tables, which keeps the routing tables consis‐
No routing protocol announces routes learned from REDIRECT signals.
The ogated EGP code verifies that all networks sent and received are
valid class A, B, or C networks as specified by the EGP. The ogated
daemon does not contribute information about networks that do not meet
EGP specifications. If an EGP update packet contains information about
a network that is not class A, B, or C, the ogated daemon considers the
update to be in error and ignores it.
The ogated server performs the following actions when you use the
kill(1) command to send it the SIGHUP and SIGINT signals. When a
SIGHUP signal is sent to a ogated daemon that was invoked with trace
options and a log file, tracing is toggled off and the log file is
closed. At this point the log file can be moved or deleted. When the
next SIGHUP signal is sent to the ogated daemon, tracing is toggled on.
The ogated daemon reads the /etc/ogated.conf configuration file and
sets the trace options to those specified by the traceoptions stanza.
If no traceoptions stanza exists, tracing resumes and uses any
trace options specified on the command line. Trace output is
sent to the log file specified on the command line. The output
is appended if the log file already exists, and the file is cre‐
ated if it does not exist. Sending the ogated daemon a SIGINT
signal causes a memory dump to be scheduled within the next 60
seconds. The memory dump is written to a file named
/usr/tmp/ogated_dump. The ogated daemon processes all pending
routing updates before performing the memory dump.
The memory dump contains a snapshot of the current ogated daemon
status, including the interface configurations, EGP neighbor
status, and the routing tables. If the /usr/tmp/ogated_dump file
already exists, the memory dump is appended to the existing
Internal Metrics for the ogated Daemon
The ogated daemon stores all metrics internally as a time delay in mil‐
liseconds to preserve the granularity of HELLO time delays. The inter‐
nal delay ranges from 0 to 30,000 milliseconds, with 30,000 represent‐
ing infinity. Metrics from other protocols are translated to and from a
time delay as they are received and transmitted. EGP distances are not
comparable to HELLO and RIP metrics but are stored as time delays
internally for comparison with other EGP metrics. The conversion factor
between EGP distances and time delays is 100.
RIP and interface metrics are translated to and from the internal time
delays with the use of the following translation tables. The first two
columns represent the time delay to RIP metric translation, while the
second two columns represent the RIP metric to time delay translation.
Minimum Maximum RIP Metric RIP Metric Time Delay
0 0 0 0 0
1 100 1 1 100
101 148 2 2 148
149 219 3 3 219
220 325 4 4 325
326 481 5 5 481
482 713 6 6 713
714 1057 7 7 1057
1058 1567 8 8 1567
1568 2322 9 9 2322
2323 3440 10 10 3440
3441 5097 11 11 5097
5098 7552 12 12 7552
7553 11,190 13 13 11,190
11,191 16,579 14 14 16,579
16,580 24,564 15 15 24,564
24,565 30,000 16 16 30,000
Unpredictable results may occur when the ogated and routed daemons are
run together on the same host.
Specifies the command path Contains the ogated configuration informa‐
tion Contains the ogated process ID Specifies the memory dump file