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NTFS-3G(8)							    NTFS-3G(8)

       ntfs-3g - Third Generation Read/Write NTFS Driver

       ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t ntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point
       mount -t lowntfs-3g [-o option[,...]]  volume mount_point

       ntfs-3g	is  an	NTFS  driver,  which  can create, remove, rename, move
       files, directories, hard links, and streams;  it	 can  read  and	 write
       files,  including  streams,  sparse  files and transparently compressed
       files; it can handle special files like symbolic	 links,	 devices,  and
       FIFOs;  moreover	 it provides standard management of file ownership and
       permissions, including POSIX ACLs.

       It comes in two variants ntfs-3g and lowntfs-3g with a few  differences
       mentioned below in relevant options descriptions.

       The volume to be mounted can be either a block device or an image file.

   Windows hibernation and fast restarting
       On  computers  which  can be dual-booted into Windows or Linux, Windows
       has to be fully shut down before booting into Linux, otherwise the NTFS
       file systems on internal disks may be left in an inconsistent state and
       changes made by Linux may be ignored by Windows.

       So, Windows may not be left in  hibernation  when  starting  Linux,  in
       order  to  avoid	 inconsistencies.  Moreover,  the fast restart feature
       available on recent Windows systems has to be  disabled.	 This  can  be
       achieved	 by issuing as an Administrator the Windows command which dis‐
       ables both hibernation and fast restarting :

	      powercfg /h off

   Access Handling and Security
       By default, files and directories are owned by the effective  user  and
       group of the mounting process, and everybody has full read, write, exe‐
       cution and directory browsing permissions.  You can also assign permis‐
       sions to a single user by using the uid and/or the gid options together
       with the umask, or fmask and dmask options.

       Doing so, Windows users have  full  access  to  the  files  created  by

       But,  by	 setting the permissions option, you can benefit from the full
       ownership and permissions features as defined by	 POSIX.	 Moreover,  by
       defining	 a  Windows-to-Linux  user mapping, the ownerships and permis‐
       sions are even applied to Windows users and conversely.

       If ntfs-3g is set setuid-root then non-root users will be also able  to
       mount volumes.

   Windows Filename Compatibility
       NTFS  supports several filename namespaces: DOS, Win32 and POSIX. While
       the ntfs-3g driver handles all of them, it always creates new files  in
       the  POSIX  namespace for maximum portability and interoperability rea‐
       sons.  This means that filenames are case sensitive and all  characters
       are  allowed  except  '/' and '\0'. This is perfectly legal on Windows,
       though some application may get confused. The option windows_names  may
       be used to apply Windows restrictions to new file names.

   Alternate Data Streams (ADS)
       NTFS  stores  all  data	in streams. Every file has exactly one unnamed
       data stream and can have many named data streams.  The size of  a  file
       is  the size of its unnamed data stream.	 By default, ntfs-3g will only
       read the unnamed data stream.

       By using the  options  "streams_interface=windows",  with  the  ntfs-3g
       driver  (not  possible  with  lowntfs-3g), you will be able to read any
       named data streams, simply by specifying	 the  stream's	name  after  a
       colon.  For example:

	      cat some.mp3:artist

       Named  data  streams  act like normal files, so you can read from them,
       write to them and even delete them (using rm).  You can	list  all  the
       named  data  streams  a	file  has  by  getting the "ntfs.streams.list"
       extended attribute.

       Below is a summary of the options that ntfs-3g accepts.

       uid=value and gid=value
	      Set the owner and the group of files and directories. The values
	      are  numerical.  The defaults are the uid and gid of the current

	      Set the  bitmask of the file and directory permissions that  are
	      not present. The value is given in octal. The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

	      Set the  bitmask of the file permissions that are	 not  present.
	      The  value is given in octal. The default value is 0 which means
	      full access to everybody.

	      Set the  bitmask of  the	directory  permissions	that  are  not
	      present.	The  value  is	given in octal. The default value is 0
	      which means full access to everybody.

	      Use file file-name as the	 user  mapping	file  instead  of  the
	      default  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping. If file-name defines a full path,
	      the file must be located on a partition previously  mounted.  If
	      it  defines  a  relative path, it is interpreted relative to the
	      root of NTFS partition being mounted.

	      When a user mapping file is defined,  the	 options  uid=,	 gid=,
	      umask=, fmask=, dmask= and silent are ignored.

	      Set  standard  permissions  on  created  files  and use standard
	      access control.  This option is set by default when a user  map‐
	      ping file is present.

       acl    Enable  setting  Posix  ACLs  on	created files and use them for
	      access control.  This  option  is	 only  available  on  specific
	      builds. It is set by default when a user mapping file is present
	      and the permissions mount option is not set.

	      When creating a new file, set its initial protections  according
	      to  inheritance  rules  defined in parent directory. These rules
	      deviate from Posix specifications, but yield  a  better  Windows
	      compatibility.  The  compression	option or a valid user mapping
	      file is required for this option to be effective.

       ro     Mount filesystem read-only. Useful if Windows is	hibernated  or
	      the NTFS journal file is unclean.

	      This  option  can	 be  useful  when  wanting a language specific
	      locale environment.  It is however discouraged as	 it  leads  to
	      files with untranslatable chars to not be visible.

       force  This  option  is obsolete. It has been superseded by the recover
	      and norecover options.

	      Recover and try to mount a partition  which  was	not  unmounted
	      properly	by  Windows. The Windows logfile is cleared, which may
	      cause inconsistencies.  Currently this is the default option.

	      Do not try to mount a partition which was not unmounted properly
	      by Windows.

       ignore_case (only with lowntfs-3g)
	      Ignore character case when accessing a file (FOO, Foo, foo, etc.
	      designate the same file). All files  are	displayed  with	 lower
	      case in directory listings.

	      Unlike  in  case	of  read-only  mount,  the read-write mount is
	      denied if the NTFS volume is hibernated.	One  needs  either  to
	      resume  Windows  and  shutdown  it  properly, or use this option
	      which will remove the Windows  hibernation  file.	 Please	 note,
	      this  means  that	 the  saved Windows session will be completely
	      lost. Use this option under your own responsibility.

       atime, noatime, relatime
	      The atime option updates inode access time for each access.

	      The noatime option disables inode access time updates which  can
	      speed  up	 file operations and prevent sleeping (notebook) disks
	      spinning up too often thus saving energy and disk lifetime.

	      The relatime option is very  similar  to	noatime.   It  updates
	      inode  access  times  relative  to  modify  or change time.  The
	      access time is only updated if the previous access time was ear‐
	      lier than the current modify or change time. Unlike noatime this
	      option doesn't break applications that need to know  if  a  file
	      has  been read since the last time it was modified.  This is the
	      default behaviour.

       delay_mtime[= value]
	      Only update the file modification time and the file change  time
	      of  a  file  when it is closed or when the indicated delay since
	      the previous update has elapsed. The argument  is	 a  number  of
	      seconds,	with a default value of 60.  This is mainly useful for
	      big files which are kept open for a long	time  and  written  to
	      without  changing	 their	size, such as databases or file system
	      images mounted as loop.

	      Show the metafiles in directory listings. Otherwise the  default
	      behaviour is to hide the metafiles, which are special files used
	      to store the NTFS structure. Please note	that  even  when  this
	      option  is  specified,  "$MFT" may not be visible due to a glibc
	      bug. Furthermore, irrespectively of  show_sys_files,  all	 files
	      are  accessible  by  name,  for example you can always do "ls -l

	      Hide the hidden files and directories in directory listings, the
	      hidden files and directories being the ones whose NTFS attribute
	      have the hidden flag set.	 The hidden files will not be selected
	      when  using wildcards in commands, but all files and directories
	      remain accessible by full name, for example you can always  dis‐
	      play  the	 Windows  trash	 bin  directory	 by  : "ls -ld '$RECY‐

	      Set the hidden flag in the NTFS attribute for created files  and
	      directories  whose  first	 character  of the name is a dot. Such
	      files and directories normally do not appear in directory	 list‐
	      ings,  and  when	the  flag is set they do not appear in Windows
	      directory displays either.  When a file  is  renamed  or	linked
	      with a new name, the hidden flag is adjusted to the latest name.

	      This  option prevents files, directories and extended attributes
	      to be created with a name not allowed by windows, either because
	      it contains some not allowed character (which are the nine char‐
	      acters " * / : < > ? \ | and those whose code is less than 0x20)
	      or because the last character is a space or a dot. Existing such
	      files can still be read (and renamed).

	      This option overrides  the  security  measure  restricting  file
	      access  to the user mounting the filesystem. This option is only
	      allowed to root, but this restriction can be overridden  by  the
	      'user_allow_other' option in the /etc/fuse.conf file.

	      With this option the maximum size of read operations can be set.
	      The default is infinite.	Note that the size of read requests is
	      limited anyway to 32 pages (which is 128kbyte on i386).

       silent Do  nothing,  without  returning	any  error, on chmod and chown
	      operations, when the permissions option is not set and  no  user
	      mapping file is defined. This option is on by default.

	      By  default  ntfs-3g acts as if "silent" (ignore errors on chmod
	      and chown), "allow_other" (allow any user to access  files)  and
	      "nonempty"  (allow  mounting on non-empty directories) were set,
	      and "no_def_opts" cancels these default options.

	      This option controls how the  user  can  access  Alternate  Data
	      Streams  (ADS)  or in other words, named data streams. It can be
	      set to, one of none, windows or xattr. If the option is  set  to
	      none, the user will have no access to the named data streams. If
	      it is set to windows (not possible with  lowntfs-3g),  then  the
	      user can access them just like in Windows (eg. cat file:stream).
	      If it's set to xattr, then the named data streams are mapped  to
	      xattrs  and user can manipulate them using {get,set}fattr utili‐
	      ties. The default is xattr.

	      Same as streams_interface=xattr.

	      This option should only be used in backup or restore  situation.
	      It  changes  the apparent size of files and the behavior of read
	      and write operation so that encrypted files  can	be  saved  and
	      restored without being decrypted. The user.ntfs.efsinfo extended
	      attribute has also to be saved and restored for the file	to  be

	      This  option enables creating new transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for compression. A directory is marked for
	      compression by setting the bit 11 (value 0x00000800) in its Win‐
	      dows attribute. In such a directory, new files are created  com‐
	      pressed  and  new	 subdirectories are themselves marked for com‐
	      pression. The option and the flag have  no  effect  on  existing

	      This option disables creating new transparently compressed files
	      in directories marked for compression. Existing compressed files
	      can  still  be  read  and updated. Currently this is the default

	      This option prevents fuse from splitting write buffers  into  4K
	      chunks,  enabling	 big  write buffers to be transferred from the
	      application in a single step (up to some system limit, generally
	      128K bytes).

       debug  Makes ntfs-3g to print a lot of debug output from libntfs-3g and

	      Makes ntfs-3g to not detach from terminal and print  some	 debug

       NTFS  uses specific ids to record the ownership of files instead of the
       uid and gid used by Linux. As a consequence a mapping between  the  ids
       has  to	be  defined for ownerships to be recorded into NTFS and recog‐

       By default, this mapping is fetched from the file  .NTFS-3G/UserMapping
       located	in  the NTFS partition. The option usermapping= may be used to
       define another location. When the option permissions is set and no map‐
       ping file is found, a default mapping is used.

       Each  line  in the user mapping file defines a mapping. It is organized
       in three fields separated by colons. The first field identifies a  uid,
       the second field identifies a gid and the third one identifies the cor‐
       responding NTFS id, known as a SID. The uid and the  gid	 are  optional
       and defining both of them for the same SID is not recommended.

       If  no  interoperation  with  Windows is needed, you can use the option
       permissions to define a standard mapping. Alternately, you  may	define
       your  own  mapping  by setting a single default mapping with no uid and
       gid. In both cases, files created on Linux will appear  to  Windows  as
       owned  by  a  foreign user, and files created on Windows will appear to
       Linux as owned by root. Just copy the example below and replace	the  9
       and  10-digit  numbers  by  any number not greater than 4294967295. The
       resulting behavior is the same as the one with  the  option  permission
       set with no ownership option and no user mapping file available.


       If  a  strong interoperation with Windows is needed, the mapping has to
       be defined for each user and group known in both system, and  the  SIDs
       used  by	 Windows has to be collected. This will lead to a user mapping
       file like :


       The  utility  ntfs-3g.usermap may be used to create such a user mapping

       Mount /dev/sda1 to /mnt/windows:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows
	      mount -t ntfs-3g /dev/sda1 /mnt/windows

       Mount the ntfs data partition  /dev/sda3	 to  /mnt/data	with  standard
       Linux permissions applied :

	      ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data
	      mount -t ntfs-3g -o permissions /dev/sda3 /mnt/data

       Read-only mount /dev/sda5 to /home/user/mnt and make user with uid 1000
       to be the owner of all files:

	      ntfs-3g /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt -o ro,uid=1000

       /etc/fstab entry for the above (the sixth and last field has to be zero
       to avoid a file system check at boot time) :

	      /dev/sda5 /home/user/mnt ntfs-3g ro,uid=1000 0 0

       Unmount /mnt/windows:

	      umount /mnt/windows

       To facilitate the use of the ntfs-3g driver in scripts, an exit code is
       returned to give an indication of the mountability status of a  volume.
       Value  0	 means	success,  and all other ones mean an error. The unique
       error codes are documented in the ntfs-3g.probe(8) manual page.

       Please see


       for common questions and known issues.  If you would find a new one  in
       the latest release of the software then please send an email describing
       it  in  detail.	You  can  contact  the	 development   team   on   the
       ntfs-3g-devel@lists.sf.net address.

       ntfs-3g	was  based on and a major improvement to ntfsmount and libntfs
       which were written by Yura  Pakhuchiy  and  the	Linux-NTFS  team.  The
       improvements were made, the ntfs-3g project was initiated and currently
       led  by	long  time  Linux-NTFS	team  developer	 Szabolcs   Szakacsits

       Several people made heroic efforts, often over five or more years which
       resulted the ntfs-3g driver. Most  importantly  they  are  Anton	 Alta‐
       parmakov,  Jean-Pierre André, Richard Russon, Szabolcs Szakacsits, Yura
       Pakhuchiy, Yuval Fledel, and the	 author	 of  the  groundbreaking  FUSE
       filesystem development framework, Miklos Szeredi.

       ntfs-3g.probe(8), ntfsprogs(8), attr(5), getfattr(1)

ntfs-3g 2014.2.15		   May 2012			    NTFS-3G(8)

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