neqn man page on OSF1

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neqn(1)								       neqn(1)

       neqn, checkeq - Typesets mathematical equations and expressions

       neqn [-dxy] [-pn] [-sn] [-fn] [file...] | nroff...

       checkeq [file...]

       The  neqn command is an nroff(1) preprocessor for displaying mathemati‐
       cal symbols and equations on terminals.	Usage almost  always  involves
       preprocessing an nroff source file with neqn and then piping the output
       through nroff.


       The neqn command formatting works best on  typesetting  devices.	  Your
       terminal might not be equipped to display equations and other math sym‐
       bols in a meaningful way.  In fact, you might have  difficulty  viewing
       the symbols and examples included in this reference page.

       If  no  files are specified, neqn reads from the standard input. A line
       beginning with marks the start of an equation; at the  beginning	 of  a
       line  marks  the end of an equation. Neither of these lines is altered,
       so they can be defined in macro packages to produce centering,  number‐
       ing, and so on.

       It  is  also  possible  to set two characters as delimiters; subsequent
       text between delimiters is also treated as input to  neqn.   Delimiters
       may  be	set  to any two characters, such as x and y, with the command-
       line argument -dxy or more commonly by placing delim xy between and  be
       identical.   Delimiters	are turned off by delim off.  All text that is
       neither between delimiters nor between and is passed through untouched.

       The program checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and pairs.

       Tokens within neqn are separated by  spaces,  tabs,  newlines,  braces,
       double  quotation  marks,  tildes, or circumflexes. Braces { } are used
       for grouping.  Generally speaking, anywhere a  single  character	 could
       appear,	a  complicated	construction  enclosed	in  braces can be used
       instead.	 The tilde (~) represents a full space in the output; the cir‐
       cumflex (^) half as much.

       Subscripts and superscripts are produced with the keywords sub and sup.

       Fractions use the keyword over.

       The sqrt keyword creates square roots.

       The keywords from and to are used to express lower and upper limits.

       Left  and right brackets, braces, and so forth that encompass more than
       one line are created with the  left  and	 right	keywords  and  tildes.
       Legal  characters  to  use  with	 left  and right are  {, }, [, ], |, c
       (ceiling), f (floor), and , meaning `nothing' (to  use  with  the  left
       keyword	when  you want brackets or braces on the right side only). The
       right keyword clause is optional.

       Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, rpile,  and	cpile.
       There  can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile.	 You use lpile
       to left-justify a vertical grouping and	rpile  to  right-justify  one.
       The  pile  and  cpile keywords create centered piles but have different
       vertical spacing.

       You use the matrix keyword to create matrixes.  The lcol, ccol, and col
       keywords	 are  used  with  matrix  to  specify the alignment within the
       matrix; that is a left-justified column, centered  column,  and	right-
       justified column, respectively.

       Diacritical marks are made with the following keywords:

       dot	Produces  a  period  (.)  over the character preceding the
       dotdot	Produces two periods (..) over the character preceding the
       hat	Produces a circumflex (^) over the character preceding the
       tilde	Produces a tilde (~) over the character preceding the key‐
       bar	Produces a horizontal bar over the character preceding the
       vec	Produces a left-pointing arrow over the character  preced‐
		ing the keyword.
       dyad	Produces  a bidirectional arrow over the character preced‐
		ing the keyword.
       under	Produces an underscore under the character  preceding  the

       Size and font changes are made with the following keywords:

       size n		Specifies the size as n points.
       size+n		Increases the size n points.
       size-n		Decreases the size n points.
       roman		Uses roman type font.
       italic		Uses italic type font.
       bold		Uses bold type font.
       font n		Uses the specified type font.

       Size  and font can be changed globally in a document by using the gsize
       n and the gfont n keyword expressions or by the command-line  arguments
       -s n and -f n.

       Normally	 subscripts  and superscripts are reduced by three point sizes
       from the previous size.	You can change this default with the -p n com‐
       mand-line argument.

       To  aline  successive  display arguments, place the mark keyword before
       the desired lineup point in the first equation.	Then place the	lineup
       keyword	at the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equa‐
       tion lines.

       New keywords or new forms of existing keywords can be defined with  the
       define  keyword.	  For example, the following define expression defines
       the new keyword cc to be C Language:

       define cc % C Language %

       Whenever cc appears in the source file, processing with neqn  causes  C
       Language	 to  appear  in the preprocessed or output file. Note that the
       delimiting character surrounding the  replacement  string  can  be  any
       character  as  long  as	it  does  not appear in the replacement string

       The following keywords are also recognized for typeset output:

       sum   Produces a large Greek sigma indicating summation.
       int   Produces an integration sign.
       inf   Produces an infinity sign.
       >=    Produces a greater-than-or-equals sign.
       <=    Produces a less-than-or-equals sign.
       ->    Produces a right pointing arrow.
       <-    Produces a left pointing arrow.
       !=    Produces a not equal sign.

       Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, for  example,	 alpha
       or  GAMMA.  Mathematical	 words	like sin, cos, log are output in roman
       type automatically. Strings enclosed in double quotation marks  ("...")
       are  passed  through  untouched;	 this  feature	permits keywords to be
       entered as text.

       To embolden digits, parentheses, and so on, you must  enclose  them  in
       quotation marks after the keyword bold.	For example:

       bold "12.3".

       Input and output for x with subscript i:

	      x sub i	->   x
			      i	 Input	and  output for x with subscript i and
	      superscript 2:

	      x sub i sup 2    ->   x2
				     i Input and output for e  with  a	super‐
	      script of x squared plus y squared:

						 2  2
						x +y e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}
	      ->   e Input and output for the fraction q over r:

			    q q over r	->   _
			    r Input and output for the fraction of 1 over  the
	      square root of a polynomial that includes a superscript:

						    1  1  over	sqrt {as sup 2
	      +bx+c}  ->  _________
					      \|ax +bx+c Input and output  for
	      an expression with a lower and upper limit:

								     n	   lim
	      from {n-> inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i	->   lim Rxi
								n->oo0	 Input
	      and output for an expression with large left and right braces:

								{ 2 y }
								    _2 left {x
	      sup 2 = y sup 2 over alpha right} ~=~ 1  -> {x +A } = 1
							       {      }	 Input
	      and output for a “pile” expression:

						  a pile { a above b above c }
	      ->     b
						  c Input and  output  for  an
	      expression with a matrix:

	      matrix {lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 }} ->

		   x	    1

		   y	    2

       nroff(1), tbl(1), ms(5)

                             _         _         _ 
                            | |       | |       | |     
                            | |       | |       | |     
                         __ | | __ __ | | __ __ | | __  
                         \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ / \ \| |/ /  
                          \ \ / /   \ \ / /   \ \ / /   
                           \   /     \   /     \   /    
                            \_/       \_/       \_/ 
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