mysql_upgrade man page on SmartOS
MYSQL_UPGRADE(1) MySQL Database System MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)
mysql_upgrade - check and upgrade MySQL tables
mysql_upgrade examines all tables in all databases for
incompatibilities with the current version of MySQL Server.
mysql_upgrade also upgrades the system tables so that you can take
advantage of new privileges or capabilities that might have been added.
mysql_upgrade should be executed each time you upgrade MySQL.
If mysql_upgrade finds that a table has a possible incompatibility, it
performs a table check and, if problems are found, attempts a table
repair. If the table cannot be repaired, see Section 2.10.4,
“Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes” for manual table repair
On Windows Server 2008, Vista, and newer, you must run
mysql_upgrade with administrator privileges. You can do this by
running a Command Prompt as Administrator and running the command.
Failure to do so may result in the upgrade failing to execute
You should always back up your current MySQL installation before
performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.
Some upgrade incompatibilities may require special handling before
you upgrade your MySQL installation and run mysql_upgrade. See
Section 2.10.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for instructions on determining
whether any such incompatibilities apply to your installation and
how to handle them.
To use mysql_upgrade, make sure that the server is running, and then
invoke it like this:
shell> mysql_upgrade [options]
After running mysql_upgrade, stop the server and restart it so that any
changes made to the system tables take effect.
mysql_upgrade executes the following commands to check and repair
tables and to upgrade the system tables:
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --auto-repair
mysql < fix_priv_tables
mysqlcheck --all-databases --check-upgrade --fix-db-names --fix-table-names
Notes about the preceding commands:
· Because mysql_upgrade invokes mysqlcheck with the --all-databases
option, it processes all tables in all databases, which might take
a long time to complete. Each table is locked and therefore
unavailable to other sessions while it is being processed. Check
and repair operations can be time-consuming, particularly for large
· For details about what checks the --check-upgrade option entails,
see the description of the FOR UPGRADE option of the CHECK TABLE
statement (see Section 126.96.36.199, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”).
· fix_priv_tables represents a script generated internally by
mysql_upgrade that contains SQL statements to upgrade the tables in
the mysql database.
All checked and repaired tables are marked with the current MySQL
version number. This ensures that next time you run mysql_upgrade with
the same version of the server, it can tell whether there is any need
to check or repair the table again.
mysql_upgrade also saves the MySQL version number in a file named
mysql_upgrade_info in the data directory. This is used to quickly check
whether all tables have been checked for this release so that
table-checking can be skipped. To ignore this file and perform the
check regardless, use the --force option.
If you install MySQL from RPM packages on Linux, you must install the
server and client RPMs. mysql_upgrade is included in the server RPM
but requires the client RPM because the latter includes mysqlcheck.
(See Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.)
mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For
upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.
mysql_upgrade runs by default as the MySQL root user. If the root
password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, you will see a message
that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a
result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run
shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: **** <- enter root password here
mysql> SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('root-password');
mysql_upgrade supports the following options, which can be specified on
the command line or in the [mysql_upgrade] and [client] groups of an
option file. Other options are passed to mysqlcheck. For example, it
might be necessary to specify the --password[=password] option.
mysql_upgrade also supports the options for processing option files
described at Section 188.8.131.52, “Command-Line Options that Affect Option-
Display a short help message and exit.
The path to the MySQL installation directory. This option is
accepted for backward compatibility but ignored. It is removed in
The path to the data directory. This option is accepted for
backward compatibility but ignored. It is removed in MySQL 5.7.
· --debug=debug_options, -# debug_options
Write a debugging log. A typical debug_options string is
d:t:O,file_name. The default is d:t:O,/tmp/mysql_upgrade.trace.
Print some debugging information when the program exits.
· --debug-info, -T
Print debugging information and memory and CPU usage statistics
when the program exits.
The client-side authentication plugin to use. See Section 6.3.7,
This option was added in MySQL 5.6.2.
Ignore the mysql_upgrade_info file and force execution of
mysqlcheck even if mysql_upgrade has already been executed for the
current version of MySQL.
The directory in which to look for plugins. It may be necessary to
specify this option if the --default-auth option is used to specify
an authentication plugin but mysql_upgrade does not find it. See
Section 6.3.7, “Pluggable Authentication”.
This option was added in MySQL 5.6.2.
· --tmpdir=path, -t path
The path name of the directory to use for creating temporary files.
· --upgrade-system-tables, -s
Upgrade only the system tables, do not upgrade data.
· --user=user_name, -u user_name
The MySQL user name to use when connecting to the server. The
default user name is root.
Verbose mode. Print more information about what the program does.
· --version-check, -k
Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is
connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which
mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option
is enabled by default; to disable the check, use
--skip-version-check. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.12.
Cause binary logging to be enabled while mysql_upgrade runs. In
MySQL 5.6.6 and earlier, this was the default behavior. (To disable
binary logging during the upgrade, it was necessary to use the
inverse of this option, by starting the program with
--skip-write-binlog.) Beginning with MySQL 5.6.7, binary logging by
mysql_upgrade is disabled by default (Bug #14221043), and you must
invoke the program explicitly with --write-binlog if you want its
actions to be written to the binary log. (Also beginning with MySQL
5.6.7, the --skip-write-binlog option effectively does nothing.)
Running mysql_upgrade is not recommended with a MySQL Server that
is running with global transaction identifiers enabled (Bug
#13833710). This is because enabling GTIDs means that any updates
which mysql_upgrade might need to perform on system tables using a
nontransactional storage engine such as MyISAM to fail. See
Section 184.108.40.206, “Restrictions on Replication with GTIDs”, for
Copyright © 1997, 2014, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights
This documentation is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it only under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
published by the Free Software Foundation; version 2 of the License.
This documentation is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with the program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA or see
For more information, please refer to the MySQL Reference Manual, which
may already be installed locally and which is also available online at
Oracle Corporation (http://dev.mysql.com/).
MySQL 5.6 03/14/2014 MYSQL_UPGRADE(1)
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