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MUTEX(5)							      MUTEX(5)

       mutex - concepts relating to mutual exclusion locks

       Mutual exclusion locks (mutexes) prevent multiple threads from simulta‐
       neously executing critical sections of code which  access  shared  data
       (that  is, mutexes are used to serialize the execution of threads). All
       mutexes must be global. A successful call to acquire a mutex will cause
       another	thread	that  is  also	trying to lock the same mutex to block
       until the owner thread unlocks the mutex.

       Mutexes can synchronize threads within the same	process	 or  in	 other
       processes.   Mutexes  can  be  used to synchronize threads between pro‐
       cesses if the mutexes are allocated in writable memory and shared among
       the  cooperating processes (see mmap(2)), and have been initialized for
       this task.

       The following table lists mutex functions and the actions they perform.

       │  FUNCTION	      │		 ACTION		 │
       │mutex_init	      │ Initialize a mutex.	 │
       │mutex_destroy	      │ Destroy a mutex.	 │
       │mutex_lock	      │ Lock a mutex.		 │
       │mutex_trylock	      │ Attempt to lock a mutex. │
       │mutex_unlock	      │ Unlock a mutex.		 │
       │pthread_mutex_init    │ Initialize a mutex.	 │
       │pthread_mutex_destroy │ Destroy a mutex.	 │
       │pthread_mutex_lock    │ Lock a mutex.		 │
       │pthread_mutex_trylock │ Attempt to lock a mutex. │
       │pthread_mutex_unlock  │ Unlock a mutex.		 │

       Mutexes are either intra-process or inter-process, depending  upon  the
       argument	 passed implicitly or explicitly to the initialization of that
       mutex. A statically allocated mutex does not need to be explicitly ini‐
       tialized;  by default, a statically allocated mutex is initialized with
       all zeros and its scope is set to be within the calling process.

       For inter-process synchronization, a mutex needs	 to  be	 allocated  in
       memory  shared  between	these  processes.  Since the memory for such a
       mutex must be allocated dynamically, the mutex needs to	be  explicitly
       initialized with the appropriate attribute that indicates inter-process

   Locking and Unlocking
       A critical section of code is enclosed by a call to lock the mutex  and
       the  call to unlock the mutex to protect it from simultaneous access by
       multiple threads.  Only one thread  at  a  time	may  possess  mutually
       exclusive  access  to  the critical section of code that is enclosed by
       the mutex-locking  call	and  the  mutex-unlocking  call,  whether  the
       mutex's	scope  is  intra-process or inter-process. A thread calling to
       lock the mutex either gets exclusive  access to the code starting  from
       the  successful locking until its call to unlock the mutex, or it waits
       until the mutex is unlocked by the thread that locked it.

       Mutexes have ownership, unlike semaphores. Only the thread that	locked
       a mutex, (that is, the owner of the mutex), should unlock it.

       If a thread waiting for a mutex receives a signal, upon return from the
       signal handler, the thread resumes waiting for the mutex	 as  if	 there
       was no interrupt.

       Mutexes are almost like data - they can be embedded in data structures,
       files, dynamic or static memory, and so forth. Hence, they are easy  to
       introduce into a program. However, too many mutexes can degrade perfor‐
       mance and scalability of the application. Because too few  mutexes  can
       hinder  the  concurrency	 of the application, they should be introduced
       with care. Also, incorrect usage (such as recursive calls, or violation
       of  locking  order, and so forth) can lead to deadlocks, or worse, data

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │MT-Level       │ MT-Safe	 │

       mmap(2), shmop(2), mutex_destroy(3C),  mutex_init(3C),  mutex_lock(3C),
       mutex_trylock(3C),	  mutex_unlock(3C),	   pthread_create(3C),
       pthread_mutex_destroy(3C),		       pthread_mutex_init(3C),
       pthread_mutex_lock(3C),			    pthread_mutex_trylock(3C),
       pthread_mutex_unlock(3C),  pthread_mutexattr_init(3C),	attributes(5),

       In   the	  current  implementation  of  threads,	 pthread_mutex_lock(),
       pthread_mutex_unlock(), mutex_lock() mutex_unlock(), pthread_mutex_try‐
       lock(),	and mutex_trylock() do not validate the mutex type. Therefore,
       an uninitialized mutex or a mutex with an invalid type does not	return
       EINVAL.	Interfaces  for	 mutexes with an invalid type have unspecified

       By default, if multiple threads are waiting for a mutex, the  order  of
       acquisition is undefined.

       The system does not support multiple mappings to the same logical synch
       object if  it  is  initialized  as  process-private  (USYNC_THREAD  for
       Solaris,	 PTHREAD_PROCESS_PRIVATE  for  POSIX). If you need to mmap(2)a
       synch object to different locations within the same address space, then
       the   synch   object   should   be   initialized	 as  a	shared	object

				  Jun 5, 2007			      MUTEX(5)

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