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mule(1)								       mule(1)

       mule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs

       mule [command-line switches] [files...]

       Mule  is	 a  multilingual  enhancement  to  GNU Emacs.  Mule provides a
       facility to display, input, and edit multilingual characters  in	 addi‐
       tion to all GNU Emacs facilities.

       GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author of the orig‐
       inal (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its  user	 functionality	encom‐
       passes  everything  other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       Emacs has an extensive interactive  help	 facility,  but	 the  facility
       assumes	that  you  know	 how  to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.
       CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.	Help  Tutorial
       (CTRL-h	t)  requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners
       the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes.  Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h  a)
       helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-
       h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
       describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send‐
       ing  (Mail),  outline  editing  (Outline), compiling (Compile), running
       subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp  read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There  is  an  extensive	 reference  manual, but users of other Emacses
       should have little trouble adapting even without a copy.	 Users new  to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest: Edit file.   Go  to  the
       line  specified	by  number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign
       and the number).	 Do not load an init file.   Load  user's  init	 file.
       Use  specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This
       must be the first argument specified in the command line.

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the  order  encountered): Execute the lisp function function.  Load the
       lisp code in the file file.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch  editor:
       Edit  in batch mode using the commands found in commandfile. The editor
       will send messages to stdout. This option must  be  the	first  in  the
       argument list.  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs  has  been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis‐
       play  in.   You	will probably want to start the editor as a background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches: Specifies the  pro‐
       gram name which should be used when looking up defaults in the user's X
       resources.  This must be the first  option  specified  in  the  command
       line.  Specifies the name which should be assigned to the Emacs window.
       Display the Emacs window in reverse video.  Use the “kitchen sink” bit‐
       map  icon  when	iconifying  the	 Emacs window.	Set the Emacs window's
       fontset to that specified by fontset. You can specify a fontset just by
       the  name  or  a comma separated list of fonts. In the former case, the
       actual contents of the fontset should be defined	 by  X's  resource  or
       Emacslisp  function  new-fontset.  In  the latter case, a fontset of no
       name is created from the list. You will find the various X fonts in the
       /usr/lib/X11/fonts  directory.  Note  that Emacs will only accept fixed
       width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any  font
       with  the  value “m” or “c” in the eleventh field of the font name is a
       fixed width font.  Furthermore,	fonts  whose  name  are	 of  the  form
       widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed.  See xls‐
       fonts(1X) for more information.

	      When you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space  between  the
	      switch  and  the	fontset name.  Set the dot size of u(pper) and
	      l(ower) linespace in the form u+l.  You can omit u and/or l. The
	      default  value  is  1+1.	Set the Emacs window's border width to
	      the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one	 pixel
	      on  each	side  of the window.  Set the window's internal border
	      width to the number of pixels specified by pixels.  Defaults  to
	      one  pixel of padding on each side of the window.	 Set the Emacs
	      window's width, height, and position as specified.  The geometry
	      specification  is	 in  the standard X format; see X(1X) for more
	      information. The width and height are specified  in  characters;
	      the  default  is 80 by 24.  On color displays, sets the color of
	      the text.

	      See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for  a	list  of  valid	 color
	      names.   On color displays, sets the color of the window's back‐
	      ground.  On color displays, sets the color of the window's  bor‐
	      der.   On	 color	displays,  sets the color of the window's text
	      cursor.  On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse
	      cursor.	Create	the  Emacs  window on the display specified by
	      displayname. Must be the first option specified in  the  command
	      line.   Tells  Emacs  not to use its special interface to X.  If
	      you use this switch when invoking Emacs from an  xterm(1X)  win‐
	      dow,  display  is	 done  in  that window. This must be the first
	      option specified in the command line.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your  file  (see
       xrdb(1X)).  Use the following format: emacs.keyword:value

       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords: Sets the window's text font.
       List  of	 names	of fontsets.  The first fontset in the list is used by
       default.	 Definition of fontset XXX.  It should be  a  comma  separated
       list  of	 font  names.	Each name should contain at least CHARSET-REG‐
       ISTRY.  If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will  be  dis‐
       played  in reverse video.  If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the win‐
       dow will iconify into the “kitchen sink.”   Sets	 the  window's	border
       width  in  pixels.   Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.
       For color displays, sets the window's text color.  For color  displays,
       sets the window's background color.  For color displays, sets the color
       of the window's border.	For color displays, sets the color of the win‐
       dow's  text cursor.  For color displays, sets the color of the window's
       mouse cursor.  Sets the geometry of  the	 Emacs	window	(as  described
       above).	 Sets  the  title of the Emacs window.	Sets the icon name for
       the Emacs window icon.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and  white  display,
       the  window's  characteristics  will default as follows: the foreground
       color will be set to black, the background color will be set to	white,
       the  border  color  will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button  bindings  for  the	 Emacs	window
       under  X11.  FUNCTION Set point.	 Paste text.  Cut text into X cut buf‐
       fer.  Cut text into X cut buffer.  Paste text.  Cut  text  into	X  cut
       buffer  and  kill  it.  Select this window, then split it into two win‐
       dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.	X buffer menu--hold  the  buttons  and
       keys  down,  wait for menu to appear, select buffer, and release.  Move
       mouse out of menu and release to cancel.	 X  help  menu--pop  up	 index
       card  menu  for	Emacs  help.  Select window with mouse, and delete all
       other windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs  Manual  for  $20.00/copy
       postpaid from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software
       (contact them for quantity prices on the manual).  Their address is:

       Free Software Foundation
       675 Mass Ave.
       Cambridge, MA 02139

       Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As  with
       all  software  and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
       and distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the  man‐
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       There  is a mailing list, on the internet
       (ucbvax!!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting	 Emacs
       bugs and fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	  We  ask  you to read the section “Reporting Emacs Bugs” near
       the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on  how  and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug report that you send in.

       Do not expect a personal answer	to  a  bug  report.   The  purpose  of
       reporting  bugs	is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
       if possible. For personal assistance, look in  the  SERVICE  file  (see
       below) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please  do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. Send
       requests to be added to mailing lists to	 the  special  list  info-gnu- (or the corresponding UUCP address).  For
       more  information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the	  file
       /usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS.  Bugs	 tend actually
       to be fixed if they can be isolated, so	it  is	in  your  interest  to
       report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Bugs  that  I know about are: shell will not work with programs running
       in Raw mode on some Unix versions.

       There is a mailing list, on the internet, for  reporting
       Mule  bugs  and fixes.  But before reporting something as a bug, please
       try to check if the bug is Mule oriented or  original  GNU  Emacs  ori‐
       ented. The mailing list above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.

       Emacs  is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
       the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy  of	 which
       accompanies  each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged  with	 distributions
       of  Unix	 systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
       covering those systems.	Such inclusion violates	 the  terms  on	 which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other  restric‐
       tions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard	Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's  Not  Unix)  will	 be  a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix.
       Everyone will be able to use the GNU system for free.

       Mule is also free; anyone may redistribute copies  of  Mule  to	anyone
       under  the  terms  stated  in the GNU General Public License, a copy of
       which accompanies each copy of Mule.

       files for the Info documentation browser	 (a  subsystem	of  Emacs)  to
       refer  to.  Currently not much of Unix is documented here, but the com‐
       plete text of the Emacs reference manual is included  in	 a  convenient
       tree structured form.  Lisp source files and compiled files that define
       most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded  from
       this  directory	when  used.   various  programs that are used with GNU
       Emacs, and some	files  of  information.	  contains  the	 documentation
       strings	for  the  Lisp	primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU
       Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.	 lists
       people  offering various services to assist users of GNU Emacs, includ‐
       ing education, troubleshooting, porting and customization.  These files
       also have information useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the
       Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been fully documented.
       holds  lock  files that are made for all files being modified in Emacs,
       to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two users.  list of
       valid X color names.

       X(1X), xlsfonts(1X), xterm(1X), xrdb(1X), m2ps(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

       Mule was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and Mikiko NISHIKIMI
       of  Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN, with a great help by members of
       the Mule mailing list.


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