mule(1)mule(1)NAMEmule - Multilingual Enhancement to GNU Emacs
SYNOPSISmule [command-line switches] [files...]
Mule is a multilingual enhancement to GNU Emacs. Mule provides a
facility to display, input, and edit multilingual characters in addi‐
tion to all GNU Emacs facilities.
GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author of the orig‐
inal (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman. Its user functionality encom‐
passes everything other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible
since its editing commands are written in Lisp.
Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility
assumes that you know how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.
CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility. Help Tutorial
(CTRL-h t) requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners
the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes. Help Apropos (CTRL-h a)
helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-
h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
describes a given Lisp function specified by name.
Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.
GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send‐
ing (Mail), outline editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running
subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp read-eval-print
loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).
There is an extensive reference manual, but users of other Emacses
should have little trouble adapting even without a copy. Users new to
Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
tutorial and using the self-documentation features.
The following options are of general interest: Edit file. Go to the
line specified by number (do not insert a space between the "+" sign
and the number). Do not load an init file. Load user's init file.
Use specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout. This
must be the first argument specified in the command line.
The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
the order encountered): Execute the lisp function function. Load the
lisp code in the file file.
The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:
Edit in batch mode using the commands found in commandfile. The editor
will send messages to stdout. This option must be the first in the
argument list. Exit Emacs while in batch mode.
Using Emacs with X
Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system. If you
run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis‐
play in. You will probably want to start the editor as a background
process so that you can continue using your original window.
Emacs can be started with the following X switches: Specifies the pro‐
gram name which should be used when looking up defaults in the user's X
resources. This must be the first option specified in the command
line. Specifies the name which should be assigned to the Emacs window.
Display the Emacs window in reverse video. Use the “kitchen sink” bit‐
map icon when iconifying the Emacs window. Set the Emacs window's
fontset to that specified by fontset. You can specify a fontset just by
the name or a comma separated list of fonts. In the former case, the
actual contents of the fontset should be defined by X's resource or
Emacslisp function new-fontset. In the latter case, a fontset of no
name is created from the list. You will find the various X fonts in the
/usr/lib/X11/fonts directory. Note that Emacs will only accept fixed
width fonts. Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font
with the value “m” or “c” in the eleventh field of the font name is a
fixed width font. Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the form
widthxheight are generally fixed width, as is the font fixed. See xls‐
fonts(1X) for more information.
When you specify a fontset, be sure to put a space between the
switch and the fontset name. Set the dot size of u(pper) and
l(ower) linespace in the form u+l. You can omit u and/or l. The
default value is 1+1. Set the Emacs window's border width to
the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to one pixel
on each side of the window. Set the window's internal border
width to the number of pixels specified by pixels. Defaults to
one pixel of padding on each side of the window. Set the Emacs
window's width, height, and position as specified. The geometry
specification is in the standard X format; see X(1X) for more
information. The width and height are specified in characters;
the default is 80 by 24. On color displays, sets the color of
See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a list of valid color
names. On color displays, sets the color of the window's back‐
ground. On color displays, sets the color of the window's bor‐
der. On color displays, sets the color of the window's text
cursor. On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse
cursor. Create the Emacs window on the display specified by
displayname. Must be the first option specified in the command
line. Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X. If
you use this switch when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1X) win‐
dow, display is done in that window. This must be the first
option specified in the command line.
You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your file (see
xrdb(1X)). Use the following format: emacs.keyword:value
where value specifies the default value of keyword. Emacs lets you set
default values for the following keywords: Sets the window's text font.
List of names of fontsets. The first fontset in the list is used by
default. Definition of fontset XXX. It should be a comma separated
list of font names. Each name should contain at least CHARSET-REG‐
ISTRY. If reverseVideo's value is set to on, the window will be dis‐
played in reverse video. If bitmapIcon's value is set to on, the win‐
dow will iconify into the “kitchen sink.” Sets the window's border
width in pixels. Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.
For color displays, sets the window's text color. For color displays,
sets the window's background color. For color displays, sets the color
of the window's border. For color displays, sets the color of the win‐
dow's text cursor. For color displays, sets the color of the window's
mouse cursor. Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described
above). Sets the title of the Emacs window. Sets the icon name for
the Emacs window icon.
If you try to set color values while using a black and white display,
the window's characteristics will default as follows: the foreground
color will be set to black, the background color will be set to white,
the border color will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors
will be set to black.
Using the Mouse
The following lists the mouse button bindings for the Emacs window
under X11. FUNCTION Set point. Paste text. Cut text into X cut buf‐
fer. Cut text into X cut buffer. Paste text. Cut text into X cut
buffer and kill it. Select this window, then split it into two win‐
dows. Same as typing CTRL-x 2. X buffer menu--hold the buttons and
keys down, wait for menu to appear, select buffer, and release. Move
mouse out of menu and release to cancel. X help menu--pop up index
card menu for Emacs help. Select window with mouse, and delete all
other windows. Same as typing CTRL-x 1.
You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual for $20.00/copy
postpaid from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software
(contact them for quantity prices on the manual). Their address is:
Free Software Foundation
675 Mass Ave.
Cambridge, MA 02139
Your local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available. As with
all software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make
and distribute copies of the Emacs manual. The TeX source to the man‐
ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.
There is a mailing list, email@example.com on the internet
(ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting Emacs
bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
feature. We ask you to read the section “Reporting Emacs Bugs” near
the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on how and
when to report bugs. Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
are running in every bug report that you send in.
Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report. The purpose of
reporting bugs is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
if possible. For personal assistance, look in the SERVICE file (see
below) for a list of people who offer it.
Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list. Send
requests to be added to mailing lists to the special list info-gnu-
firstname.lastname@example.org (or the corresponding UUCP address). For
more information about Emacs mailing lists, see the file
/usr/i18n/mule/lib/mule/$VERSION/etc/MAILINGLISTS. Bugs tend actually
to be fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to
report them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.
Bugs that I know about are: shell will not work with programs running
in Raw mode on some Unix versions.
There is a mailing list, email@example.com on the internet, for reporting
Mule bugs and fixes. But before reporting something as a bug, please
try to check if the bug is Mule oriented or original GNU Emacs ori‐
ented. The mailing list above is to discuss Mule oriented matters.
Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under
the terms stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which
accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the reference
Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions
of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of any license
covering those systems. Such inclusion violates the terms on which
distribution is permitted. In fact, the primary purpose of the General
Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restric‐
tions to redistribution of Emacs.
Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges
that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library. Eventually GNU
(Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete replacement for Berkeley Unix.
Everyone will be able to use the GNU system for free.
Mule is also free; anyone may redistribute copies of Mule to anyone
under the terms stated in the GNU General Public License, a copy of
which accompanies each copy of Mule.
files for the Info documentation browser (a subsystem of Emacs) to
refer to. Currently not much of Unix is documented here, but the com‐
plete text of the Emacs reference manual is included in a convenient
tree structured form. Lisp source files and compiled files that define
most editing commands. Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from
this directory when used. various programs that are used with GNU
Emacs, and some files of information. contains the documentation
strings for the Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU
Emacs. They are stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper. lists
people offering various services to assist users of GNU Emacs, includ‐
ing education, troubleshooting, porting and customization. These files
also have information useful to anyone wishing to write programs in the
Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not yet been fully documented.
holds lock files that are made for all files being modified in Emacs,
to prevent simultaneous modification of one file by two users. list of
valid X color names.
SEE ALSOX(1X), xlsfonts(1X), xterm(1X), xrdb(1X), m2ps(1)AUTHORS
Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.
Mule was written by Ken'ichi HANDA, Satoru TOMURA, and Mikiko NISHIKIMI
of Electrotechnical Laboratory, JAPAN, with a great help by members of
the Mule mailing list.