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mh(1)									 mh(1)

       mh, MH - Introduction to the MH system for handling mail

       MH is the name of a powerful message handling system. Rather than being
       a single comprehensive program, MH consists of a collection  of	fairly
       simple  single-purpose  programs	 to  send, receive, save, and retrieve

       Unlike mail, MH is not a closed system that must be explicitly run, and
       then  exited  when  you	wish  to return to the shell. Instead, you may
       freely intersperse MH commands with other shell commands.  This	allows
       you  to read and answer your mail while you have (for example) a compi‐
       lation running, or are searching for a file or running programs to find
       an answer to someone's question before replying to them.

       To  get	started using MH, add the directory /usr/bin/mh to your $PATH.
       This is best done in one of the files or in your home directory.	 Check
       the  reference  page for the shell you use if you do not know how to do
       this. Run the inc command. If you have never used MH  before,  the  inc
       command	creates the necessary default files and directories after ask‐
       ing you if you want it to do so. The inc command moves mail  from  your
       system  maildrop into your MH +inbox folder.  Each message is converted
       to MH format, and stored as separate files in your +inbox folder	 until
       you  have  read	it. When you have read a message, you can refile it in
       another folder that you have created.

       Folders are directories in which messages are stored: the folders them‐
       selves  are  stored in your Mail directory. See refile(1) and folder(1)
       for more details.

       For each message it processes, inc prints a one-line display. The  one-
       line  display contains the From: field, the Subject: field, and as much
       of the first line of the message as it can accommodate. The first  mes‐
       sage  that  inc processes becomes your current message. All MH commands
       operate on the current message unless you have specified the msg	 argu‐

       You  need  to  run  inc each time you wish to incorporate new mail into
       your +inbox folder.

       The scan command prints a list of the messages in your current folder.

       The commands show, next, and prev are used to  read  specific  messages
       from  the current folder.  Of these, show displays the current message.
       You can also display a specific message by specifying  its  number.  In
       the following example, the mail system displays the contents of message
       number 10 in the current folder:

       % show 10

       The commands next and prev display the  message	numerically  following
       and  numerically	 preceding  the	 current message, respectively. In all
       cases, the message displayed becomes the current message.  If there  is
       no current message, show may be called with an argument, or next may be
       used to advance to the first message. The command rmm (remove  message)
       deletes the current message.

       You  can	 delete	 messages other than the current message by specifying
       the message number or numbers. When you specify more than one  message,
       you  separate each message number by a space. In the following example,
       messages 2, 4 and 6 in the current folder are deleted:

       % rmm 2 4 6

       The command repl is used to reply to a message. This command places you
       in the editor with a prototype response form. While you are in the edi‐
       tor, you may view the item you are responding to by reading the file @.

       The comp command allows you to compose a message by putting you in  the
       editor on a blank message header form, and then lets you send it.

       All the MH commands can be run with only the -help option, which causes
       them to print a list of the parameters and options with which they  can
       be used.

       Commands	 that  take  a	message number as an argument (scan, show, and
       repl, for example) also take one of the following  keywords:  Specifies
       the first message in the current folder.	 Specifies the last message in
       the current folder.  Specifies  the  current  message  in  the  current
       folder.	 Specifies the previous message in the current folder.	Speci‐
       fies the next message in the current folder.

       Commands that take a range of message numbers, such as  rmm,  scan,  or
       show,  also take any of the following abbreviations: Indicates all mes‐
       sages in the range num1 to num2, inclusive. The	specified  range  must
       contain at least one message.  Indicate up to n messages beginning with
       (or ending with) message num. The value of num may be  any  of  the  MH
       message	keywords: first, prev, cur, next, or last.  Specify the first,
       previous, next, or last n messages, if they exist.

       MH software offers many other options, such as creating multiple	 fold‐
       ers for different topics, and automatically refiling messages according
       to subject, source, destination, or content. The following MH reference
       pages provide information on the specified topics: Extracting addresses
       from message headers Listing mail aliases Annotating messages Exploding
       digests	into  messages Composing a message Redistributing a message to
       additional addresses Setting/listing the current folder/message Listing
       all folders Forwarding messages Incorporating new mail Marking messages
       Producing formatted listings of MH messages  Sending  or	 reading  mail
       Printing	 full  pathnames  of MH messages and folders Checking for mes‐
       sages Running the MH shell  Showing  the	 next  message	Compressing  a
       folder  into  a	single	file Selecting messages by content Showing the
       previous message Prompting editor  front	 end  Incorporating  new  mail
       asynchronously  Filing  messages in other folders Replying to a message
       Removing a folder Removing messages Producing a one  line  per  message
       scan  listing  Sending a message Receiving mail hooks Showing (listing)
       messages Sorting	 messages  Using  the  prompting  front-end  for  send
       Reporting  who  will  receive a message when it is sent Using the alias
       file for the MH message system Using the format file for the MH message
       system  Using  the  message format file for the MH message system Using
       the user customization for the MH message system Using  the  systemwide
       customization for the MH message system Running the program that parses
       addresses in RFC 822-style Searching for alias/password conflicts  Run‐
       ning the program that parses dates in RFC 822-style Initializing the MH
       environment for a system Running the backend  processor	for  the  send

   Internationalization (I18N) Features
       The  default  mail  interchange	code  in the United States is based on
       using only 7 bits of each byte to represent each character. To  provide
       full  support  for  European  languages other than English, MH software
       must reserve the full 8 bits of each byte for character representation.
       Support for 8-bit code in mail is enabled by the system manager as part
       of the configuration process for worldwide support software.

       In Asian countries, there are a variety of coded character sets	(code‐
       sets)  that  are	 used  for interchange of mail between systems and for
       processing by local applications.  Most of these codesets require  more
       than  one byte to represent each character. For Asian languages, the MH
       software therefore supports codeset conversion of mail messages between
       the  mail  interchange  codeset and the user's application codeset. For
       example,	 if  the  mail	interchange  codeset  at  sites	 in  Japan  is
       ISO-2022-JP  and the user's application codeset is eucJP, the next com‐
       mand needs to convert the next message to eucJP before  displaying  the
       message. Otherwise, Japanese characters do not display correctly.

       Codeset conversion is controlled through entries in various files, com‐
       mand options, and variable settings that are associated with  MH	 soft‐
       ware.  The conversion is actually done by converters that reside in the
       /usr/lib/nls/loc/iconv directory.  Each	converter  supports  a	single
       from_code  and  to_code	conversion that is identified in the converter
       name. For example, the converter	 that  supports	 conversion  from  the
       ISO-2022-JP  mail  interchange  codeset	to  the eucJP user application
       codeset is named ISO-2022-JP_eucJP. Codeset conversion  works  only  if
       converters  are available for the mail interchange and user application
       codesets that  apply  to	 the  message  and  if	those  converters  are
       installed.  (Converters	are  installed from optional language-specific
       subsets). Refer to the iconv_intro(5) reference page for more  informa‐
       tion about codeset conversion.

       By  default,  to	 eliminate  risk  of data loss, the inc command stores
       incoming mail messages in mail folders without codeset conversion.   In
       this  case,  the codeset conversion is performed later when you display
       or extract messages from mail folders. If you want  codeset  conversion
       to  be  performed  at  the time messages are stored in folders, you can
       specify the -conv option on the inc command  line.  To  ensure  correct
       codeset	conversion  in	some  Asian countries, you may need to use the
       inc -conv inshdr command when incoming messages do not include  a  Con‐
       tent-Type  entry	 in the header. Refer to the inc(1) reference page for
       more information on the -conv option.

       To include mail interchange codeset information in outgoing  mail  mes‐
       sages,  the  MH	software  adds	new  header  lines.  For  example,  if
       ISO-2022-JP is the mail interchange code, the  following	 header	 lines
       are added to outgoing messages:

       Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=ISO-2022-JP

       For  non-ISO codesets, the software adds the prefix “X-” to the codeset
       name for identification purposes. For example, if the codeset is eucJP,
       the following header lines are added to the message:

       Mime-Version: 1.0 Content-Type: TEXT/PLAIN; charset=X-eucJP

       For  incoming  mail,  MH	 software  uses the following settings (in the
       order listed) to determine the  mail  interchange  codeset:  The	 value
       specified  for  charset in the Content-Type: header line, if present in
       the incoming message The default systemwide mail interchange codeset as
       specified in the /usr/lib/mail-codesets file

	      This  file  must be created by the system administrator and con‐
	      tains one line that is the name of the  systemwide  mail	inter‐
	      change codeset. For example:


	      When  parsing  the  mail-codesets	 file, the MH software ignores
	      comment lines (lines beginning with #), blank lines, and leading
	      or trailing white space around the codeset name.	The first line
	      that is not a comment or blank line is assumed  to  specify  the
	      systemwide mail interchange codeset.

       The MH software does not perform codeset conversion on incoming mail if
       neither of these settings specifies a codeset.

       For outgoing mail, MH software uses  the	 following  settings  (in  the
       order  listed)  to  determine  the mail interchange codeset: The EXCODE
       environment  variable  The  profile   component	 excode	  defined   in
       $HOME/.mh_profile The content of /usr/lib/mail-codesets

       MH  software  determines	 the user application codeset from the codeset
       part of locale name settings  for  the  following  variables  and  file
       entries	(listed	 in order of high to low precedence): The LC_ALL envi‐
       ronment variable The LANG environment variable  The  profile  component
       lang defined in $HOME/.mh_profile

       You cannot create folder names that are made up of only digits.

       Directory containing commands MH library


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