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ls(1)									 ls(1)

       ls - Lists and generates statistics for files

       ls [-aAbcCdDfFgilLmnopqrRstux1] [file... | directory...]

       Interfaces  documented on this reference page conform to industry stan‐
       dards as follows:

       ls:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page	 for  more  information	 about
       industry standards and associated tags.

       Lists  all  entries  in the directory, including the entries that begin
       with a (dot). Entries that begin with a are not	displayed  unless  you
       refer  to  them	specifically,  or  you	specify the -a option.	[Tru64
       UNIX]  Lists all entries, except (dot) and (dot-dot). If you issue  the
       ls  command  as	the  superuser,	 it  behaves  as if you specified this
       option.	[Tru64 UNIX]  Displays nonprintable characters in octal	 nota‐
       tion.   Uses  the  time	of last inode modification (file created, mode
       changed, and so on) for sorting when used with the -t option.  Displays
       the  time  of last inode modification (instead of the time at which the
       file's contents were last modified) when used with the -l option.  This
       option  has  effect only when used with either -t or -l or both.	 Sorts
       output vertically in a multicolumn format.  This is  the	 default  when
       output  is to a terminal.  Displays only the information for the direc‐
       tory that is named, rather than for its contents.  This is useful  with
       the  -l option to get the status of a directory.	 If the file is a spe‐
       cial file, and the machine is cluster aware, the	 size  field  contains
       the  major  and	minor  device  numbers	assigned on the local machine.
       Lists the name in each slot for each named directory. This option turns
       off  -l, -t, -s, and -r, and turns on -a; this option uses the order in
       which entries appear in the directory.  Puts a  /  (slash)  after  each
       file  name  if the file is a directory, an * (asterisk) after each file
       name if the file can be executed, an = (equal  sign)  after  each  file
       name if the file is a socket, an @ (at sign) for a symbolic link, and a
       | (vertical bar) for a FIFO.  Displays  the  same  information  as  -l,
       except  for  the	 owner.	  Displays the file serial number in the first
       column of the report for each  file.   Displays	the  mode,  number  of
       links, owner, group, size (in bytes), and time of last modification for
       each file, and pathname.

	      [Tru64 UNIX]  If the file is a symbolic link,  the  pathname  of
	      the linked-to file is also preceded by ->. The attributes of the
	      symbolic link are displayed. The	-n  option  overrides  the  -l

	      [Tru64  UNIX]  If	 CMD_ENV=svr4,	the ls command reports an l in
	      the group execution field when  mandatory	 locking  is  enabled.
	      [Tru64 UNIX]  Lists the file or directory link references rather
	      than the link itself, if the argument is a symbolic link.	  Uses
	      stream  output  format (a comma-separated series).  Displays the
	      same information as -l, except that it displays the user and the
	      group  IDs  instead of the user names and group names.  Displays
	      the same information as with -l, except for the group.   The  -n
	      option  overrides	 the  -o option.  Puts a slash after each file
	      name if that file is a directory.	 Displays nonprintable charac‐
	      ters  in file names as a ?  (question mark) character, if output
	      is to a terminal (default).  Reverses the	 order	of  the	 sort,
	      giving  reverse  collation  or the oldest first, as appropriate.
	      Lists all subdirectories recursively.  Gives  space  used	 in  n
	      1024-byte units (including indirect blocks) for each entry.

	      [Tru64  UNIX]  When  run	on  an AdvFS clone file set, the ls -s
	      command displays the space used by the  files  in	 the  original
	      file  set	 at  the time the clone file set was created. The file
	      sizes are displayed in 1024-byte units.  Sorts by time  of  last
	      modification  (latest  first) instead of by name.	 Uses the time
	      of the last access instead of time of the last modification  for
	      sorting  (when  used  with -t) or for displaying (when used with
	      -l).  This option has no effect when not used with either -t  or
	      -l  or both.  Sorts output horizontally in a multicolumn format.
	      Forces one entry per line output format;	this  is  the  default
	      when output is not directed to a terminal.

       When  you  specify  the	following mutually exclusive options, the last
       option on the command line takes effect: [Tru64 UNIX]  -C and -l	 (ell)
       [Tru64  UNIX]  -C  and  -1  (one)  [Tru64 UNIX]	-m and -l (ell) [Tru64
       UNIX]  -x and -l (ell) [Tru64 UNIX]  -c and -u

       The path name of a file or directory about which information is	to  be
       output.	If this operand is omitted, the current directory is used.

       The ls command writes to standard output the contents of each specified
       directory or the name of each specified	file,  along  with  any	 other
       information  you ask for with options.  If you do not specify a file or
       a directory, ls displays the contents of the current directory.

       By default, ls displays all information in collated order by file name.
       The  collating  sequence	 is  determined	 by the LC_COLLATE environment

       [Tru64 UNIX]  There are three main ways to format  the  output:	[Tru64
       UNIX]  List  entries in multiple columns by specifying either the -C or
       -x options.  When output is to a terminal, -C is	 the  default  format.
       List  one  entry per line.  List entries in a comma-separated series by
       specifying the -m option.

       [Tru64 UNIX]  The ls command uses ioctl() to determine  the  number  of
       byte  positions in the output line.  If ls cannot get this information,
       it uses a default value of 80.  Columns may  not	 be  smaller  than  20
       bytes or larger than 400 bytes.

       The mode displayed with the -l option is interpreted by the first char‐
       acter, as follows: Block special file Character special file  Directory
       [Tru64  UNIX]  Symbolic	link  First-In-First-Out  (FIFO)  special file
       [Tru64 UNIX]  Local socket Ordinary file

       The next nine characters are divided into three sets of	three  charac‐
       ters  each.   The  first	 three characters show the owner's permission.
       The next set of three characters show the permission of the other users
       in  the group.  The last set of three characters show the permission of
       everyone else.  The three characters in each set show read,  write  and
       execute permission of the file.	Execute permission of a directory lets
       you search a directory for a specified file.

       Permissions are indicated as follows:  read  write  execute  or	search
       (directories) no access

       The  group-execute permission character is s if the file has set-group-
       ID mode. The user-execute permission character is s  if	the  file  has
       set-user-ID mode. The last character of the mode (normally x or -) is t
       if the 01000 (octal) bit of the mode is set; see the chmod command  for
       the  meaning  of this mode. The indications of set-ID and the 01000 bit
       of the mode are capitalized (S and T, respectively) if the  correspond‐
       ing execute permission is not set.

       When  there  is an access control list (ACL) on the listed directory or
       file the group permissions displayed by the ls command are the  maximum
       permissions  allowed  for  the  owning  group and for any user or group
       identified in a qualified “user” or “group” ACL entry. A given user  or
       member  of  a  group  can  have	more restrictive permissions.  Use the
       getacl command to see the ACL for a given file or directory.

       When the sizes of the files in a directory are listed, the  ls  command
       displays a total count in 1024-byte units, including indirect blocks.

       The  LC_TIME  environment  variable controls the format of the date and

   System V Compatibility
       [Tru64 UNIX]  The root of the directory tree that contains the commands
       modified	  for	SVID   2   compliance	is   specified	 in  the  file
       /etc/svid2_path. You can use /etc/svid2_profile as the basis for, or to
       include	in, your /etc/svid2_profile reads /etc/svid2_path and sets the
       first entries in the PATH environment variable  so  that	 the  modified
       SVID 2 commands are found first.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  The  SVID 2 compliant version of the ls command produces
       multicolumn output only if the -C option is specified. In addition, the
       -s  option  of  the  SVID  2  compliant command causes file sizes to be
       reported in 512-byte units rather than in 1024-byte units.

       The following exit values  are  returned:  Successful  completion.   An
       error occurred.

       [Tru64  UNIX]  Sparse  files,  such as quota files, may not be using as
       much on-disk storage as the ls -l command reports.  Use the ls -s  com‐
       mand  to	 obtain	 an  accurate  report of the on-disk storage used by a
       sparse file.

       The following example lists the quota.user file,	 a  sparse  file,  two
       different  ways.	  The example shows that although the last byte in the
       file is at logical offset 2097151, the file uses only 24 blocks of  on-
       disk  storage:  # ls -l quota.user -rw-r-----   1 root operator 2097152
       Apr 29 14:54 quota.user # ls -s quota.user 24 quota.user	 To  list  all
       files in the current directory, enter: ls -a

	      This lists all files, including . (dot), .. (dot-dot), and other
	      files with names beginning with  a  dot.	 To  display  detailed
	      information, enter: ls -l chap1 .profile

	      This displays a long listing with detailed information about the
	      files chap1 and To display detailed information about  a	direc‐
	      tory, enter: ls -d -l . manual manual/chap1

	      This displays a long listing for the directories and manual, and
	      for the file manual/chap1.  Without the -d option, this  command
	      lists  the  files	 in  and  manual instead of providing detailed
	      information about the directories themselves.  To list the files
	      in  the  current directory in order of modification time, enter:
	      ls -l -t

	      This displays a long listing of the  files  that	were  modified
	      most recently, followed by the older files.

       The  following environment variables affect the execution of ls: Deter‐
       mines the user's preferred column position width for  writing  multiple
       text-column  output.  If this variable contains a string representing a
       decimal integer, the ls utility calculates how many pathname text  col‐
       umns  to	 write (see -C) based on the width provided. If COLUMNS is not
       set or invalid, an implementation-dependent number of column  positions
       is  assumed,  based  on	the  implementation's  knowledge of the output
       device. The column width chosen to write the  names  of	files  in  any
       given  directory	 will  be constant. Filenames will not be truncated to
       fit into the multiple text-column output.  Provides a default value for
       the  internationalization  variables that are unset or null. If LANG is
       unset or null, the corresponding value from the default locale is used.
       If  any	of  the internationalization variables contain an invalid set‐
       ting, the utility behaves as if none of the variables had been defined.
       If  set	to  a  non-empty string value, overrides the values of all the
       other internationalization variables.  Determines the locale for	 char‐
       acter  collation	 information  in  determining  the  pathname collation
       sequence.  Determines the locale for the interpretation of sequences of
       bytes  of  text data as characters (for example, single-byte as opposed
       to multibyte characters in arguments).  Determines the locale  for  the
       format  and  contents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.
       Determines the format and contents for the date and time strings	 writ‐
       ten  by ls.  Determines the location of message catalogues for the pro‐
       cessing of LC_MESSAGES.	Determines the	timezone  for  date  and  time
       strings written by ls.

       Contains user information.  Contains group information.

       Commands:  chmod(1), du(1), find(1), ln(1), stty(1)

       Functions:  ioctl(2)

       Files:  acl(4)

       Standards:  standards(5)


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