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keyboard(5)							   keyboard(5)

       keyboard - Using keyboards for different native languages

       The  keyboard lets you type not only the characters printed on the key‐
       caps, but all the characters from the character set  for	 the  language
       that your keyboard supports.

       For your keyboard to function correctly with your system, you must load
       a keyboard mapping table (keymap) that is  appropriate  for  your  key‐
       board's	model  and language. If you load a keymap that does not corre‐
       spond to your keyboard's model and language, your keyboard behavior  is
       unpredictable.  The  label  located on the bottom surface of a keyboard
       usually specifies its model (five letter code) and language (two letter
       code).  See  the	 reference  page for the native language you are using
       (Spanish(5), for example) to find tables that associate keyboard styles
       and models with keymap names.

   Setting the Correct Keyboard for Login
       When  any user logs on to a system, the system-default keyboard setting
       must be appropriate for the keys that the user  presses	when  entering
       characters  in  the username and password fields. Otherwise, characters
       that are correct from the user perspective, given  the  keyboard	 being
       used,  may  be treated as invalid. In this case, the user cannot log on
       the the system. This situation most often arises	 when  a  keyboard  is
       being  used  in one language and the system-default keyboard setting is
       another language.  If you choose not to use the keys that are  set  for
       the  system-default  keyboard,  you  must  use one of the following two
       methods to change the system default keyboard: Change the keyboard lan‐
       guage at the console prompt

	      In  this	case, the system recognizes the hardware layout of the
	      keyboard (PCXAL, for example),  but  requires  more  input  with
	      respect  to  how	characters  are mapped to specific keys. The X
	      server, which has control of the system at the  time  users  log
	      on,  recognizes  keyboard	 language  changes  set at the console
	      prompt.  Change the keymap used by the X server by  editing  the
	      Xserver.conf file

	      This is the only option for changing the system-default keyboard
	      when the keyboard language you need is not one of	 those	listed
	      at the console level.  Using this option also overrides at login
	      time any keyboard setting made at the  console  level.  In  this
	      case, you are specifying a keymap file to the X server. A keymap
	      specification must be correct from both the hardware perspective
	      (keyboard	 layout)  and  how  characters	are mapped to specific

	      Edit the /usr/var/X11/Xserver.conf file by  adding  the  -xkbmap
	      option to the arguments list after the -pn option:

	      !	 you  specify  command	line arguments here args < -pn -xkbmap
	      <keymap-filename_keymap-name> >

	      For example:

	      ! you specify command line arguments here	 args  <  -pn  -xkbmap
	      /usr/lib/X11/xkb/keymaps.dir_digital_japanese_pcxajaa >

	      This  example  changes the system-default keyboard to be a PCXAL
	      hardware layout and  Japanese  JIS  character  entry.  For  more
	      information  about  editing the Xserver.conf file, see Xdec(1X).
	      For more extensive information about keyboard use	 and  changing
	      the keyboard setting after login, see dxkeyboard(1).

       The operating system supports keymaps in xmodmap format, xkb format, or
       both formats. Note that xkb format is recommended, and keymaps for  new
       keyboards may be available only in that format.

       After  logging on, you can use the Keyboard Options application (dxkey‐
       board) to change your keyboard setting during a CDE session.  The  next
       two  sections  describe	how  to	 do this.  In CDE, selecting keyboards
       through menu choices loads keymaps in xkb format. However, you can load
       keymaps	in xmodmap format if you prefer. Note that any changes made to
       the keyboard setting using dxkeyboard do not affect the	keyboard  set‐
       ting  that applies when you are logging on the system. Only the system-
       default keyboard setting affects system login.

   Loading Keymaps in xkb Format
       During a CDE session, use the following steps to load a keymap  in  xkb
       format:	Click  on  the	Application Manager's icon on the Front Panel.
       Double click on the Desktop_Apps icon to show the Desktop Applications.
       Double click on the Keyboard Options icon.

	      The Keyboard Option dialog box displays two selection lists From
	      the Language list in the dialog box,  choose  the	 language  for
	      your  keyboard.	From the Keyboard Type list in the dialog box,
	      choose the model of your keyboard.  Click on  the	 Apply	or  OK

       All  supported keyboard models are not represented in the Keyboard Type
       selection list displayed by the dxkeyboard application.

   Loading Keymaps in xmodmap Format
       Use the following steps to load a keymap in xmodmap format:  Check  the
       /usr/lib/X11/keymaps directory to find the name.keymap file that corre‐
       sponds to your keyboard model and language.  Use the following  command
       to load the keymap:

	      % /usr/bin/X11/xmodmap /usr/lib/X11/keymaps/name.keymap

   Using the Keyboard
       For most native languages, you usually enter characters by using a one-
       or two-key sequence. For example, you press a letter  key  to  enter  a
       letter  in  lowercase and hold down Shift while pressing the letter key
       to enter the letter in uppercase. However, keyboards that support  cer‐
       tain  languages	may  support more than two characters per keycap. When
       using these keyboards, you have to press several keys,  either  at  the
       same  time  or in sequence, to enter some of the characters in the lan‐
       guage. The following sections describe the  prefix  and	modifier  keys
       used  for  different  kinds of character input methods and then provide
       instructions on using those input methods.


       Because support is retired for  LK-series  keyboards  for  Turbochannel
       machines	 (LK20*,  LK40*,  and LK42*), the discussion in this reference
       page focuses on PC-style keyboards and  supported  VT-style  keyboards.
       For  information	 on retired VT-style keyboards, refer to the reference
       pages for specific languages or those included with earlier versions of
       the operating system.

       Both  the  VT-style  and PC-style keyboards group keys by function into
       four subsets, or keypads. This discussion is only about the main keypad
       and not the auxilliary keypads.

       The  main  keypad,  which is similar to a typewriter keyboard, contains
       the keys with alphanumeric characters,  punctuation  marks,  the	 space
       bar, and Shift keys. Unlike a typewriter keyboard, the main keypad con‐
       tains additional modifier and prefix keys. Modifier keys are pressed in
       combination with another key, to modify the code sent by that key. Pre‐
       fix keys are pressed and	 released  before  pressing  another  key,  to
       change the function of one or more keystrokes that follow.

       Lock  and  Shift, which are found on the typewriter keyboard, are exam‐
       ples of keys that are  implemented  as  modifier	 or  prefix  keys  for
       PC-style	 keyboards.   Ctrl,  Alt, and Compose, not found on typewriter
       keyboards, are also examples of keycap engravings that identify a modi‐
       fier  or prefix key. However, the engraved names and functions of modi‐
       fier and prefix keys may differ from one native language to another.

   Control keys
       Control keys (whose keycap engraving usually is Ctrl)  are  most	 often
       used to send a control (nonprintable) character to the host system. For
       example, holding down Ctrl while pressing the letter C usually sends  a
       sequence that stops, or aborts, an operation. However, a control key is
       sometimes used in conjunction with other modifier keys to perform  some
       special keyboard functions.

       On  VT-style  keyboards,	 there is one control key, which is located on
       the left side of the main keypad. On PC-style keyboards, there are  two
       control keys, which are located on the left and right sides of the main

   Shift Keys
       Shift keys (whose keycap engraving is usually Shift) cause  a  standard
       key to send an uppercase character for alphabetic keys or shifted (top)
       character for nonalphabetic keys. There	are  two  Shift	 keys  on  the
       VT-style	 and  PC-style	keyboards. Holding down Shift while pressing a
       standard key sends  the	uppercase  character  on  alphabetic  keys  or
       shifted (top) character engraved on nonalphabetic keys.

   Lock Key
       The lock key (whose keycap engraving usually includes Lock) can put the
       keyboard in Caps Lock mode or Shift Lock mode. On VT-style and PC-style
       keyboards,  there is one lock key, which is located on the left side of
       the main keypad.

       You can set the lock mode (Caps Lock mode or Shift Lock mode) for  your
       keyboard	 by using the interface that your windows application environ‐
       ment provides for general keyboard setup. In the Common	Desktop	 Envi‐
       ronment	(CDE), you choose the Keyboard application. (The path name for
       this application is /usr/dt/bin/dxkeyboard.)

       In Caps Lock mode, the alphabetic keys send their  uppercase  (shifted)
       character  when pressed alone. For Caps Lock mode, pressing and releas‐
       ing the lock key turns on the mode and pressing and releasing the  lock
       key  again turns off the mode. In Shift Lock mode, all keys on the main
       keypad send their shifted character when pressed alone. For Shift  Lock
       mode, pressing and releasing the Lock key turns on the mode, and press‐
       ing and releasing either the Lock or the Shift key turns off the mode.

   Compose-Character Keys
       Compose-character keys (often engraved with  Compose)  were  originally
       designed	 to  prefix  a	sequence of keystrokes. However, for most lan‐
       guages on VT-style keyboards, the left compose-character key  has  been
       redefined to be the group-shift or alternate-function key.

       PC-style keyboards do not include Compose keys.

   Alternate-Function Keys
       Alternate-function  keys	 (usually  engraved with Alt or Alt Gr) either
       select alternate functions defined by application software or  generate
       characters  not present on the keyboard. The VT-style and PC-style key‐
       boards have two alternate-function keys, one on each side of  the  main

       For  PC-style  keyboards	 supporting languages other than American Eng‐
       lish, the alternate-function key on the right side is engraved with Alt
       Gr, rather than Alt.


       This  reference	page  does  not	 discuss complex input methods used to
       input characters in Asian languages. See the  Chinese(5),  Japanese(5),
       Korean(5),  and	Thai(5)	 reference  pages  for information about input
       methods used with a particular Asian language.

       The alphanumeric and  punctuation  characters  used  for	 a  particular
       native  language	 are usually all present on the keyboard for that lan‐
       guage. Depending on the number of characters in the  alphabet  for  the
       language, it is sometimes necessary to engrave more than two characters
       per keycap. In this case, the more frequently used characters are  usu‐
       ally  engraved  on the left side of the keycaps and the less frequently
       used characters on the right side of the keycaps.   Characters  on  the
       left  side of the keycap are called Group 1 characters and those on the
       right side of the keycap are called Group 2 characters.

   Entering Characters Engraved on the Keycaps
       The keycaps on keyboards for languages supported by the ISO Latin char‐
       acter  sets  can be engraved with characters from one or two alphabets.
       Keyboards on which only one alphabet appears support languages, such as
       Czech, French, and German, whose alphabets are similar to English. Key‐
       boards on which two alphabets appear (English and native-language) sup‐
       port languages, such as Greek, Hebrew, and Russian, whose alphabets are
       very different from English.  The number of supported alphabets	deter‐
       mines  the  input method used to enter characters engraved on the right
       side of keycaps.

       For keyboards that support ISO Latin character sets and only one alpha‐
       bet:  Enter  the characters engraved on the left half of keycaps in the
       ordinary way. That is, press the key  itself  to	 enter	the  character
       engraved	 on  the bottom left of its keycap and press Shift in combina‐
       tion with the key to enter the character engraved on the	 top  left  of
       the keycap. Purely alphabetic keys usually have only the uppercase let‐
       ters (entered in combination with the Shift key) engraved on  the  key‐
       cap. In this case, pressing the key by itself enters the lowercase let‐
       ter.  Enter the characters engraved on the right half of keycaps in one
       of  the	following ways: Load a keyboard mapping table (keymap) that is
       different from the default

	      In this case, the keyboard selection application for  your  win‐
	      dows  environment	 displays  both a typewriter (TW) option and a
	      data-processing (DP) option for the combination of keyboard  and
	      language	you  are  using.  The  typewriter  keymap is loaded by
	      default and you  must  replace  this  with  the  data-processing
	      keymap  to  enter	 the  additional characters.  Use the key that
	      performs the group-shift keyboard function if this  function  is
	      supported for your language and keyboard. See the section titled
	      ``Group-Shift Input Method'' for more information.

       For keyboards that support ISO Latin character sets and two  alphabets:
       Enter  the  characters engraved on the upper left corner of the keycaps
       in the usual way, by pressing the key by itself to enter the  lowercase
       letter  (or  bottom left character) and pressing Shift with that key to
       enter the uppercase letter (or top left character).  Enter the  charac‐
       ter  engraved on the lower right corner of the keycaps by using a mode-
       switch key or key sequence. See the section titled  “Mode-Switch	 Input
       Method” for more information.

   Group-Shift Input Method
       The group-shift keyboard function allows you to enter the Group 2 char‐
       acters (engraved on the right half of  keycaps)	without	 changing  the
       keyboard mapping table.

       Support	for  the  group-shift  function depends in part on whether the
       keymap loaded for your keyboard is in xkb or xmodmap format.  When  you
       set  your  keyboard option using the Keyboard application in the Common
       Desktop Environment, xkb format is used.

       If you load a keymap in xkb format, the operating system	 supports  the
       group-shift  function  for  most	 ISO Latin keyboards, both VT- and PC-
       styles. The exceptions are keyboards for languages,  such  as  American
       English	and  Portuguese,  that	do  not	 need more than two characters
       assigned to the same keycap.

       If you load a keymap in xmodmap format,	support	 for  the  group-shift
       function	 is  available for all VT-style keyboards and for all PC-style
       keyboards having keycaps with more than two characters.

       Assuming that the loaded keymap supports the group-shift function,  you
       enter  characters  on  the  right side of keycaps in the following way:
       Enter the bottom right character by holding down the key defined to  be
       the group-shift key along with the character key.

	      This  entry  method  also	 applies to characters engraved in the
	      middle right position of the keycap.  Characters are engraved in
	      this position when a key supports three, rather than four, char‐
	      acters.  Enter the top right character by holding down the Shift
	      key along with the group-shift and character keys.

       For  VT-style  keyboards,  the  group-shift function is assigned to the
       compose-character key (usually engraved with Compose orGroup Shift ) on
       the left side of the main keypad.

       For  PC-style  keyboards,  the  group-shift function is assigned to the
       alternate-function key on the right side of the main keypad.  For  most
       languages, this key is engraved with Alt Gr rather than Alt.


       The  effect  of	the group-shift key is only temporary. This means that
       you need to press the group-shift key each time you  enter  a  Group  2
       character (engraved on the right side of the keycap).

   Mode-Switch Input Method
       Keyboards  for  languages,  such as Greek, Hebrew, and Russian, support
       input of characters in two different alphabets (English and native-lan‐
       guage) without reloading a keymap. On the alphabetic keys of these key‐
       boards, characters of the native-language alphabet are engraved on  the
       bottom  right of the keycaps and characters in the English alphabet are
       engraved on the top left of the keycaps.

       On PC-style keyboards, press the right control key (Right Ctrl) to tog‐
       gle input mode between English and the native language.

   Dead-Key Input Method for Characters Missing From Keyboard
       Some  languages	supported  by  ISO Latin character sets have alphabets
       that contain so many characters that they cannot all be engraved on the
       keycaps	of  the	 main  keypad.	The  missing characters are most often
       glyphs composed of a base Latin letter and a top or bottom accent (dia‐
       critical)  mark. The keyboards for these languages support the dead-key
       input method to enter the additional characters. The term “dead”	 means
       that  certain characters, usually the diacritical marks, are defined to
       be nonspacing characters.

       The dead-key input method consists  of  typing  a  two-stroke  sequence
       (pressing and releasing the key for the nonspacing diacritical mark and
       then pressing and releasing the the key for the base character) to send
       the  corresponding  “accented”  character.  Typing  a space as the base
       character sends the code for the spacing diacritical mark (the diacrit‐
       ical mark by itself).

       Keys defined as nonspacing diacritical characters do not send the char‐
       acter code immediately (do not echo), but instead modify	 the  code  of
       the character entered next. The modified character code is sent only if
       the diacritical and following character can be combined to form a valid
       character  in  the  character set supported by the keyboard. If the key
       combination does not result in a valid character, no character is sent.
       In  addition,  an audible warning sounds if the ``bell'' is enabled for
       your keyboard.

       The following table specifies diacritical characters  defined  as  non‐
       spacing for use with the dead-key input method on VT-style keyboards.

			  |	Nonspacing Diacritical Characters
			  |		C     D	 D
			  |		i  D  o	 b
			  |	     C	c  i  t	 l
			  |	     e	u  a	       M  O
			  | A  B  C  d	m  r  A	 A  G  a  g  R	T  T
			  |  c	 r   a	 i   f	 e   b	 c   r	 c  o  r  i  o
       -------------------+ u  e  r  l	l  s  o	 u  a  r  n  i	l  n
	VT Style	  | t  v  o  l	e  i  v	 t  v  o  e  n	d  o
	Keyboard for:	  | e  e  n  a	 x   s	 e   e	 e   n	 k   g	 e   s
       -------------------+--------------------------------------------	  Bel‐
       gian  French		       *    *		*	     *	 Czech
       *       *	 *  Flemish			      *	  *	     *
       * French				  *   *		 *	     *	French
       Canadian			     *		     *		   *	German
       *	 *   *	 *	    *	     *	  *   Greek		     *
       *			   *	 Hungarian			     *
       *	  * Lithuanian					  *	     *
       Polish					      *		  * Portuguese
       *	   *		 *	     *	Slovak		      *	     *
       *	  * Spanish		 *	     *	*	  *	     *
       Swiss French			*  *	     *		* Swiss German
       *		  *			   *			     *

       The following table specifies the diacritical marks defined as nonspac‐
       ing for use with the dead-key input method on PC-style keyboards.

			  |		C     D	 D
			  |		i  D  o	 b
			  |	     C	c  i  t	 l
			  |	     e	u  a	       M  O
			  | A  B  C  d	m  r  A	 A  G  a  g  R	T  T
			  |  c	 r   a	 i   f	 e   b	 c   r	 c  o  r  i  o
       -------------------+ u  e  r  l	l  s  o	 u  a  r  n  i	l  n
	PC Style	  | t  v  o  l	e  i  v	 t  v  o  e  n	d  o
	Keyboard for:	  | e  e  n  a	 x   s	 e   e	 e   n	 k   g	 e   s
       -------------------+------------------------------------------- Belgian
       French	      *		    *	 *	     *		    *	 Czech
       *   *   *  *	*  *  * Danish		     *		 *  *	     *
       * Dutch		      *	       *  *  *	       *	    *  Finnish
       *		 *	  *		*		 *	French
       *   *  French  Canadian	     *	       *    *	 *	    *	German
       *	     *		   *   Greek		     *		     *
       * Hungarian	      *	 *  *  *  *  *	*  *  *	    *  *  * Lithuanian
       *	     *	 Norwegian		*	      *	   *	     *
       * Polish		      *	 *  *  *     *	*  *	     *	 *  Portuguese
       *	     *	  *	     *		   *   Serb/Croat/Slovene    *
       *   *  Slovak		     *	     *		*	   *   Spanish
       *	     *	 *	   *  Swedish		    *		 *   *
       *	    *  Swiss  French	       *	     *	  *	     *
       *  Swiss German	       *	   *  *	       *	   * Turkish F
       *	Turkish		Q					     *


       The  number  of	nonspacing diacritical characters defined for the key‐
       board may vary from those shown in the tables, depending	 on  the  type
       and generation of the keyboard.

       Keyboards for languages not shown in the tables do not define diacriti‐
       cal marks as nonspacing and therefore do not support the dead-key input

   Compose-Character Input Method for Characters Missing From Keyboard
       In  addition to or in place of the dead-key input method, your keyboard
       may support the compose-character, or multikey, input method. Like  the
       dead-key input method, the compose-character input method allows you to
       enter characters that are not present on your keyboard. You  can	 enter
       the  full  range of characters supported by the keyboard character set,
       which encompasses more characters than those  in	 a  particular	native

       The compose-key input method consists of the following two steps: Press
       and release the key defined as the multikey for your keyboard. The key‐
       cap for this key is often engraved with Compose.	 Enter the two-charac‐
       ter pair that composes the resulting character.	 You  can  type	 these
       characters  in  any  sequence (with a few exceptions). Do not hold down
       the keys simultaneously.

       Use the following keys for this input method:  On  VT-style  keyboards,
       press  and release the Compose key on the right side of the main keypad
       (Right Compose)

	      You can use the Compose key on either side of the	 keyboard  for
	      American	English	 and Portuguese. For these languages, the Left
	      Compose key has not been redefined to perform another  function.
	      On  PC-style  keyboards, hold down the alternate-function key on
	      the left side of the main keypad while pressing  the  space  bar
	      (Left Alt+Space)

	      The  Left Alt+Space key sequence conflicts with the key sequence
	      used to open a menu on an active window. If you are using	 a  PC
	      -style  keyboard	in  the CDE environment and do not need to use
	      the compose-character input method, you can  redefine  this  key
	      sequence to open menus in the following way:

	      Edit  the	 file /usr/i18n/dt/config/locale/sys.dtwmrc and remove
	      the comment character (#) from the beginning  of	the  following

	      # Alt<Key>space	      icon|window     f.post_wmenu Restart the
	      Workspace Manager

       If, after entering compose-character mode, you type  a  character  pair
       that  is	 invalid,  no  character code is sent. In addition, an audible
       warning sounds if the ``bell'' is enabled for your keyboard.

       The compose-character input method requires three to four keystrokes to
       enter  a	 character  whereas  the dead-key input method requires two to
       three keystrokes. If your keyboard  supports  both  input  methods  for
       entry  of  a  particular	 character,  the dead-key input method is more

       Compose-character sequences and their resulting characters vary accord‐
       ing  to	the  coded character set (codeset) that supports your keyboard
       and   language.	  See	the   appropriate   codeset   reference	  page
       (iso8859-1(5), for example) for the compose-character sequences you can

       Directory containing data and keymaps in xkb format Directory  contain‐
       ing keymaps in xmodmap format


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