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import(1)							     import(1)

       import - capture some or all of an X server screen and save the image
       to a file.

       import [ options ... ] [ file ]

       import reads an image from any visible window on an X server and out‐
       puts it as an image file.  You can capture a single window, the entire
       screen, or any rectangular portion of the screen.  Use display (see
       display(1)) for redisplay, printing, editing, formatting, archiving,
       image processing, etc. of the captured image.

       The target window can be specified by id, name, or may be selected by
       clicking the mouse in the desired window.  If you press a button and
       then drag, a rectangle will form which expands and contracts as the
       mouse moves.  To save the portion of the screen	defined by the rectan‐
       gle, just release the button.  The keyboard bell is rung once at the
       beginning of the screen capture and twice when it completes.

       To select an X window with the mouse and save it in the MIFF image for‐
       mat to a file titled window.miff, use:

	    import window.miff

       To select an X window and save it in the Encapsulated Postscript format
       to include in another document, use:

	    import figure.eps

       To capture the entire X server screen in the JPEG image format in a
       file titled root.jpeg, use:

	    import -window root root.jpeg

       import options can appear on the command line or in your X resources
       file (see X(1)).	 Options on the command line supersede values speci‐
       fied in your X resources file.

	      join images into a single multi-image file.

	      By default, all images of an image sequence are stored in the
	      same file.  However, some formats (e.g. JPEG) do not support
	      more than one image and are saved to separate files.  Use
	      +adjoin to force this behavior.

	      include image borders in the output image.

       -cache threshold
	      megabytes of memory available to the pixel cache.

	      Image pixels are stored in memory until 80 megabytes of memory
	      have been consumed.  Subsequent pixel operations are cached on
	      disk.  Operations to memory are significantly faster but if your
	      computer does not have a sufficient amount of free memory you
	      may want to adjust this threshold value.	-colors value pre‐
	      ferred number of colors in the image.

	      The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your
	      request, but never more.	Note, this is a color reduction
	      option.  Images with less unique colors than specified with this
	      option will have any duplicate or unused colors removed.	Refer
	      to quantize(9) for more details.

	      Note, options -dither, -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the
	      color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace value
	      the type of colorspace: GRAY, OHTA, RGB, Transparent, XYZ,
	      YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, YUV, or CMYK.

	      Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space.
	      Empirical evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such
	      as YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual color differences more
	      closely than do distances in RGB space.  These color spaces may
	      give better results when color reducing an image.	 Refer to
	      quantize(9) for more details.

	      The Transparent color space behaves uniquely in that it pre‐
	      serves the matte channel of the image if it exists.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
	      take effect.

       -comment string
	      annotate an image with a comment.

	      By default, each image is commented with its file name.  Use
	      this option to assign a specific comment to the image.  Option‐
	      ally you can include the image filename, type, width, height, or
	      other image attributes by embedding special format characters:

		  %b   file size
		  %c   comment
		  %d   directory
		  %e   filename extention
		  %f   filename
		  %h   height
		  %i   input filename
		  %l   label
		  %m   magick
		  %n   number of scenes
		  %o   output filename
		  %p   page number
		  %q   quantum depth
		  %s   scene number
		  %t   top of filename
		  %u   unique temporary filename
		  %w   width
		  %x   x resolution
		  %y   y resolution
		  \n   newline
		  \r   carriage return

	      For example,

		   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read
	      from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

       -compress type
	      the type of image compression: None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG,
	      LZW, RunlengthEncoded, or Zip.

	      Specify +compress to store the binary image in an uncompressed
	      format.  The default is the compression type of the specified
	      image file.

       -crop <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>{%}
	      preferred size and location of the cropped image.	 See X(1) for
	      details about the geometry specification.

	      To specify a percentage width or height instead, append %.  For
	      example to crop the image by ten percent on all sides of the
	      image, use -crop 10%.

	      Omit the x and y offset to generate one or more subimages of a
	      uniform size.

	      Use cropping to crop a particular area of an image.   Use -crop
	      0x0 to trim edges that are the background color.	Add an x and y
	      offset to leave a portion of the trimmed edges with the image.

       -delay <1/100ths of a second>x<seconds>
	      display the next image after pausing.

	      This option is useful for regulating the display of the sequence
	      of images.  1/100ths of a second must expire before the display
	      of the next image.  The default is 6/100 of a second between
	      each frame of the image sequence.	 The second value is optional.
	      It specifies the number of seconds to pause before repeating
	      your animation sequence.

       -density <width>x<height>
	      vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image.

	      This option specifies an image density when decoding a Post‐
	      script or Portable Document page.	 The default is 72 pixels per
	      inch in the horizontal and vertical direction.  This option is
	      used in concert with -page.

	      obtain image by descending window hierarchy.

       -display host:display[.screen]
	      specifies the X server to contact; see X(1).

       -dispose method
	      GIF disposal method.

	      Here are the valid methods:

		   0	 No disposal specified.
		   1	 Do not dispose between frames.
		   2	 Overwrite frame with background color from header.
		   3	 Overwrite with previous frame.

	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image.

	      The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution
	      for spatial resolution by averaging the intensities of several
	      neighboring pixels.  Images which suffer from severe contouring
	      when reducing colors can be improved with this option.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
	      take effect.

	      Use +dither to render Postscript without text or graphic alias‐

       -frame include window manager frame.

       -geometry <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>{%}{!}{<}{>}
	      the width and height of the image.

	      By default, the width and height are maximum values.  That is,
	      the image is expanded or contracted to fit the width and height
	      value while maintaining the aspect ratio of the image.  Append
	      an exclamation point to the geometry to force the image size to
	      exactly the size you specify.  For example, if you specify
	      640x480! the image width is set to 640 pixels and height to 480.
	      If only one factor is specified, both the width and height
	      assume the value.

	      To specify a percentage width or height instead, append %.  The
	      image size is multiplied by the width and height percentages to
	      obtain the final image dimensions.  To increase the size of an
	      image, use a value greater than 100 (e.g. 125%).	To decrease an
	      image's size, use a percentage less than 100.

	      Use > to change the dimensions of the image only if its size
	      exceeds the geometry specification.  < resizes the image only if
	      its dimensions is less than the geometry specification.  For
	      example, if you specify 640x480> and the image size is 512x512,
	      the image size does not change.  However, if the image is
	      1024x1024, it is resized to 640x480.

       -interlace type
	      the type of interlacing scheme: None, Line, Plane, or Partition.
	      The default is None.

	      This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme
	      for raw image formats such as RGB or YUV.	 No means do not
	      interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...), Line uses scanline interlac‐
	      ing (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and Plane uses plane
	      interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).    Partition is like
	      plane except the different planes are saved to individual files
	      (e.g.  image.R, image.G, and image.B).

	      Use Line, or Plane to create an interlaced GIF or progressive
	      JPEG image.  -label name assign a label to an image.

	      Use this option to assign a specific label to the image.
	      Optionally you can include the image filename, type, width,
	      height, or other image attributes by embedding special format
	      characters.  See -comment for details.

	      For example,

		   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the image label is read
	      from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

	      When converting to Postscript, use this option to specify a
	      header string to print above the image. Specify the label font
	      with -font.

	      transform image to black and white.

	      replace every pixel with its complementary color (white becomes
	      black, yellow becomes blue, etc.).

	      The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated.
	      Use +negate to only negate the grayscale pixels of the image.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>{%}{!}{<}{>}
	      preferred size and location of an image canvas.

	      Use this option to specify the dimensions of the Postscript page
	      in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels.  The choices for a
	      Postscript page are:

		     11x17	   792	1224
		     Ledger	  1224	 792
		     Legal	   612	1008
		     Letter	   612	 792
		     LetterSmall   612	 792
		     ArchE	  2592	3456
		     ArchD	  1728	2592
		     ArchC	  1296	1728
		     ArchB	   864	1296
		     ArchA	   648	 864
		     A0		  2380	3368
		     A1		  1684	2380
		     A2		  1190	1684
		     A3		   842	1190
		     A4		   595	 842
		     A4Small	   595	 842
		     A5		   421	 595
		     A6		   297	 421
		     A7		   210	 297
		     A8		   148	 210
		     A9		   105	 148
		     A10	    74	 105
		     B0		  2836	4008
		     B1		  2004	2836
		     B2		  1418	2004
		     B3		  1002	1418
		     B4		   709	1002
		     B5		   501	 709
		     C0		  2600	3677
		     C1		  1837	2600
		     C2		  1298	1837
		     C3		   918	1298
		     C4		   649	 918
		     C5		   459	 649
		     C6		   323	 459
		     Flsa	   612	 936
		     Flse	   612	 936
		     HalfLetter	   396	 612

	      For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g.
	      A4, Ledger, etc.).  Otherwise, -page behaves much like -geometry
	      (e.g. -page letter+43+43>).

	      To position a GIF image, use -page {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>
	      (e.g. -page +100+200).

	      For a Postscript page, the image is sized as in -geometry and
	      positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by
	      {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>.  Use -page 612x792>, for example,
	      to center the image within the page.  If the image size exceeds
	      the Postscript page, it is reduced to fit the page.

	      The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.

	      This option is used in concert with -density.

       -pointsize value
	      pointsize of the Postscript, X11, or TrueType font.

       -quality value
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level.

	      For the JPEG image format, quality is 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
	      The default quality is 75.

	      Quality for the MIFF and PNG image format sets the amount of
	      image compression (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality % 10).
	      Compression quality values range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
	      If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used
	      for all scanlines:

		  0: none
		  1: sub
		  2: up
		  3: average
		  4: Paeth

	      If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is
	      greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map, other‐
	      wise no filtering is used.

	      If filter-type is 6 or more, adaptive filtering with minimum-
	      sum-of-absolute-values is used.

	      The default is quality is 75.  Which means nearly the best com‐
	      pression with adaptive filtering.

	      For further information, see the PNG specification (RFC 2083),

       -rotate degrees{<}{>}
	      apply Paeth image rotation to the image.

	      Use > to rotate the image only if its width exceeds the height.
	      < rotates the image only if its width is less than the height.
	      For example, if you specify -90> and the image size is 480x640,
	      the image is not rotated by the specified angle.	However, if
	      the image is 640x480, it is rotated by -90 degrees.

	      Empty triangles left over from rotating the image are filled
	      with the color defined as bordercolor (class borderColor).

       -scene value
	      number of screen snapshots.

	      Use this option to grab more than one image from the X server
	      screen to create an animation sequence.

	      This option indicates that the GetImage request used to obtain
	      the image should be done on the root window, rather than
	      directly on the specified window.	 In this way, you can obtain
	      pieces of other windows that overlap the specified window, and
	      more importantly, you can capture menus or other popups that are
	      independent windows but appear over the specified window.

	      operate silently, i.e. don't ring any bells.

       -transparent color
	      make this color transparent within the image.

       -treedepth value
	      Normally, this integer value is zero or one.  A zero or one
	      tells convert to choose a optimal tree depth for the color
	      reduction algorithm.

	      An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the
	      source image with the fastest computational speed and the least
	      amount of memory.	 However, the default depth is inappropriate
	      for some images.	To assure the best representation, try values
	      between 2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer to quantize(9) for
	      more details.

	      The -colors option is required for this option to take effect.

       -type type
	      set the image type: Bilevel, Grayscale, Palette, PaletteMatte,
	      TrueColor, TrueColorMatte, or ColorSeparation.

	      print detailed information about the image.

	      This information is printed: image scene number;	image name;
	      image size; the image class (DirectClass or PseudoClass);	 the
	      total number of unique colors;  and the number of seconds to
	      read and write the image.

       -window id
	      select window with this id or name.

	      With this option you can specify the target window by id or name
	      rather than using the mouse.  Specify 'root' to select X's root
	      window as the target window.

       Options are processed in command line order.  Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different effect.

       file specifies the image filename.  If file is omitted, it defaults to
       magick.miff.  The default image format is MIFF.	To specify a particu‐
       lar image format, precede the filename with an image format name and a
       colon (i.e.  gif:image) or specify the image type as the filename suf‐
       fix (i.e.  image.jpg).  See convert(1) for a list of valid image for‐

       Specify file as - for standard output.  If file has the extension .Z or
       .gz, the file size is compressed using with compress or gzip respec‐
       tively.	Precede the image file name | to pipe to a system command. If
       file already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should be

	      To get the default host, display number, and screen.

       display(1), animate(1), montage(1), mogrify(1), convert(1), combine(1),

       Copyright (C) 2001 ImageMagick Studio, a non-profit organization dedi‐
       cated to making software imaging solutions freely available.

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
       copy of this software and associated documentation files ("ImageMag‐
       ick"), to deal in ImageMagick without restriction, including without
       limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute,
       sublicense, and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to permit persons to
       whom the ImageMagick is furnished to do so, subject to the following

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
       in all copies or substantial portions of ImageMagick.

       The software is provided "as is", without warranty of any kind, express
       or implied, including but not limited to the warranties of mer‐
       chantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement.  In
       no event shall ImageMagick Studio be liable for any claim, damages or
       other liability, whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise,
       arising from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick or the use or
       other dealings in ImageMagick.

       Except as contained in this notice, the name of the ImageMagick Studio
       shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use
       or other dealings in ImageMagick without prior written authorization
       from the ImageMagick Studio.

       John Cristy, E.I. du Pont De Nemours and Company Incorporated

ImageMagick			  1 May 1994			     import(1)

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