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hier(5)								       hier(5)

       hier - Standard file system hierarchy

       A Tru64 UNIX operating system has a standard file system hierarchy.  So
       does the X11 Window System. The operating  system  has  a  unique  root
       directory,  the identity of which is compiled into the operating system
       kernel and is activated when the operating system is bootstrapped.  The
       X11  Window System is a file system within the operating system hierar‐

       The root file system is the file system that contains the  root	direc‐
       tory.   Although the default root file system is compiled into the ker‐
       nel, you can use other file systems as the root	after  the  system  is
       bootstrapped.  For  example, you could use the mount command to mount a
       file system on the root directory mount point, making that file	system
       the root file system until the machine is bootstrapped again.

       The  standard  file system hierarchy for Tru64 UNIX systems allows both
       the components of the system and	 developers  of	 products  for	it  to
       install	and  run their software in a consistent environment. For exam‐
       ple, third-party software developers can place  their  products	within
       the  standard  directory structure (in the /opt, /usr/opt, and /var/opt
       directories), and can then expect their products will install  success‐
       fully on systems that have maintained the standard hierarchy.

       The  three  components  to the standard file system hierarchy for Tru64
       UNIX systems are the directory hierarchy for the operating system,  the
       X11  Window  System,  and Context Dependent Symbolic Links (CDSLs). The
       following sections show these components.

       Developers of products for Tru64 UNIX should use the  structures	 shown
       in order to ensure their products can be installed on, and are portable
       to, other Tru64 UNIX systems.

       Administrators of Tru64 UNIX systems should preserve the CDSLs for  the
       system because the CDSLs must be intact to perform update installations
       of Tru64 UNIX systems or incorporate the system into a clustered	 envi‐
       ronment.	  See symlink(2) for more information about symbolic links and

       The following table shows the standard base system hierarchy.

       Base System Hierarchy   Description of Directory or File
       /		       The root directory for the root file system of the
			       operating system
       /cluster/	       Directory for a cluster of which this system could
			       be a member
	 members/	       Root directory for cluster member0,  this  system,
			       whether or not it is in a cluster
       /dev/		       Block and character device special files
       /devices/	       Directory for device special files (new method)
       /etc/		       System  configuration files and databases; nonexe‐
			       cutable files
	 nls/		       National language support databases
       /lost+found/	       Files located by fsck
       /opt/		       Optional for layered products,  such  as	 applica‐
			       tions and device drivers

       /sbin/		       Commands	 essential  to	boot  the system (most of
			       these commands depend on shared libraries  or  the
			       loader  and  have  other	 versions  in /usr/bin or
	 init.d/	       System state rc files
	 rc0.d/		       The rc files executed for system-state 0
	 rc2.d/		       The rc files executed for system-state 2
	 rc3.d/		       The rc files executed for system-state 3
       /subsys/		       Dynamically configured kernel modules required  in
			       single-user mode
       /sys/		       Links to those files in /usr/sys/ that are source-
			       code based
	 BINARY/	       System executable modules (.mod files )
       /tmp/		       System-generated temporary files, usually not pre‐
			       served across a system reboot
       /usr/		       Most user utilities and applications
	 bin/		       Common utilities and applications
	 ccs/		       C  compilation system; tools and libraries used to
			       generate C programs
	   bin/		       Development binaries such as cc, ld, and make
	   lib/		       Development libraries and back ends
	 cluster/	       Directories for cluster members
	 include/	       Program header (include) files; not all	subdirec‐
			       tories are listed in this appendix
	   mach/	       Mach-specific C include files
	   machine/	       Machine-specific C include files
	   net/		       Miscellaneous network C include files
	   netinet/	       C include files for Internet standard protocols
	   netns/	       C include files for XNS standard protocols
	   nfs/		       C include files for Network File System
	   protocols/	       C include files for Berkeley service protocols
	   rpc/		       C include files for remote procedure calls
	   servers/	       C include files for servers
	   sys/		       System C include files (kernel data structures)
	   tli/		       C include files for Transport Layer Interface
	   ufs/		       C include files for UNIX File System
	 examples/	       Subdirectories of programming examples
	 lbin/		       Back-end executable files
	   spell/	       Spell back-end
	   uucp/	       UNIX-to-UNIX Copy (UUCP) programs
	 lib/		       Links	 to	libraries    located	elsewhere
			       (/usr/ccs/lib),	(/usr/libin),	(/usr/share/lib),
			       (/X11/lib); included for compatibility
	 opt/		       Optional	 layered  products,  such as applications
			       and device drivers
	 sbin/		       System administration utilities and system  utili‐
	 share/		       Architecture-independent ASCII text files
	   dict/	       Word lists
	   lib/		       Various libraries
	     me/	       Macros for use with the me macro package
	     ms/	       Macros for use with the ms macro package
	     tabset/	       Tab  description files for a variety of terminals;
			       used in /etc/termcap
	     terminfo/	       Terminal information database
	     tmac/	       Text-processing macros
	   man/		       Online reference pages
	     man1/	       Source for user command reference pages
	     man2/	       Source for system call reference pages
	     man3/	       Source for library routine reference pages
	     man4/	       Source for file format reference pages
	     man5/	       Source for miscellaneous reference pages
	     man7/	       Source for device reference pages
	     man8/	       Source for administrator command reference pages
	     cat1-cat8	       Formatted versions of files in man1 - man8

	 shlib/		       Binary-loadable shared libraries; shared	 versions
			       of libraries in /usr/ccs/lib
	 sys/		       System configuration files
	   BINARY	       Object	files	and   links   to   the	files  in
	   conf/	       Kernel configuration control files
	   include/	       Header files
       /var/		       Multipurpose log, temporary,  varying,  and  spool
			       files.  [An  alternate location for this directory
			       is /usr/var.]
	 cluster/	       Directory for cluster members
	 adm/		       Common administrative files and databases
	   crash/	       For saving kernel crash dumps
	   cron/	       Files used by cron
	   sendmail/	       Configuration and database files for sendmail
	   syslog/	       Files generated by syslog
	 opt/		       Optional layered products,  such	 as  applications
			       and device drivers
	 run/		       Files created when daemons are running
	 spool/		       Miscellaneous  printer  and  mail-system	 spooling
	   lpd/		       Line printer spooling directories
	   mail/	       Incoming mail messages
	   mqueue/	       Undelivered mail queue
	   uucp/	       UUCP spool directory
	 subsys/	       Loadable kernel modules required in multiuser mode
	 tmp/		       Application-generated  temporary	 files	that  are
			       kept between system reboots
       /vmunix		       Pure   kernel  executable  (the	operating  system
			       loaded into memory at boot time)

       The following table shows the standard X11 window system hierarchy.

       X11   Window    System	Description of Directory or File
       /usr/			Most user utilities and applications
	 bin/			Common utilities and applications
	   X11/			X applications
	     demos/		Miscellaneous demo programs
	 examples/		Example programs
	   dxpaint/		Sample Paint image
	   motif/		Motif example programs
	 include/		Header files
	   DPS/			Files for DPS
	   DXm/			Files for libDXm
	   Mrm/			Files for libMrm
	   uil/			UIL header files
	   X11/			X C header files
	     bitmaps/		X bitmaps
	     extensions/	Header files for use with X extensions
	     Xaw/		Files for libXaw
	     Xserver/		Header files used for loadable X server libraries
	   Xm/			Header files for libXm
	 lib/			Static archive X libraries
	   cda/			CDA style guides
	   emacs/		Emacs directory base
	   X11/			Display and font resources
	     app-defaults/	System-wide  resource  files for X client applica‐
	     bitmaps/		Program-specific bitmaps
	     appdata/		Generic program-specific data
	     config/		Imake configuration files

	     DPS/		Display Postscript files
	     fonts/		Font files
	       100dpi/		100 dpi fonts from X Consortium
	       75dpi/		75 dpi fonts from X Consortium
	       decwin/		DECwindows fonts
		 100dpi/	100 dpi fonts
		 75dpi/		75 dpi fonts
	       misc/		Fonts from X Consortium
	       Speedo/		Speedo scalable fonts
	       Type1/		Type1 scalable fonts
	       Type1Adobe/	Adobe Type1 scalable fonts
		 afm/		Adobe font metrics
	       user		Fonts from layered products  and  local	 installa‐
		 100dpi/	100 dpi fonts
		 75dpi/		75 dpi fonts
		 misc/		Other fonts
	     fs/		Fontserver config and error log files
	     help/		Help  files for X client applications; subdirecto‐
				ries as applicable
	     keymaps/		Keymaps for various keyboards
	     twm/		Default configuration for twm window manager
	     uid/		User Interface Definitions for X  client  applica‐
	     x11perfcomp/	Scripts for analyzing x11perf output
	     xdm/		X   Display  Manager  configuration  and  resource
				files, and error log
	 shlib/			Shareable libraries
	   X11/			Shareable libraries loaded by X server

       The following example is a list of  Context  Dependent  Symbolic	 Links
       (CDSLs) on a base system. It was produced by running the following com‐
       mand line. Note that the CDSL list generated on your system may	differ
       from  that  presented  in this example, depending on the version of the
       operating system you are running and  the  layered  products  (such  as
       cluster	software)  that	 are  installed.   # find / -type l -ls | grep
       '{memb}' | awk '{ print $11, $12, $13 }' | tee /usr/tmp/cdsl.list.

       /cluster/members/member	->  {memb}  /etc/cfginfo  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/cfginfo	   /etc/autopush.conf	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/autopush.conf   /etc/binlog.conf	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/binlog.conf     /etc/rc.config	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/rc.config   /etc/strsetup.conf	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/strsetup.conf   /etc/syslog.conf	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/syslog.conf    /etc/gated.conf	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/gated.conf    /etc/ifaccess.conf	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/ifaccess.conf   /etc/inet.local	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/inet.local   /etc/inetd.conf.local  ->  ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/inetd.conf.local	  /etc/ntp.conf	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/ntp.conf	    /etc/ogated.conf	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/ogated.conf	/etc/ppp      ->       ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/ppp /etc/remote -> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/remote
       /etc/routes  ->	../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/routes  /etc/slhosts  ->
       ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/slhosts   /etc/snmpd.conf	 ->   ../clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}/etc/snmpd.conf   /etc/dhcptab	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/dhcptab	  /etc/latautopush.conf	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/latautopush.conf	  /etc/dfsl.dat	  ->   ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/dfsl.dat	 /etc/atm -> ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/atm
       /etc/atm.conf ->	 ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/atm.conf	 /etc/dfsl.bak
       ->  ../cluster/members/{memb}/etc/dfsl.bak  /etc/gateways  ->  ../clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}/etc/gateways	 /etc/ntp.keys	 ->    ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/etc/ntp.keys	  /etc/sm  ->  /cluster/members/{memb}//etc/sm
       /etc/sm.bak -> /cluster/members/{memb}//etc/sm.bak /etc/state -> /clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}//etc/state /sbin/init.d/autosysconfig -> ../../clus‐
			       /sbin/init.d/autosysconfig /dev -> cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/dev	/tmp  ->  cluster/members/{memb}/tmp /usr/cluster/mem‐
       bers/member  ->	{memb}	/usr/lib/X11/Xserver.conf  ->  ../../var/clus‐
			       /X11/Xserver.conf   /var/cluster/members/member
       ->  {memb}  /var/adm/smlogs   ->	  ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/smlogs
       /var/adm/binary.errlog  ->  ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/binary.errlog
       /var/adm/crash -> ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/crash /var/adm/cron  ->
       ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/cron  /var/adm/lastlog -> ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/adm/lastlog	    /var/adm/lmf      ->       ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/adm/lmf	/var/adm/messages      ->      ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/adm/messages /var/adm/sendmail/protocols.map -> ../../clus‐
			       /adm/sendmail/protocols.map	/var/adm/send‐
       mail/sendmail.st -> ../../cluster/members/{memb}
			       /adm/sendmail/sendmail.st  /var/adm/syslog   ->
       ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/syslog  /var/adm/syslog.dated -> ../clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}/adm/syslog.dated  /var/adm/utmp  ->  ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/adm/utmp	  /var/adm/wtmp	      ->       ../cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/adm/wtmp /var/adm/lpd ->  ../cluster/members/{memb}/adm/lpd
       /var/tmp	  ->   ./cluster/members/{memb}/tmp  /var/evm/adm/logfiles  ->
       ../../cluster/members/{memb}/evm/adm/logfiles	/var/evm/evmlog	    ->
       ../cluster/members/{memb}/evm/evmlog   /var/evm/sockets	 ->   ../clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}/evm/sockets /var/run -> ./cluster/members/{memb}/run
       /var/spool/cron	       ->	  ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/cron
       /var/spool/locks	       ->	 ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/locks
       /var/spool/lpd  ->  ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/lpd /var/spool/uucp
       ->   ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/uucp   /var/spool/uucppublic    ->
       ../cluster/members/{memb}/spool/uucppublic   /var/agentx	  ->   ./clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}/agentx  /var/rwho  ->	 ./cluster/members/{memb}/rwho
       /var/dt	  ->   cluster/members/{memb}/dt   /var/advfs/daemon/logs   ->
       ../../cluster/members/{memb}/advfs/daemon/logs /var/advfs/daemon/socket
       -> ../../cluster/members/{memb}
			       /advfs/daemon/socket /var/advfs/gui -> ../clus‐
       ter/members/{memb}/advfs/gui /var/rsvp -> ./cluster/members/{memb}/rsvp
       /var/yp/binding	 ->  ../cluster/members/{memb}/yp/binding  /var/im  ->
       ./cluster/members/{memb}/im     /var/lsmsa     ->     /var/cluster/mem‐
       bers/{memb}/lsmsa /.local.. -> cluster/members/{memb}

       The /usr/sbin/cdslinvchk utility provides a method of checking and ver‐
       ifying CDSLs on a system.

       Commands:  ls(1),   apropos(1),	 whatis(1),   whereis(1),   finger(1),
       which(1), find(1), grep(1), fsck(8), mount(8), cdslinvchk(8)



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