GIT-PUSH(1) Git Manual GIT-PUSH(1)NAMEgit-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
[--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
to complete the given refs.
You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-
When the command line does not specify where to push with the
<repository> argument, branch.*.remote configuration for the current
branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the configuration is
missing, it defaults to origin.
When the command line does not specify what to push with <refspec>...
arguments or --all, --mirror, --tags options, the command finds the
default <refspec> by consulting remote.*.push configuration, and if it
is not found, honors push.default configuration to decide what to push
(See gitlink:git-config for the meaning of push.default).
The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below)
or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).
Specify what destination ref to update with what source object. The
format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by
the source object <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
destination ref <dst>.
The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or
HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).
The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
be named. If git push [<repository>] without any <refspec> argument
is set to update some ref at the destination with <src> with
remote.<repository>.push configuration variable, :<dst> part can be
omitted---such a push will update a ref that <src> normally updates
without any <refspec> on the command line. Otherwise, missing
:<dst> means to update the same ref as the <src>.
The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
reference on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if
<dst> is not a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it
can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading +, you can
tell Git to update the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by
default (e.g., it is not a fast-forward.) This does not attempt to
merge <src> into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.
tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.
Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of
the same name already exists on the remote side.
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
refs/heads/ be pushed.
Remove remote branches that don’t have a local counterpart. For
example a remote branch tmp will be removed if a local branch with
the same name doesn’t exist any more. This also respects refspecs,
e.g. git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/* would make
sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if refs/heads/foo
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
refs/ (which includes but is not limited to refs/heads/,
refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored to the remote
repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote
end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end,
and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This is the
default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is set.
Do everything except actually send the updates.
Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The
full symbolic names of the refs will be given.
All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the
same as prefixing all refs with a colon.
All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
explicitly listed on the command line.
Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option, and
also push annotated tags in refs/tags that are missing from the
remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are reachable from the
refs being pushed.
Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not
have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.
Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push" fails
Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
replace the history you originally published with the rebased
history. If somebody else built on top of your original history
while you are rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may
advance with her commit, and blindly pushing with --force will lose
This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease"
on the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref
while making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).
--force-with-lease alone, without specifying the details, will
protect all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring
their current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we
have for them, unless specified with a
--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> option that explicitly states
what the expected value is.
--force-with-lease=<refname>, without specifying the expected
value, will protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be
updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the
remote-tracking branch we have for it.
--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> will protect the named ref
(alone), if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current
value to be the same as the specified value <expect> (which is
allowed to be different from the remote-tracking branch we have for
the refname, or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking
branch when this form is used).
Note that all forms other than
--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> that specifies the expected
current value of the ref explicitly are still experimental and
their semantics may change as we gain experience with this feature.
"--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous
--force-with-lease on the command line.
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. Also, when
--force-with-lease option is used, the command refuses to update a
remote ref whose current value does not match what is expected.
This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote
repository to lose commits; use it with care.
Note that --force applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
using it with push.default set to matching or with multiple push
destinations configured with remote.*.push may overwrite refs other
than the current branch (including local refs that are strictly
behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only one
branch, use a + in front of the refspec to push (e.g git push
origin +master to force a push to the master branch). See the
<refspec>... section above for details.
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is passed
in the invocation. In this case, git push derives the remote name
from the current branch: If it tracks a remote branch, then that
remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise, the name "origin" is
used. For this latter case, this option can be used to override the
name "origin". In other words, the difference between these two
git push public #1
git push --repo=public #2
is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
useful if you write an alias or script around git push.
For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer
significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is
Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs, unless
an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard error
Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
not directed to a terminal.
Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
are available on a remote-tracking branch. If check is used Git
will verify that all submodule commits that changed in the
revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote of the
submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be aborted and
exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is used all submodules that
changed in the revisions to be pushed will be pushed. If on-demand
was not able to push all necessary revisions it will also be
aborted and exit with non-zero status.
Toggle the pre-push hook (see githooks(5)). The default is
--verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the push. With
--no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.
In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.
Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
ftps can be used for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching and
pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use them).
The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
should be used with caution on unsecured networks.
The following syntaxes may be used with them:
An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:
This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.
The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:
For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
syntaxes may be used:
These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.
When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:
where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.
If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
section of the form:
[url "<actual url base>"]
insteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
insteadOf = work:
a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be
If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
configuration section of the form:
[url "<actual url base>"]
pushInsteadOf = <other url base>
For example, with this:
pushInsteadOf = git://example.org/
a URL like "git://example.org/path/to/repo.git" will be rewritten to
"ssh://example.org/path/to/repo.git" for pushes, but pulls will still
use the original URL.
The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
· a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,
· a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or
· a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.
All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.
Named remote in configuration file
You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
entry in the config file would appear like this:
url = <url>
pushurl = <pushurl>
push = <refspec>
fetch = <refspec>
The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to
Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
the command line. This file should have the following format:
URL: one of the above URL format
Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
additional branch mappings.
Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
should have the following format:
<url> is required; #<head> is optional.
Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.
git fetch uses:
git push uses:
The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
locally or via ssh).
The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
<flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:
<flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
option is used.
A single character indicating the status of the ref:
for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
for a successful forced update;
for a successfully deleted ref;
for a successfully pushed new ref;
for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for
forced non-fast-forward updates).
For a failed update, more details are given:
Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it is
not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.
The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook on
the remote side, or because the remote repository has one of
the following safety options in effect:
receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to the checked out
branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced
non-fast-forward updates), receive.denyDeletes or
receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).
The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
break in the network connection, or other transient error.
The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is
The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/
A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
failure is described.
NOTE ABOUT FAST-FORWARDS
When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.
In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.
In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you
built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a
history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:
Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to
A back to the original repository from which you two obtained the
original commit X.
The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point
at commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.
But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now
points at A) with commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you did so,
the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody will
now start building on top of B.
The command by default does not allow an update that is not a
fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.
If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work
by the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first
fetch the history from the repository, create a history that contains
changes done by both parties, and push the result back.
You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
push will be accepted.
Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of
Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will
There is another common situation where you may encounter
non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of
it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words,
"git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to
Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
branch’s remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
git push origin
Without additional configuration, works like git push origin :.
The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can
be configured by setting the push option of the remote, or the
push.default configuration variable.
For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to
origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid <refspec>
(like the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the
default for git push origin.
git push origin :
Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS
section above for a description of "matching" branches.
git push origin master
Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most
likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref
(e.g. refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master
did not exist remotely, it would be created.
git push origin HEAD
A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the
git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
Use the source ref that matches master (e.g. refs/heads/master) to
update the ref that matches satellite/master (most probably
refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the mothership repository; do the
same for dev and satellite/dev.
This is to emulate git fetch run on the mothership using git push
that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate the
work done on satellite, and is often necessary when you can only
make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into mothership
but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite because the
latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).
After running this git push on the satellite machine, you would ssh
into the mothership and run git merge there to complete the
emulation of git pull that were run on mothership to pull changes
made on satellite.
git push origin HEAD:master
Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
branch without thinking about its local name.
git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying
the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new
branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the
remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will
git push origin :experimental
Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.
git push origin +dev:master
Update the origin repository’s master branch with the dev branch,
allowing non-fast-forward updates. This can leave unreferenced
commits dangling in the origin repository. Consider the following
situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
The above command would change the origin repository to
A---B (unnamed branch)
Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic
name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be
removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.
Part of the git(1) suite
Git 1.9.0 04/22/2014 GIT-PUSH(1)