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GIT-PUSH(1)			  Git Manual			   GIT-PUSH(1)

       git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects

       git push [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
		  [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose] [-u | --set-upstream]
		  [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

       Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary
       to complete the given refs.

       You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you
       push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for git-

       When the command line does not specify where to push with the
       <repository> argument, branch.*.remote configuration for the current
       branch is consulted to determine where to push. If the configuration is
       missing, it defaults to origin.

       When the command line does not specify what to push with <refspec>...
       arguments or --all, --mirror, --tags options, the command finds the
       default <refspec> by consulting remote.*.push configuration, and if it
       is not found, honors push.default configuration to decide what to push
       (See gitlink:git-config[1] for the meaning of push.default).

	   The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation.
	   This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT URLS below)
	   or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES below).

	   Specify what destination ref to update with what source object. The
	   format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed by
	   the source object <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
	   destination ref <dst>.

	   The <src> is often the name of the branch you would want to push,
	   but it can be any arbitrary "SHA-1 expression", such as master~4 or
	   HEAD (see gitrevisions(7)).

	   The <dst> tells which ref on the remote side is updated with this
	   push. Arbitrary expressions cannot be used here, an actual ref must
	   be named. If git push [<repository>] without any <refspec> argument
	   is set to update some ref at the destination with <src> with
	   remote.<repository>.push configuration variable, :<dst> part can be
	   omitted---such a push will update a ref that <src> normally updates
	   without any <refspec> on the command line. Otherwise, missing
	   :<dst> means to update the same ref as the <src>.

	   The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst>
	   reference on the remote side. By default this is only allowed if
	   <dst> is not a tag (annotated or lightweight), and then only if it
	   can fast-forward <dst>. By having the optional leading +, you can
	   tell Git to update the <dst> ref even if it is not allowed by
	   default (e.g., it is not a fast-forward.) This does not attempt to
	   merge <src> into <dst>. See EXAMPLES below for details.

	   tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

	   Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from the
	   remote repository.

	   The special refspec : (or +: to allow non-fast-forward updates)
	   directs Git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that
	   exists on the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of
	   the same name already exists on the remote side.

	   Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
	   refs/heads/ be pushed.

	   Remove remote branches that don’t have a local counterpart. For
	   example a remote branch tmp will be removed if a local branch with
	   the same name doesn’t exist any more. This also respects refspecs,
	   e.g.	 git push --prune remote refs/heads/*:refs/tmp/* would make
	   sure that remote refs/tmp/foo will be removed if refs/heads/foo
	   doesn’t exist.

	   Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs under
	   refs/ (which includes but is not limited to refs/heads/,
	   refs/remotes/, and refs/tags/) be mirrored to the remote
	   repository. Newly created local refs will be pushed to the remote
	   end, locally updated refs will be force updated on the remote end,
	   and deleted refs will be removed from the remote end. This is the
	   default if the configuration option remote.<remote>.mirror is set.

       -n, --dry-run
	   Do everything except actually send the updates.

	   Produce machine-readable output. The output status line for each
	   ref will be tab-separated and sent to stdout instead of stderr. The
	   full symbolic names of the refs will be given.

	   All listed refs are deleted from the remote repository. This is the
	   same as prefixing all refs with a colon.

	   All refs under refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs
	   explicitly listed on the command line.

	   Push all the refs that would be pushed without this option, and
	   also push annotated tags in refs/tags that are missing from the
	   remote but are pointing at commit-ish that are reachable from the
	   refs being pushed.

       --receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>, --exec=<git-receive-pack>
	   Path to the git-receive-pack program on the remote end. Sometimes
	   useful when pushing to a remote repository over ssh, and you do not
	   have the program in a directory on the default $PATH.

       --[no-]force-with-lease, --force-with-lease=<refname>,
	   Usually, "git push" refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
	   ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.

	   This option bypasses the check, but instead requires that the
	   current value of the ref to be the expected value. "git push" fails

	   Imagine that you have to rebase what you have already published.
	   You will have to bypass the "must fast-forward" rule in order to
	   replace the history you originally published with the rebased
	   history. If somebody else built on top of your original history
	   while you are rebasing, the tip of the branch at the remote may
	   advance with her commit, and blindly pushing with --force will lose
	   her work.

	   This option allows you to say that you expect the history you are
	   updating is what you rebased and want to replace. If the remote ref
	   still points at the commit you specified, you can be sure that no
	   other people did anything to the ref (it is like taking a "lease"
	   on the ref without explicitly locking it, and you update the ref
	   while making sure that your earlier "lease" is still valid).

	   --force-with-lease alone, without specifying the details, will
	   protect all remote refs that are going to be updated by requiring
	   their current value to be the same as the remote-tracking branch we
	   have for them, unless specified with a
	   --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> option that explicitly states
	   what the expected value is.

	   --force-with-lease=<refname>, without specifying the expected
	   value, will protect the named ref (alone), if it is going to be
	   updated, by requiring its current value to be the same as the
	   remote-tracking branch we have for it.

	   --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> will protect the named ref
	   (alone), if it is going to be updated, by requiring its current
	   value to be the same as the specified value <expect> (which is
	   allowed to be different from the remote-tracking branch we have for
	   the refname, or we do not even have to have such a remote-tracking
	   branch when this form is used).

	   Note that all forms other than
	   --force-with-lease=<refname>:<expect> that specifies the expected
	   current value of the ref explicitly are still experimental and
	   their semantics may change as we gain experience with this feature.

	   "--no-force-with-lease" will cancel all the previous
	   --force-with-lease on the command line.

       -f, --force
	   Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not an
	   ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it. Also, when
	   --force-with-lease option is used, the command refuses to update a
	   remote ref whose current value does not match what is expected.

	   This flag disables these checks, and can cause the remote
	   repository to lose commits; use it with care.

	   Note that --force applies to all the refs that are pushed, hence
	   using it with push.default set to matching or with multiple push
	   destinations configured with remote.*.push may overwrite refs other
	   than the current branch (including local refs that are strictly
	   behind their remote counterpart). To force a push to only one
	   branch, use a + in front of the refspec to push (e.g git push
	   origin +master to force a push to the master branch). See the
	   <refspec>...	 section above for details.

	   This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is passed
	   in the invocation. In this case, git push derives the remote name
	   from the current branch: If it tracks a remote branch, then that
	   remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise, the name "origin" is
	   used. For this latter case, this option can be used to override the
	   name "origin". In other words, the difference between these two

	       git push public	       #1
	       git push --repo=public  #2

	   is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
	   only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
	   useful if you write an alias or script around git push.

       -u, --set-upstream
	   For every branch that is up to date or successfully pushed, add
	   upstream (tracking) reference, used by argument-less git-pull(1)
	   and other commands. For more information, see branch.<name>.merge
	   in git-config(1).

	   These options are passed to git-send-pack(1). A thin transfer
	   significantly reduces the amount of sent data when the sender and
	   receiver share many of the same objects in common. The default is

       -q, --quiet
	   Suppress all output, including the listing of updated refs, unless
	   an error occurs. Progress is not reported to the standard error

       -v, --verbose
	   Run verbosely.

	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
	   when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
	   flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
	   not directed to a terminal.

	   Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
	   are available on a remote-tracking branch. If check is used Git
	   will verify that all submodule commits that changed in the
	   revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote of the
	   submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be aborted and
	   exit with non-zero status. If on-demand is used all submodules that
	   changed in the revisions to be pushed will be pushed. If on-demand
	   was not able to push all necessary revisions it will also be
	   aborted and exit with non-zero status.

	   Toggle the pre-push hook (see githooks(5)). The default is
	   --verify, giving the hook a chance to prevent the push. With
	   --no-verify, the hook is bypassed completely.

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
       on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
       ftps can be used for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching and
       pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use them).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       ·   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes may be used:

       ·   /path/to/repo.git/

       ·   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:

       ·   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
       See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
       section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "git://"]
			   insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
			   insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "ssh://"]
			   pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://" for pushes, but pulls will still
       use the original URL.

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       ·   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
       configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
       entry in the config file would appear like this:

		   [remote "<name>"]
			   url = <url>
			   pushurl = <pushurl>
			   push = <refspec>
			   fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

		   URL: one of the above URL format
		   Push: <refspec>
		   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
       if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:


       The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
       section describes the output when pushing over the Git protocol (either
       locally or via ssh).

       The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
       representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:

	    <flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)

       If --porcelain is used, then each line of the output is of the form:

	    <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)

       The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
       option is used.

	   A single character indicating the status of the ref:

	       for a successfully pushed fast-forward;

	       for a successful forced update;

	       for a successfully deleted ref;

	       for a successfully pushed new ref;

	       for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and

	       for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.

	   For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
	   values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
	   git log (this is <old>..<new> in most cases, and <old>...<new> for
	   forced non-fast-forward updates).

	   For a failed update, more details are given:

	       Git did not try to send the ref at all, typically because it is
	       not a fast-forward and you did not force the update.

	   remote rejected
	       The remote end refused the update. Usually caused by a hook on
	       the remote side, or because the remote repository has one of
	       the following safety options in effect:
	       receive.denyCurrentBranch (for pushes to the checked out
	       branch), receive.denyNonFastForwards (for forced
	       non-fast-forward updates), receive.denyDeletes or
	       receive.denyDeleteCurrent. See git-config(1).

	   remote failure
	       The remote end did not report the successful update of the ref,
	       perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
	       break in the network connection, or other transient error.

	   The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its refs/<type>/
	   prefix. In the case of deletion, the name of the local ref is

	   The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its refs/<type>/

	   A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
	   refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
	   failure is described.

       When an update changes a branch (or more in general, a ref) that used
       to point at commit A to point at another commit B, it is called a
       fast-forward update if and only if B is a descendant of A.

       In a fast-forward update from A to B, the set of commits that the
       original commit A built on top of is a subset of the commits the new
       commit B builds on top of. Hence, it does not lose any history.

       In contrast, a non-fast-forward update will lose history. For example,
       suppose you and somebody else started at the same commit X, and you
       built a history leading to commit B while the other person built a
       history leading to commit A. The history looks like this:


       Further suppose that the other person already pushed changes leading to
       A back to the original repository from which you two obtained the
       original commit X.

       The push done by the other person updated the branch that used to point
       at commit X to point at commit A. It is a fast-forward.

       But if you try to push, you will attempt to update the branch (that now
       points at A) with commit B. This does not fast-forward. If you did so,
       the changes introduced by commit A will be lost, because everybody will
       now start building on top of B.

       The command by default does not allow an update that is not a
       fast-forward to prevent such loss of history.

       If you do not want to lose your work (history from X to B) nor the work
       by the other person (history from X to A), you would need to first
       fetch the history from the repository, create a history that contains
       changes done by both parties, and push the result back.

       You can perform "git pull", resolve potential conflicts, and "git push"
       the result. A "git pull" will create a merge commit C between commits A
       and B.

		/   /

       Updating A with the resulting merge commit will fast-forward and your
       push will be accepted.

       Alternatively, you can rebase your change between X and B on top of A,
       with "git pull --rebase", and push the result back. The rebase will
       create a new commit D that builds the change between X and B on top of

		 B   D
		/   /

       Again, updating A with this commit will fast-forward and your push will
       be accepted.

       There is another common situation where you may encounter
       non-fast-forward rejection when you try to push, and it is possible
       even when you are pushing into a repository nobody else pushes into.
       After you push commit A yourself (in the first picture in this
       section), replace it with "git commit --amend" to produce commit B, and
       you try to push it out, because forgot that you have pushed A out
       already. In such a case, and only if you are certain that nobody in the
       meantime fetched your earlier commit A (and started building on top of
       it), you can run "git push --force" to overwrite it. In other words,
       "git push --force" is a method reserved for a case where you do mean to
       lose history.

       git push
	   Works like git push <remote>, where <remote> is the current
	   branch’s remote (or origin, if no remote is configured for the
	   current branch).

       git push origin
	   Without additional configuration, works like git push origin :.

	   The default behavior of this command when no <refspec> is given can
	   be configured by setting the push option of the remote, or the
	   push.default configuration variable.

	   For example, to default to pushing only the current branch to
	   origin use git config remote.origin.push HEAD. Any valid <refspec>
	   (like the ones in the examples below) can be configured as the
	   default for git push origin.

       git push origin :
	   Push "matching" branches to origin. See <refspec> in the OPTIONS
	   section above for a description of "matching" branches.

       git push origin master
	   Find a ref that matches master in the source repository (most
	   likely, it would find refs/heads/master), and update the same ref
	   (e.g.  refs/heads/master) in origin repository with it. If master
	   did not exist remotely, it would be created.

       git push origin HEAD
	   A handy way to push the current branch to the same name on the

       git push mothership master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev
	   Use the source ref that matches master (e.g.	 refs/heads/master) to
	   update the ref that matches satellite/master (most probably
	   refs/remotes/satellite/master) in the mothership repository; do the
	   same for dev and satellite/dev.

	   This is to emulate git fetch run on the mothership using git push
	   that is run in the opposite direction in order to integrate the
	   work done on satellite, and is often necessary when you can only
	   make connection in one way (i.e. satellite can ssh into mothership
	   but mothership cannot initiate connection to satellite because the
	   latter is behind a firewall or does not run sshd).

	   After running this git push on the satellite machine, you would ssh
	   into the mothership and run git merge there to complete the
	   emulation of git pull that were run on mothership to pull changes
	   made on satellite.

       git push origin HEAD:master
	   Push the current branch to the remote ref matching master in the
	   origin repository. This form is convenient to push the current
	   branch without thinking about its local name.

       git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental
	   Create the branch experimental in the origin repository by copying
	   the current master branch. This form is only needed to create a new
	   branch or tag in the remote repository when the local name and the
	   remote name are different; otherwise, the ref name on its own will

       git push origin :experimental
	   Find a ref that matches experimental in the origin repository (e.g.
	   refs/heads/experimental), and delete it.

       git push origin +dev:master
	   Update the origin repository’s master branch with the dev branch,
	   allowing non-fast-forward updates.  This can leave unreferenced
	   commits dangling in the origin repository.  Consider the following
	   situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:

			   o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
				     X---Y---Z	dev

	   The above command would change the origin repository to

				     A---B  (unnamed branch)
			   o---o---o---X---Y---Z  master

	   Commits A and B would no longer belong to a branch with a symbolic
	   name, and so would be unreachable. As such, these commits would be
	   removed by a git gc command on the origin repository.

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.9.0			  04/22/2014			   GIT-PUSH(1)

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