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GIT-PULL(1)			  Git Manual			   GIT-PULL(1)

       git-pull - Fetch from and integrate with another repository or a local

       git pull [options] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]

       Incorporates changes from a remote repository into the current branch.
       In its default mode, git pull is shorthand for git fetch followed by
       git merge FETCH_HEAD.

       More precisely, git pull runs git fetch with the given parameters and
       calls git merge to merge the retrieved branch heads into the current
       branch. With --rebase, it runs git rebase instead of git merge.

       <repository> should be the name of a remote repository as passed to
       git-fetch(1). <refspec> can name an arbitrary remote ref (for example,
       the name of a tag) or even a collection of refs with corresponding
       remote-tracking branches (e.g., refs/heads/*:refs/remotes/origin/*),
       but usually it is the name of a branch in the remote repository.

       Default values for <repository> and <branch> are read from the "remote"
       and "merge" configuration for the current branch as set by git-
       branch(1) --track.

       Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "master":

		     A---B---C master on origin
	       D---E---F---G master
		   origin/master in your repository

       Then "git pull" will fetch and replay the changes from the remote
       master branch since it diverged from the local master (i.e., E) until
       its current commit (C) on top of master and record the result in a new
       commit along with the names of the two parent commits and a log message
       from the user describing the changes.

		     A---B---C origin/master
		    /	      \
	       D---E---F---G---H master

       See git-merge(1) for details, including how conflicts are presented and

       In Git 1.7.0 or later, to cancel a conflicting merge, use git reset
       --merge. Warning: In older versions of Git, running git pull with
       uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you in a
       state that may be hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.

       If any of the remote changes overlap with local uncommitted changes,
       the merge will be automatically cancelled and the work tree untouched.
       It is generally best to get any local changes in working order before
       pulling or stash them away with git-stash(1).

       Options meant for git pull itself and the underlying git merge must be
       given before the options meant for git fetch.

       -q, --quiet
	   This is passed to both underlying git-fetch to squelch reporting of
	   during transfer, and underlying git-merge to squelch output during

       -v, --verbose
	   Pass --verbose to git-fetch and git-merge.

	   This option controls if new commits of all populated submodules
	   should be fetched too (see git-config(1) and gitmodules(5)). That
	   might be necessary to get the data needed for merging submodule
	   commits, a feature Git learned in 1.7.3. Notice that the result of
	   a merge will not be checked out in the submodule, "git submodule
	   update" has to be called afterwards to bring the work tree up to
	   date with the merge result.

   Options related to merging
       --commit, --no-commit
	   Perform the merge and commit the result. This option can be used to
	   override --no-commit.

	   With --no-commit perform the merge but pretend the merge failed and
	   do not autocommit, to give the user a chance to inspect and further
	   tweak the merge result before committing.

       --edit, -e, --no-edit
	   Invoke an editor before committing successful mechanical merge to
	   further edit the auto-generated merge message, so that the user can
	   explain and justify the merge. The --no-edit option can be used to
	   accept the auto-generated message (this is generally discouraged).

	   Older scripts may depend on the historical behaviour of not
	   allowing the user to edit the merge log message. They will see an
	   editor opened when they run git merge. To make it easier to adjust
	   such scripts to the updated behaviour, the environment variable
	   GIT_MERGE_AUTOEDIT can be set to no at the beginning of them.

	   When the merge resolves as a fast-forward, only update the branch
	   pointer, without creating a merge commit. This is the default

	   Create a merge commit even when the merge resolves as a
	   fast-forward. This is the default behaviour when merging an
	   annotated (and possibly signed) tag.

	   Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the current
	   HEAD is already up-to-date or the merge can be resolved as a

       --log[=<n>], --no-log
	   In addition to branch names, populate the log message with one-line
	   descriptions from at most <n> actual commits that are being merged.
	   See also git-fmt-merge-msg(1).

	   With --no-log do not list one-line descriptions from the actual
	   commits being merged.

       --stat, -n, --no-stat
	   Show a diffstat at the end of the merge. The diffstat is also
	   controlled by the configuration option merge.stat.

	   With -n or --no-stat do not show a diffstat at the end of the

       --squash, --no-squash
	   Produce the working tree and index state as if a real merge
	   happened (except for the merge information), but do not actually
	   make a commit or move the HEAD, nor record $GIT_DIR/MERGE_HEAD to
	   cause the next git commit command to create a merge commit. This
	   allows you to create a single commit on top of the current branch
	   whose effect is the same as merging another branch (or more in case
	   of an octopus).

	   With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This
	   option can be used to override --squash.

       -s <strategy>, --strategy=<strategy>
	   Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than once to
	   specify them in the order they should be tried. If there is no -s
	   option, a built-in list of strategies is used instead (git
	   merge-recursive when merging a single head, git merge-octopus

       -X <option>, --strategy-option=<option>
	   Pass merge strategy specific option through to the merge strategy.

       --verify-signatures, --no-verify-signatures
	   Verify that the commits being merged have good and trusted GPG
	   signatures and abort the merge in case they do not.

       --summary, --no-summary
	   Synonyms to --stat and --no-stat; these are deprecated and will be
	   removed in the future.

       -r, --rebase[=false|true|preserve]
	   When true, rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch
	   after fetching. If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding
	   to the upstream branch and the upstream branch was rebased since
	   last fetched, the rebase uses that information to avoid rebasing
	   non-local changes.

	   When preserve, also rebase the current branch on top of the
	   upstream branch, but pass --preserve-merges along to git rebase so
	   that locally created merge commits will not be flattened.

	   When false, merge the current branch into the upstream branch.

	   See pull.rebase, branch.<name>.rebase and branch.autosetuprebase in
	   git-config(1) if you want to make git pull always use --rebase
	   instead of merging.

	       This is a potentially dangerous mode of operation. It rewrites
	       history, which does not bode well when you published that
	       history already. Do not use this option unless you have read
	       git-rebase(1) carefully.

	   Override earlier --rebase.

   Options related to fetching
	   Fetch all remotes.

       -a, --append
	   Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the existing
	   contents of .git/FETCH_HEAD. Without this option old data in
	   .git/FETCH_HEAD will be overwritten.

	   Deepen or shorten the history of a shallow repository created by
	   git clone with --depth=<depth> option (see git-clone(1)) to the
	   specified number of commits from the tip of each remote branch
	   history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.

	   If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow repository
	   to a complete one, removing all the limitations imposed by shallow

	   If the source repository is shallow, fetch as much as possible so
	   that the current repository has the same history as the source

	   By default when fetching from a shallow repository, git fetch
	   refuses refs that require updating .git/shallow. This option
	   updates .git/shallow and accept such refs.

       -f, --force
	   When git fetch is used with <rbranch>:<lbranch> refspec, it refuses
	   to update the local branch <lbranch> unless the remote branch
	   <rbranch> it fetches is a descendant of <lbranch>. This option
	   overrides that check.

       -k, --keep
	   Keep downloaded pack.

	   By default, tags that point at objects that are downloaded from the
	   remote repository are fetched and stored locally. This option
	   disables this automatic tag following. The default behavior for a
	   remote may be specified with the remote.<name>.tagopt setting. See

       -u, --update-head-ok
	   By default git fetch refuses to update the head which corresponds
	   to the current branch. This flag disables the check. This is purely
	   for the internal use for git pull to communicate with git fetch,
	   and unless you are implementing your own Porcelain you are not
	   supposed to use it.

       --upload-pack <upload-pack>
	   When given, and the repository to fetch from is handled by git
	   fetch-pack, --exec=<upload-pack> is passed to the command to
	   specify non-default path for the command run on the other end.

	   Progress status is reported on the standard error stream by default
	   when it is attached to a terminal, unless -q is specified. This
	   flag forces progress status even if the standard error stream is
	   not directed to a terminal.

	   The "remote" repository that is the source of a fetch or pull
	   operation. This parameter can be either a URL (see the section GIT
	   URLS below) or the name of a remote (see the section REMOTES

	   The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus +, followed
	   by the source ref <src>, followed by a colon :, followed by the
	   destination ref <dst>.

	   The remote ref that matches <src> is fetched, and if <dst> is not
	   empty string, the local ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using
	   <src>. If the optional plus + is used, the local ref is updated
	   even if it does not result in a fast-forward update.

	       If the remote branch from which you want to pull is modified in
	       non-linear ways such as being rewound and rebased frequently,
	       then a pull will attempt a merge with an older version of
	       itself, likely conflict, and fail. It is under these conditions
	       that you would want to use the + sign to indicate
	       non-fast-forward updates will be needed. There is currently no
	       easy way to determine or declare that a branch will be made
	       available in a repository with this behavior; the pulling user
	       simply must know this is the expected usage pattern for a

	       You never do your own development on branches that appear on
	       the right hand side of a <refspec> colon on Pull: lines; they
	       are to be updated by git fetch. If you intend to do development
	       derived from a remote branch B, have a Pull: line to track it
	       (i.e.  Pull: B:remote-B), and have a separate branch my-B to do
	       your development on top of it. The latter is created by git
	       branch my-B remote-B (or its equivalent git checkout -b my-B
	       remote-B). Run git fetch to keep track of the progress of the
	       remote side, and when you see something new on the remote
	       branch, merge it into your development branch with git pull .
	       remote-B, while you are on my-B branch.

	       There is a difference between listing multiple <refspec>
	       directly on git pull command line and having multiple Pull:
	       <refspec> lines for a <repository> and running git pull command
	       without any explicit <refspec> parameters. <refspec> listed
	       explicitly on the command line are always merged into the
	       current branch after fetching. In other words, if you list more
	       than one remote refs, you would be making an Octopus. While git
	       pull run without any explicit <refspec> parameter takes default
	       <refspec>s from Pull: lines, it merges only the first <refspec>
	       found into the current branch, after fetching all the remote
	       refs. This is because making an Octopus from remote refs is
	       rarely done, while keeping track of multiple remote heads in
	       one-go by fetching more than one is often useful.
	   Some short-cut notations are also supported.

	   ·	tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>;
	       it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.

	   ·   A parameter <ref> without a colon merges <ref> into the current
	       branch, and updates the remote-tracking branches (if any).

       In general, URLs contain information about the transport protocol, the
       address of the remote server, and the path to the repository. Depending
       on the transport protocol, some of this information may be absent.

       Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp, and
       ftps can be used for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching and
       pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use them).

       The native transport (i.e. git:// URL) does no authentication and
       should be used with caution on unsecured networks.

       The following syntaxes may be used with them:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   http[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   ftp[s]://host.xz[:port]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/

       An alternative scp-like syntax may also be used with the ssh protocol:

       ·   [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git/

       This syntax is only recognized if there are no slashes before the first
       colon. This helps differentiate a local path that contains a colon. For
       example the local path foo:bar could be specified as an absolute path
       or ./foo:bar to avoid being misinterpreted as an ssh url.

       The ssh and git protocols additionally support ~username expansion:

       ·   ssh://[user@]host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   git://host.xz[:port]/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       ·   [user@]host.xz:/~[user]/path/to/repo.git/

       For local repositories, also supported by Git natively, the following
       syntaxes may be used:

       ·   /path/to/repo.git/

       ·   file:///path/to/repo.git/

       These two syntaxes are mostly equivalent, except when cloning, when the
       former implies --local option. See git-clone(1) for details.

       When Git doesn’t know how to handle a certain transport protocol, it
       attempts to use the remote-<transport> remote helper, if one exists. To
       explicitly request a remote helper, the following syntax may be used:

       ·   <transport>::<address>

       where <address> may be a path, a server and path, or an arbitrary
       URL-like string recognized by the specific remote helper being invoked.
       See gitremote-helpers(1) for details.

       If there are a large number of similarly-named remote repositories and
       you want to use a different format for them (such that the URLs you use
       will be rewritten into URLs that work), you can create a configuration
       section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   insteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "git://"]
			   insteadOf = host.xz:/path/to/
			   insteadOf = work:

       a URL like "work:repo.git" or like "host.xz:/path/to/repo.git" will be
       rewritten in any context that takes a URL to be

       If you want to rewrite URLs for push only, you can create a
       configuration section of the form:

		   [url "<actual url base>"]
			   pushInsteadOf = <other url base>

       For example, with this:

		   [url "ssh://"]
			   pushInsteadOf = git://

       a URL like "git://" will be rewritten to
       "ssh://" for pushes, but pulls will still
       use the original URL.

       The name of one of the following can be used instead of a URL as
       <repository> argument:

       ·   a remote in the Git configuration file: $GIT_DIR/config,

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes directory, or

       ·   a file in the $GIT_DIR/branches directory.

       All of these also allow you to omit the refspec from the command line
       because they each contain a refspec which git will use by default.

   Named remote in configuration file
       You can choose to provide the name of a remote which you had previously
       configured using git-remote(1), git-config(1) or even by a manual edit
       to the $GIT_DIR/config file. The URL of this remote will be used to
       access the repository. The refspec of this remote will be used by
       default when you do not provide a refspec on the command line. The
       entry in the config file would appear like this:

		   [remote "<name>"]
			   url = <url>
			   pushurl = <pushurl>
			   push = <refspec>
			   fetch = <refspec>

       The <pushurl> is used for pushes only. It is optional and defaults to

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/remotes
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. The refspec in
       this file will be used as default when you do not provide a refspec on
       the command line. This file should have the following format:

		   URL: one of the above URL format
		   Push: <refspec>
		   Pull: <refspec>

       Push: lines are used by git push and Pull: lines are used by git pull
       and git fetch. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for
       additional branch mappings.

   Named file in $GIT_DIR/branches
       You can choose to provide the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches. The
       URL in this file will be used to access the repository. This file
       should have the following format:


       <url> is required; #<head> is optional.

       Depending on the operation, git will use one of the following refspecs,
       if you don’t provide one on the command line. <branch> is the name of
       this file in $GIT_DIR/branches and <head> defaults to master.

       git fetch uses:


       git push uses:


       The merge mechanism (git-merge and git-pull commands) allows the
       backend merge strategies to be chosen with -s option. Some strategies
       can also take their own options, which can be passed by giving
       -X<option> arguments to git-merge and/or git-pull.

	   This can only resolve two heads (i.e. the current branch and
	   another branch you pulled from) using a 3-way merge algorithm. It
	   tries to carefully detect criss-cross merge ambiguities and is
	   considered generally safe and fast.

	   This can only resolve two heads using a 3-way merge algorithm. When
	   there is more than one common ancestor that can be used for 3-way
	   merge, it creates a merged tree of the common ancestors and uses
	   that as the reference tree for the 3-way merge. This has been
	   reported to result in fewer merge conflicts without causing
	   mis-merges by tests done on actual merge commits taken from Linux
	   2.6 kernel development history. Additionally this can detect and
	   handle merges involving renames. This is the default merge strategy
	   when pulling or merging one branch.

	   The recursive strategy can take the following options:

	       This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved
	       cleanly by favoring our version. Changes from the other tree
	       that do not conflict with our side are reflected to the merge
	       result. For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from
	       our side.

	       This should not be confused with the ours merge strategy, which
	       does not even look at what the other tree contains at all. It
	       discards everything the other tree did, declaring our history
	       contains all that happened in it.

	       This is the opposite of ours.

	       With this option, merge-recursive spends a little extra time to
	       avoid mismerges that sometimes occur due to unimportant
	       matching lines (e.g., braces from distinct functions). Use this
	       when the branches to be merged have diverged wildly. See also
	       git-diff(1) --patience.

	       Tells merge-recursive to use a different diff algorithm, which
	       can help avoid mismerges that occur due to unimportant matching
	       lines (such as braces from distinct functions). See also git-
	       diff(1) --diff-algorithm.

	   ignore-space-change, ignore-all-space, ignore-space-at-eol
	       Treats lines with the indicated type of whitespace change as
	       unchanged for the sake of a three-way merge. Whitespace changes
	       mixed with other changes to a line are not ignored. See also
	       git-diff(1) -b, -w, and --ignore-space-at-eol.

	       ·   If their version only introduces whitespace changes to a
		   line, our version is used;

	       ·   If our version introduces whitespace changes but their
		   version includes a substantial change, their version is

	       ·   Otherwise, the merge proceeds in the usual way.

	       This runs a virtual check-out and check-in of all three stages
	       of a file when resolving a three-way merge. This option is
	       meant to be used when merging branches with different clean
	       filters or end-of-line normalization rules. See "Merging
	       branches with differing checkin/checkout attributes" in
	       gitattributes(5) for details.

	       Disables the renormalize option. This overrides the
	       merge.renormalize configuration variable.

	       Controls the similarity threshold used for rename detection.
	       See also git-diff(1) -M.

	       This option is a more advanced form of subtree strategy, where
	       the strategy makes a guess on how two trees must be shifted to
	       match with each other when merging. Instead, the specified path
	       is prefixed (or stripped from the beginning) to make the shape
	       of two trees to match.

	   This resolves cases with more than two heads, but refuses to do a
	   complex merge that needs manual resolution. It is primarily meant
	   to be used for bundling topic branch heads together. This is the
	   default merge strategy when pulling or merging more than one

	   This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the
	   merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively
	   ignoring all changes from all other branches. It is meant to be
	   used to supersede old development history of side branches. Note
	   that this is different from the -Xours option to the recursive
	   merge strategy.

	   This is a modified recursive strategy. When merging trees A and B,
	   if B corresponds to a subtree of A, B is first adjusted to match
	   the tree structure of A, instead of reading the trees at the same
	   level. This adjustment is also done to the common ancestor tree.

       With the strategies that use 3-way merge (including the default,
       recursive), if a change is made on both branches, but later reverted on
       one of the branches, that change will be present in the merged result;
       some people find this behavior confusing. It occurs because only the
       heads and the merge base are considered when performing a merge, not
       the individual commits. The merge algorithm therefore considers the
       reverted change as no change at all, and substitutes the changed
       version instead.

       Often people use git pull without giving any parameter. Traditionally,
       this has been equivalent to saying git pull origin. However, when
       configuration branch.<name>.remote is present while on branch <name>,
       that value is used instead of origin.

       In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value of the
       configuration remote.<origin>.url is consulted and if there is not any
       such variable, the value on URL: ` line in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>
       file is used.

       In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and optionally
       store in the remote-tracking branches) when the command is run without
       any refspec parameters on the command line, values of the configuration
       variable remote.<origin>.fetch are consulted, and if there aren’t any,
       $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin> file is consulted and its `Pull: ` lines are
       used. In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
       section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:


       A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store what were
       fetched in remote-tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS must end with
       /*. The above specifies that all remote branches are tracked using
       remote-tracking branches in refs/remotes/origin/ hierarchy under the
       same name.

       The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after fetching is a
       bit involved, in order not to break backward compatibility.

       If explicit refspecs were given on the command line of git pull, they
       are all merged.

       When no refspec was given on the command line, then git pull uses the
       refspec from the configuration or $GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>. In such
       cases, the following rules apply:

	1. If branch.<name>.merge configuration for the current branch <name>
	   exists, that is the name of the branch at the remote site that is

	2. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.

	3. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.

       ·   Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository you cloned
	   from, then merge one of them into your current branch:

	       $ git pull, git pull origin

	   Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
	   but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
	   branch.<name>.merge options; see git-config(1) for details.

       ·   Merge into the current branch the remote branch next:

	       $ git pull origin next

	   This leaves a copy of next temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but does not
	   update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
	   branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:

	       $ git fetch origin
	       $ git merge origin/next

       If you tried a pull which resulted in complex conflicts and would want
       to start over, you can recover with git reset.

       Using --recurse-submodules can only fetch new commits in already
       checked out submodules right now. When e.g. upstream added a new
       submodule in the just fetched commits of the superproject the submodule
       itself can not be fetched, making it impossible to check out that
       submodule later without having to do a fetch again. This is expected to
       be fixed in a future Git version.

       git-fetch(1), git-merge(1), git-config(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.9.0			  04/22/2014			   GIT-PULL(1)

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