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       git-format-patch - Prepare patches for e-mail submission

       git format-patch [-k] [(-o|--output-directory) <dir> | --stdout]
			  [--no-thread | --thread[=<style>]]
			  [(--attach|--inline)[=<boundary>] | --no-attach]
			  [-s | --signoff]
			  [--signature=<signature> | --no-signature]
			  [-n | --numbered | -N | --no-numbered]
			  [--start-number <n>] [--numbered-files]
			  [--in-reply-to=Message-Id] [--suffix=.<sfx>]
			  [--subject-prefix=Subject-Prefix] [(--reroll-count|-v) <n>]
			  [--to=<email>] [--cc=<email>]
			  [--[no-]cover-letter] [--quiet] [--notes[=<ref>]]
			  [<common diff options>]
			  [ <since> | <revision range> ]

       Prepare each commit with its patch in one file per commit, formatted to
       resemble UNIX mailbox format. The output of this command is convenient
       for e-mail submission or for use with git am.

       There are two ways to specify which commits to operate on.

	1. A single commit, <since>, specifies that the commits leading to the
	   tip of the current branch that are not in the history that leads to
	   the <since> to be output.

	2. Generic <revision range> expression (see "SPECIFYING REVISIONS"
	   section in gitrevisions(7)) means the commits in the specified

       The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>. To
       apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
       history up until <commit>, use the --root option: git format-patch
       --root <commit>. If you want to format only <commit> itself, you can do
       this with git format-patch -1 <commit>.

       By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses
       the first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
       the filename. With the --numbered-files option, the output file names
       will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
       The names of the output files are printed to standard output, unless
       the --stdout option is specified.

       If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>. Otherwise they
       are created in the current working directory.

       By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by the
       concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
       line (see the DISCUSSION section of git-commit(1)).

       When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
       "[PATCH n/m] ". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use -n. To
       omit patch numbers from the subject, use -N.

       If given --thread, git-format-patch will generate In-Reply-To and
       References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
       as replies to the first mail; this also generates a Message-Id header
       to reference.

       -p, --no-stat
	   Generate plain patches without any diffstats.

       -s, --no-patch
	   Suppress diff output. Useful for commands like git show that show
	   the patch by default, or to cancel the effect of --patch.

       -U<n>, --unified=<n>
	   Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of the usual

	   Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

	   Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.

	   Generate a diff using the "histogram diff" algorithm.

	   Choose a diff algorithm. The variants are as follows:

	   default, myers
	       The basic greedy diff algorithm. Currently, this is the

	       Spend extra time to make sure the smallest possible diff is

	       Use "patience diff" algorithm when generating patches.

	       This algorithm extends the patience algorithm to "support
	       low-occurrence common elements".

	   For instance, if you configured diff.algorithm variable to a
	   non-default value and want to use the default one, then you have to
	   use --diff-algorithm=default option.

	   Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary will be
	   used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph part.
	   Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns if not
	   connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by <width>. The
	   width of the filename part can be limited by giving another width
	   <name-width> after a comma. The width of the graph part can be
	   limited by using --stat-graph-width=<width> (affects all commands
	   generating a stat graph) or by setting diff.statGraphWidth=<width>
	   (does not affect git format-patch). By giving a third parameter
	   <count>, you can limit the output to the first <count> lines,
	   followed by ...  if there are more.

	   These parameters can also be set individually with
	   --stat-width=<width>, --stat-name-width=<name-width> and

	   Similar to --stat, but shows number of added and deleted lines in
	   decimal notation and pathname without abbreviation, to make it more
	   machine friendly. For binary files, outputs two - instead of saying
	   0 0.

	   Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
	   number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted

	   Output the distribution of relative amount of changes for each
	   sub-directory. The behavior of --dirstat can be customized by
	   passing it a comma separated list of parameters. The defaults are
	   controlled by the diff.dirstat configuration variable (see git-
	   config(1)). The following parameters are available:

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the lines that have
	       been removed from the source, or added to the destination. This
	       ignores the amount of pure code movements within a file. In
	       other words, rearranging lines in a file is not counted as much
	       as other changes. This is the default behavior when no
	       parameter is given.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by doing the regular line-based
	       diff analysis, and summing the removed/added line counts. (For
	       binary files, count 64-byte chunks instead, since binary files
	       have no natural concept of lines). This is a more expensive
	       --dirstat behavior than the changes behavior, but it does count
	       rearranged lines within a file as much as other changes. The
	       resulting output is consistent with what you get from the other
	       --*stat options.

	       Compute the dirstat numbers by counting the number of files
	       changed. Each changed file counts equally in the dirstat
	       analysis. This is the computationally cheapest --dirstat
	       behavior, since it does not have to look at the file contents
	       at all.

	       Count changes in a child directory for the parent directory as
	       well. Note that when using cumulative, the sum of the
	       percentages reported may exceed 100%. The default
	       (non-cumulative) behavior can be specified with the
	       noncumulative parameter.

	       An integer parameter specifies a cut-off percent (3% by
	       default). Directories contributing less than this percentage of
	       the changes are not shown in the output.

	   Example: The following will count changed files, while ignoring
	   directories with less than 10% of the total amount of changed
	   files, and accumulating child directory counts in the parent
	   directories: --dirstat=files,10,cumulative.

	   Output a condensed summary of extended header information such as
	   creations, renames and mode changes.

	   Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration file gives
	   the default to do so.

	   Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full pre- and
	   post-image blob object names on the "index" line when generating
	   patch format output.

	   In addition to --full-index, output a binary diff that can be
	   applied with git-apply.

	   Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object name in
	   diff-raw format output and diff-tree header lines, show only a
	   partial prefix. This is independent of the --full-index option
	   above, which controls the diff-patch output format. Non default
	   number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.

       -B[<n>][/<m>], --break-rewrites[=[<n>][/<m>]]
	   Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
	   This serves two purposes:

	   It affects the way a change that amounts to a total rewrite of a
	   file not as a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
	   a very few lines that happen to match textually as the context, but
	   as a single deletion of everything old followed by a single
	   insertion of everything new, and the number m controls this aspect
	   of the -B option (defaults to 60%).	-B/70% specifies that less
	   than 30% of the original should remain in the result for Git to
	   consider it a total rewrite (i.e. otherwise the resulting patch
	   will be a series of deletion and insertion mixed together with
	   context lines).

	   When used with -M, a totally-rewritten file is also considered as
	   the source of a rename (usually -M only considers a file that
	   disappeared as the source of a rename), and the number n controls
	   this aspect of the -B option (defaults to 50%).  -B20% specifies
	   that a change with addition and deletion compared to 20% or more of
	   the file’s size are eligible for being picked up as a possible
	   source of a rename to another file.

       -M[<n>], --find-renames[=<n>]
	   Detect renames. If n is specified, it is a threshold on the
	   similarity index (i.e. amount of addition/deletions compared to the
	   file’s size). For example, -M90% means Git should consider a
	   delete/add pair to be a rename if more than 90% of the file hasn’t
	   changed. Without a % sign, the number is to be read as a fraction,
	   with a decimal point before it. I.e., -M5 becomes 0.5, and is thus
	   the same as -M50%. Similarly, -M05 is the same as -M5%. To limit
	   detection to exact renames, use -M100%. The default similarity
	   index is 50%.

       -C[<n>], --find-copies[=<n>]
	   Detect copies as well as renames. See also --find-copies-harder. If
	   n is specified, it has the same meaning as for -M<n>.

	   For performance reasons, by default, -C option finds copies only if
	   the original file of the copy was modified in the same changeset.
	   This flag makes the command inspect unmodified files as candidates
	   for the source of copy. This is a very expensive operation for
	   large projects, so use it with caution. Giving more than one -C
	   option has the same effect.

       -D, --irreversible-delete
	   Omit the preimage for deletes, i.e. print only the header but not
	   the diff between the preimage and /dev/null. The resulting patch is
	   not meant to be applied with patch nor git apply; this is solely
	   for people who want to just concentrate on reviewing the text after
	   the change. In addition, the output obviously lack enough
	   information to apply such a patch in reverse, even manually, hence
	   the name of the option.

	   When used together with -B, omit also the preimage in the deletion
	   part of a delete/create pair.

	   The -M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n is the
	   number of potential rename/copy targets. This option prevents
	   rename/copy detection from running if the number of rename/copy
	   targets exceeds the specified number.

	   Output the patch in the order specified in the <orderfile>, which
	   has one shell glob pattern per line. This overrides the
	   diff.orderfile configuration variable (see git-config(1)). To
	   cancel diff.orderfile, use -O/dev/null.

       -a, --text
	   Treat all files as text.

	   Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.

       -b, --ignore-space-change
	   Ignore changes in amount of whitespace. This ignores whitespace at
	   line end, and considers all other sequences of one or more
	   whitespace characters to be equivalent.

       -w, --ignore-all-space
	   Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
	   even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.

	   Ignore changes whose lines are all blank.

	   Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number of
	   lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.

       -W, --function-context
	   Show whole surrounding functions of changes.

	   Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
	   external diff driver with gitattributes(5), you need to use this
	   option with git-log(1) and friends.

	   Disallow external diff drivers.

       --textconv, --no-textconv
	   Allow (or disallow) external text conversion filters to be run when
	   comparing binary files. See gitattributes(5) for details. Because
	   textconv filters are typically a one-way conversion, the resulting
	   diff is suitable for human consumption, but cannot be applied. For
	   this reason, textconv filters are enabled by default only for git-
	   diff(1) and git-log(1), but not for git-format-patch(1) or diff
	   plumbing commands.

	   Ignore changes to submodules in the diff generation. <when> can be
	   either "none", "untracked", "dirty" or "all", which is the default.
	   Using "none" will consider the submodule modified when it either
	   contains untracked or modified files or its HEAD differs from the
	   commit recorded in the superproject and can be used to override any
	   settings of the ignore option in git-config(1) or gitmodules(5).
	   When "untracked" is used submodules are not considered dirty when
	   they only contain untracked content (but they are still scanned for
	   modified content). Using "dirty" ignores all changes to the work
	   tree of submodules, only changes to the commits stored in the
	   superproject are shown (this was the behavior until 1.7.0). Using
	   "all" hides all changes to submodules.

	   Show the given source prefix instead of "a/".

	   Show the given destination prefix instead of "b/".

	   Do not show any source or destination prefix.

       For more detailed explanation on these common options, see also

	   Prepare patches from the topmost <n> commits.

       -o <dir>, --output-directory <dir>
	   Use <dir> to store the resulting files, instead of the current
	   working directory.

       -n, --numbered
	   Name output in [PATCH n/m] format, even with a single patch.

       -N, --no-numbered
	   Name output in [PATCH] format.

       --start-number <n>
	   Start numbering the patches at <n> instead of 1.

	   Output file names will be a simple number sequence without the
	   default first line of the commit appended.

       -k, --keep-subject
	   Do not strip/add [PATCH] from the first line of the commit log

       -s, --signoff
	   Add Signed-off-by: line to the commit message, using the committer
	   identity of yourself.

	   Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format, instead of
	   creating a file for each one.

	   Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of which is the
	   commit message and the patch itself in the second part, with
	   Content-Disposition: attachment.

	   Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the configuration

	   Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of which is the
	   commit message and the patch itself in the second part, with
	   Content-Disposition: inline.

       --thread[=<style>], --no-thread
	   Controls addition of In-Reply-To and References headers to make the
	   second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the first. Also
	   controls generation of the Message-Id header to reference.

	   The optional <style> argument can be either shallow or deep.
	   shallow threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the
	   series, where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
	   --in-reply-to, and the first patch mail, in this order.  deep
	   threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.

	   The default is --no-thread, unless the format.thread configuration
	   is set. If --thread is specified without a style, it defaults to
	   the style specified by format.thread if any, or else shallow.

	   Beware that the default for git send-email is to thread emails
	   itself. If you want git format-patch to take care of threading, you
	   will want to ensure that threading is disabled for git send-email.

	   Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
	   reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
	   provide a new patch series.

	   Do not include a patch that matches a commit in <until>..<since>.
	   This will examine all patches reachable from <since> but not from
	   <until> and compare them with the patches being generated, and any
	   patch that matches is ignored.

	   Instead of the standard [PATCH] prefix in the subject line, instead
	   use [<Subject-Prefix>]. This allows for useful naming of a patch
	   series, and can be combined with the --numbered option.

       -v <n>, --reroll-count=<n>
	   Mark the series as the <n>-th iteration of the topic. The output
	   filenames have v<n> pretended to them, and the subject prefix
	   ("PATCH" by default, but configurable via the --subject-prefix
	   option) has ` v<n>` appended to it. E.g.  --reroll-count=4 may
	   produce v4-0001-add-makefile.patch file that has "Subject: [PATCH
	   v4 1/20] Add makefile" in it.

	   Add a To: header to the email headers. This is in addition to any
	   configured headers, and may be used multiple times. The negated
	   form --no-to discards all To: headers added so far (from config or
	   command line).

	   Add a Cc: header to the email headers. This is in addition to any
	   configured headers, and may be used multiple times. The negated
	   form --no-cc discards all Cc: headers added so far (from config or
	   command line).

       --from, --from=<ident>
	   Use ident in the From: header of each commit email. If the author
	   ident of the commit is not textually identical to the provided
	   ident, place a From: header in the body of the message with the
	   original author. If no ident is given, use the committer ident.

	   Note that this option is only useful if you are actually sending
	   the emails and want to identify yourself as the sender, but retain
	   the original author (and git am will correctly pick up the in-body
	   header). Note also that git send-email already handles this
	   transformation for you, and this option should not be used if you
	   are feeding the result to git send-email.

	   Add an arbitrary header to the email headers. This is in addition
	   to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times. For
	   example, --add-header="Organization: git-foo". The negated form
	   --no-add-header discards all (To:, Cc:, and custom) headers added
	   so far from config or command line.

	   In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file containing
	   the shortlog and the overall diffstat. You can fill in a
	   description in the file before sending it out.

	   Append the notes (see git-notes(1)) for the commit after the
	   three-dash line.

	   The expected use case of this is to write supporting explanation
	   for the commit that does not belong to the commit log message
	   proper, and include it with the patch submission. While one can
	   simply write these explanations after format-patch has run but
	   before sending, keeping them as Git notes allows them to be
	   maintained between versions of the patch series (but see the
	   discussion of the notes.rewrite configuration options in git-
	   notes(1) to use this workflow).

	   Add a signature to each message produced. Per RFC 3676 the
	   signature is separated from the body by a line with '-- ' on it. If
	   the signature option is omitted the signature defaults to the Git
	   version number.

	   Instead of using .patch as the suffix for generated filenames, use
	   specified suffix. A common alternative is --suffix=.txt. Leaving
	   this empty will remove the .patch suffix.

	   Note that the leading character does not have to be a dot; for
	   example, you can use --suffix=-patch to get

       -q, --quiet
	   Do not print the names of the generated files to standard output.

	   Do not output contents of changes in binary files, instead display
	   a notice that those files changed. Patches generated using this
	   option cannot be applied properly, but they are still useful for
	   code review.

	   Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it is
	   just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a <since>).
	   Note that root commits included in the specified range are always
	   formatted as creation patches, independently of this flag.

       You can specify extra mail header lines to be added to each message,
       defaults for the subject prefix and file suffix, number patches when
       outputting more than one patch, add "To" or "Cc:" headers, configure
       attachments, and sign off patches with configuration variables.

		   headers = "Organization: git-foo\n"
		   subjectprefix = CHANGE
		   suffix = .txt
		   numbered = auto
		   to = <email>
		   cc = <email>
		   attach [ = mime-boundary-string ]
		   signoff = true
		   coverletter = auto

       The patch produced by git format-patch is in UNIX mailbox format, with
       a fixed "magic" time stamp to indicate that the file is output from
       format-patch rather than a real mailbox, like so:

	   From 8f72bad1baf19a53459661343e21d6491c3908d3 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
	   From: Tony Luck <>
	   Date: Tue, 13 Jul 2010 11:42:54 -0700
	   Subject: [PATCH] =?UTF-8?q?[IA64]=20Put=20ia64=20config=20files=20on=20the=20?=
	   MIME-Version: 1.0
	   Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8
	   Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit

	   arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script
	   (See commit c2330e286f68f1c408b4aa6515ba49d57f05beae comment)

	   Do the same for ia64 so we can have sleek & trim looking

       Typically it will be placed in a MUA’s drafts folder, edited to add
       timely commentary that should not go in the changelog after the three
       dashes, and then sent as a message whose body, in our example, starts
       with "arch/arm config files were...". On the receiving end, readers can
       save interesting patches in a UNIX mailbox and apply them with git-

       When a patch is part of an ongoing discussion, the patch generated by
       git format-patch can be tweaked to take advantage of the git am
       --scissors feature. After your response to the discussion comes a line
       that consists solely of "-- >8 --" (scissors and perforation), followed
       by the patch with unnecessary header fields removed:

	   > So we should do such-and-such.

	   Makes sense to me.  How about this patch?

	   -- >8 --
	   Subject: [IA64] Put ia64 config files on the Uwe Kleine-König diet

	   arch/arm config files were slimmed down using a python script

       When sending a patch this way, most often you are sending your own
       patch, so in addition to the "From $SHA1 $magic_timestamp" marker you
       should omit From: and Date: lines from the patch file. The patch title
       is likely to be different from the subject of the discussion the patch
       is in response to, so it is likely that you would want to keep the
       Subject: line, like the example above.

   Checking for patch corruption
       Many mailers if not set up properly will corrupt whitespace. Here are
       two common types of corruption:

       ·   Empty context lines that do not have any whitespace.

       ·   Non-empty context lines that have one extra whitespace at the

       One way to test if your MUA is set up correctly is:

       ·   Send the patch to yourself, exactly the way you would, except with
	   To: and Cc: lines that do not contain the list and maintainer

       ·   Save that patch to a file in UNIX mailbox format. Call it a.patch,

       ·   Apply it:

	       $ git fetch <project> master:test-apply
	       $ git checkout test-apply
	       $ git reset --hard
	       $ git am a.patch

       If it does not apply correctly, there can be various reasons.

       ·   The patch itself does not apply cleanly. That is bad but does not
	   have much to do with your MUA. You might want to rebase the patch
	   with git-rebase(1) before regenerating it in this case.

       ·   The MUA corrupted your patch; "am" would complain that the patch
	   does not apply. Look in the .git/rebase-apply/ subdirectory and see
	   what patch file contains and check for the common corruption
	   patterns mentioned above.

       ·   While at it, check the info and final-commit files as well. If what
	   is in final-commit is not exactly what you would want to see in the
	   commit log message, it is very likely that the receiver would end
	   up hand editing the log message when applying your patch. Things
	   like "Hi, this is my first patch.\n" in the patch e-mail should
	   come after the three-dash line that signals the end of the commit

       Here are some hints on how to successfully submit patches inline using
       various mailers.

       GMail does not have any way to turn off line wrapping in the web
       interface, so it will mangle any emails that you send. You can however
       use "git send-email" and send your patches through the GMail SMTP
       server, or use any IMAP email client to connect to the google IMAP
       server and forward the emails through that.

       For hints on using git send-email to send your patches through the
       GMail SMTP server, see the EXAMPLE section of git-send-email(1).

       For hints on submission using the IMAP interface, see the EXAMPLE
       section of git-imap-send(1).

       By default, Thunderbird will both wrap emails as well as flag them as
       being format=flowed, both of which will make the resulting email
       unusable by Git.

       There are three different approaches: use an add-on to turn off line
       wraps, configure Thunderbird to not mangle patches, or use an external
       editor to keep Thunderbird from mangling the patches.

       Approach #1 (add-on)
	   Install the Toggle Word Wrap add-on that is available from It
	   adds a menu entry "Enable Word Wrap" in the composer’s "Options"
	   menu that you can tick off. Now you can compose the message as you
	   otherwise do (cut + paste, git format-patch | git imap-send, etc),
	   but you have to insert line breaks manually in any text that you

       Approach #2 (configuration)
	   Three steps:

	    1. Configure your mail server composition as plain text:
	       Edit...Account Settings...Composition & Addressing, uncheck
	       "Compose Messages in HTML".

	    2. Configure your general composition window to not wrap.

	       In Thunderbird 2: Edit..Preferences..Composition, wrap plain
	       text messages at 0

	       In Thunderbird 3: Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor.
	       Search for "mail.wrap_long_lines". Toggle it to make sure it is
	       set to false. Also, search for "mailnews.wraplength" and set
	       the value to 0.

	    3. Disable the use of format=flowed:
	       Edit..Preferences..Advanced..Config Editor. Search for
	       "mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed". Toggle it to make sure it is
	       set to false.

	   After that is done, you should be able to compose email as you
	   otherwise would (cut + paste, git format-patch | git imap-send,
	   etc), and the patches will not be mangled.

       Approach #3 (external editor)
	   The following Thunderbird extensions are needed: AboutConfig from and External Editor from

	    1. Prepare the patch as a text file using your method of choice.

	    2. Before opening a compose window, use Edit→Account Settings to
	       uncheck the "Compose messages in HTML format" setting in the
	       "Composition & Addressing" panel of the account to be used to
	       send the patch.

	    3. In the main Thunderbird window, before you open the compose
	       window for the patch, use Tools→about:config to set the
	       following to the indicated values:

			   mailnews.send_plaintext_flowed  => false
			   mailnews.wraplength		   => 0

	    4. Open a compose window and click the external editor icon.

	    5. In the external editor window, read in the patch file and exit
	       the editor normally.

	   Side note: it may be possible to do step 2 with about:config and
	   the following settings but no one’s tried yet.

		       mail.html_compose		       => false
		       mail.identity.default.compose_html      => false	       => false

	   There is a script in contrib/thunderbird-patch-inline which can
	   help you include patches with Thunderbird in an easy way. To use
	   it, do the steps above and then use the script as the external

       This should help you to submit patches inline using KMail.

	1. Prepare the patch as a text file.

	2. Click on New Mail.

	3. Go under "Options" in the Composer window and be sure that "Word
	   wrap" is not set.

	4. Use Message → Insert file... and insert the patch.

	5. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
	   message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press

       ·   Extract commits between revisions R1 and R2, and apply them on top
	   of the current branch using git am to cherry-pick them:

	       $ git format-patch -k --stdout R1..R2 | git am -3 -k

       ·   Extract all commits which are in the current branch but not in the
	   origin branch:

	       $ git format-patch origin

	   For each commit a separate file is created in the current

       ·   Extract all commits that lead to origin since the inception of the

	       $ git format-patch --root origin

       ·   The same as the previous one:

	       $ git format-patch -M -B origin

	   Additionally, it detects and handles renames and complete rewrites
	   intelligently to produce a renaming patch. A renaming patch reduces
	   the amount of text output, and generally makes it easier to review.
	   Note that non-Git "patch" programs won’t understand renaming
	   patches, so use it only when you know the recipient uses Git to
	   apply your patch.

       ·   Extract three topmost commits from the current branch and format
	   them as e-mailable patches:

	       $ git format-patch -3

       git-am(1), git-send-email(1)

       Part of the git(1) suite

Git 1.9.0			  04/22/2014		   GIT-FORMAT-PATCH(1)

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