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fc(1)									 fc(1)

       fc - Processes the command history list

       fc [-r] [-e editor] [first[last]]

       fc -l  [-nr] [first[last]]

       fc [-s] [old=new] [first]

       Interfaces  documented on this reference page conform to industry stan‐
       dards as follows:

       fc:  XCU5.0

       Refer to the standards(5) reference page	 for  more  information	 about
       industry standards and associated tags.

       Uses  the  editor  named	 by  editor  to edit the commands.  The editor
       string is a utility name, subject to search via the PATH variable.  The
       value in the FCEDIT variable is used as a default when -e is not speci‐
       fied.  If FCEDIT is null or unset, ed is used as the editor.  Lists the
       commands	 rather	 than  invoking	 an  editor on them.  The commands are
       written in the sequence indicated by the first and last parameters,  as
       affected by -r, with each command preceded by the command number.  Sup‐
       presses command numbers when listing with -l.  Reverses	the  order  of
       the  commands  listed  (with  -l)  or  edited (with neither -l nor -s).
       Reexecutes the command without invoking an editor.

       Selects the commands to list or edit.  The number of previous  commands
       that  can  be accessed is determined by the value of the HISTSIZE vari‐
       able.  The value of first or last or both is one of  the	 following:  A
       positive	 number	 representing a command number; command numbers can be
       displayed with the -l option.  A negative decimal  number  representing
       the command that was executed number of commands previously.  For exam‐
       ple, -1 is the immediately previous command.  A string  indicating  the
       most  recently  entered	command	 that begins with that string.	If the
       old=new operand is not also specified with -s, the string form  of  the
       first operand cannot contain an embedded equal sign.

	      When the synopsis form with -s is used: If first is omitted, the
	      previous command is used.

	      For the synopsis forms without -s:  If  last  is	omitted,  last
	      defaults	to  the	 previous command when -l is specified; other‐
	      wise, it defaults to first.  If first and last are both omitted,
	      the  previous 16 commands are listed or the previous single com‐
	      mand is edited (based on the -l option).	If first and last  are
	      both  present, all of the commands from first to last are edited
	      (without -l) or listed (with -l).	 Editing multiple commands  is
	      accomplished  by presenting to the editor all of the commands at
	      one time, each command starting on a new line.  If first	repre‐
	      sents  a	newer  command	than  last, the commands are listed or
	      edited in reverse sequence, equivalent to using -r.   For	 exam‐
	      ple,  the following commands on the first line are equivalent to
	      the corresponding commands on the second:

	      fc  -r  10  20			 fc	30  40	fc     20   10
	      fc -r 40 30 When a range of commands is used, it is not an error
	      to specify first or last values that  are	 not  in  the  history
	      list; fc substitutes the value representing the oldest or newest
	      command in the list, as appropriate.  For example, if there  are
	      only  ten	 commands  in  the history list, numbered 1 to 10, the
	      following commands list and edit,	 respectively,	all  ten  com‐

	      fc -l fc	1 99

	      The  first occurrence of string old in the commands to be reexe‐
	      cuted is replaced by the string new.

       The fc utility  lists  or  edits	 and  reexecutes  commands  previously
       entered to an interactive shell.

       The  command  history  list  references commands by number.   The first
       number in the list is selected arbitrarily.  The relationship of a num‐
       ber  to its command does not change except when the user logs in and no
       other process is accessing the list, at which time the system may reset
       the  numbering  to  start the oldest retained command at another number
       (usually 1).  When the number reaches an upper limit, either the	 value
       in  HISTSIZE  or 32767 (whichever is greater), the shell wraps the num‐
       bers, starting the next command with number 1.  However,	 despite  this
       optional	 wrapping  of numbers, fc maintains the time-ordering sequence
       of the commands. For example, if four commands in  sequence  are	 given
       the numbers 32766, 32767, 1 (wrapped), and 2 as they are executed, com‐
       mand 32767 is considered the command previous to	 1,  even  though  its
       number is higher.

       When  commands  are  edited  (when the -l option is not specified), the
       resulting lines are entered at the end of the  history  list  and  then
       reexecuted  by  sh.   The  fc  command  that  caused the editing is not
       entered into the history list. If the editor returns  a	non-zero  exit
       status, this suppresses the entry into the history list and the command
       reexecution. Any command-line variable assignments or redirection oper‐
       ators  used  with  fc  affect both the fc command itself as well as the
       command that results.  The following  command  reinvokes	 the  previous
       command,	 suppressing  standard error for both fc and the previous com‐
       mand: fc -s -- -1 2>/dev/null

       Users on windowing systems may want to have separate history files  for
       each   window   by   setting   HISTFILE	 to   the   following:	 HIST‐

       Since editors sometimes use file descriptors as integral parts of their
       editing,	 redirecting  their file descriptors as part of the fc command
       can produce unexpected results.	For example, if vi is the FCEDIT  edi‐
       tor,  the following command will not work correctly on many systems: fc
       -s | more

       The following exit values are returned: Successful  completion  of  the
       listing.	 An error occurred.

       Otherwise, the exit status is that of the commands executed by fc.

       The  following  environment  variables affect the execution of fc: This
       variable, when expanded by the shell, determines the default value  for
       the  -e	editor	option's editor option-argument.  If FCEDIT is null or
       unset, ed is used as the editor.	 Determines a path name naming a  com‐
       mand  history  file.  If	 the  HISTFILE	variable is not set, the shell
       attempts to access or create a file in  your  home  directory.  If  the
       shell  cannot obtain both read and write access to, or create, the his‐
       tory file, it uses a default mechanism that allows the history to oper‐
       ate properly.  Changes made to HISTFILE after the history file has been
       initialized are not effective.  If more than one instance of the	 shell
       is  using  the  same history file, it is unspecified how updates to the
       history file from those shells interact. As entries  are	 deleted  from
       the history file, they will be deleted oldest first.  Determines a dec‐
       imal number representing the limit to the number of  previous  commands
       that  are  accessible.  If  this variable is unset, a default of 128 is
       used.  Changes made to HISTSIZE after the history file  has  been  ini‐
       tialized	 are not effective.  Provides a default value for the interna‐
       tionalization variables that are unset or null. If  LANG	 is  unset  or
       null,  the corresponding value from the default locale is used.	If any
       of the internationalization variables contain an invalid	 setting,  the
       utility	behaves	 as if none of the variables had been defined.	If set
       to a non-empty string value, overrides the  values  of  all  the	 other
       internationalization  variables.	  Determines the locale for the inter‐
       pretation of sequences of bytes of text data as characters  (for	 exam‐
       ple,  single-byte  as  opposed to multibyte characters in arguments and
       input files).  Determines the locale used to affect the format and con‐
       tents of diagnostic messages written to standard error.	Determines the
       location of message catalogues for the processing of LC_MESSAGES.

       Commands:  sh(1p)

       Standards:  standards(5)


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