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EQN(1)									EQN(1)

       eqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics test

       eqn [-d xy] [ -f n] [-p n] [ -s n] [file]...

       neqn [file]...

       checkeq [file]...

       eqn and neqn are language processors to assist in describing equations.
       eqn is a preprocessor for troff(1) and is intended for devices that can
       print   troff's	output.	 neqn  is  a  preprocessor for nroff(1) and is
       intended for use with terminals.	 Usage is almost always:

	 example% eqn file ... | troff
	 example% neqn file ... | nroff

       If no files are specified, eqn and neqn read from the standard input. A
       line  beginning	with .EQ marks the start of an equation. The end of an
       equation is marked by a line beginning with .EN. Neither of these lines
       is  altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering,
       numbering, and so on.  It is also possible to  set  two	characters  as
       ``delimiters'';	subsequent  text between delimiters is also treated as
       eqn input.

       checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.

       The following options are supported:

		Sets equation delimiters set to characters x and  y  with  the
		command-line  argument. The more common way to do this is with
		delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The left	and  right  delimiters
		may  be	 identical.  Delimiters	 are  turned  off by delim off
		appearing in the text. All text that is neither between delim‐
		iters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.

		Changes	 font to n globally in the document. The font can also
		be changed globally in the body of the document by  using  the
		gfont n directive, where n is the font specification.

		Reduces	 subscripts and superscripts by n point sizes from the
		previous size.	In the absence of the  -p  option,  subscripts
		and  superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previ‐
		ous size.

		Changes point size to n globally in the	 document.  The	 point
		size  can also be changed globally in the body of the document
		by using the gsize n directive, where  n is the point size.

       The following operands are supported:

		The nroff or troff file processed by eqn or neqn.

       The nroff version of this description depicts the output	 of   neqn  to
       the  terminal  screen exactly as	 neqn is able to display it. To see an
       accurate depiction of the output, view  the  printed  version  of  this

       Tokens  within eqn are separated by braces, double quotes, tildes, cir‐
       cumflexes, SPACE, TAB, or NEWLINE characters. Braces {}	are  used  for
       grouping.  Generally speaking, anywhere a single character like x could
       appear, a complicated construction  enclosed  in	 braces	 may  be  used
       instead.	 A  tilde (~) represents a full SPACE in the output; a circum‐
       flex (^) half as much.

       Subscripts and superscripts:

	   These are produced with the keywords sub and sup.

	   x sub i
					makes xi

	   a sub i sup 2
					produces ai

	   e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2}
					gives e^(x^2+y^2)


	   Fractions are made with over.

	   a over b
			yields _

       Square Roots:

	   These are made with sqrt

	   1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c}

	       results in __________


	   The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on	 arbi‐
	   trary things:

	   lim from {n→ inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i

		makes limΣxi

       Brackets and Braces:

	   Left	 and right brackets, braces, and the like, of the right height
	   are made with left and right.

	   left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1

	       produces ⎣x2+__⎦=1

	       The right clause is optional.  Legal characters after left  and
	       right  are  braces,  brackets,  bars,  c	 and f for ceiling and
	       floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a  right-side-only

       Vertical piles:

	   Vertical  piles  of	things	are made with  pile, lpile, cpile, and

	   pile {a above b above c}		 a

					produces b


				       There can be  an	 arbitrary  number  of
				       elements	 in a pile.  lpile left-justi‐
				       fies, pile and cpile center, with  dif‐
				       ferent	vertical  spacing,  and	 rpile
				       right justifies.


	   Matrices are made with matrix.

	   matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } }
			xi 1


			y2 2

	       In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column.

       Diacritical marks:

	   Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar,  vec,
	   dyad, and under.

	   x dot = f(t) bar
					is x=f(t)

	   y dotdot bar ~=~ n under
					is y=n

	   x vec ~=~ y dyad
				       is x=y

       Sizes and Fonts:

	   Sizes  and  font  can  be  changed  with  size n or size ±n, roman,
	   italic, bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in
	   a document by gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line arguments
	   -sn and -fn.

       Successive display arguments:

	   Successive display arguments can be lined up.   Place  mark	before
	   the desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the
	   place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations.


	   Shorthands may be  defined  or  existing  keywords  redefined  with

	   define thing % replacement %

	       Defines	a  new	token  called  thing which will be replaced by
	       replacement whenever it appears thereafter. The %  may  be  any
	       character that does not occur in replacement.

       Keywords and Shorthands:

	   Keywords  like sum int inf and shorthands like >= → and != are rec‐

       Greek letters:

	   Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in  alpha  or

       Mathematical words:

	   Mathematical words like  sin, cos, and  log are made Roman automat‐

       troff(1) four-character escapes	like  ·	 (·)  can  be  used  anywhere.
       Strings	enclosed  in double quotes "..." are passed through untouched;
       this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to	commu‐
       nicate with troff when all else fails.

       nroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)

       To embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it  is necessary
       to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'.

				 Jul 12, 2002				EQN(1)

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