EQN(1) EQN(1)[top]NAMEeqn, neqn, checkeq - typeset mathematics testSYNOPSISeqn[xy] [-dn] [-fn] [-pn] [file]... neqn [file]... checkeq [file]...-sDESCRIPTIONeqnand neqn are language processors to assist in describing equations.eqnis a preprocessor for troff(1) and is intended for devices that can print troff's output. neqn is a preprocessor for nroff(1) and is intended for use with terminals. Usage is almost always: example%eqnfile ... | troff example% neqn file ... | nroff If no files are specified,eqnand neqn read from the standard input. A line beginning with .EQ marks the start of an equation. The end of an equation is marked by a line beginning with .EN. Neither of these lines is altered, so they may be defined in macro packages to get centering, numbering, and so on. It is also possible to set two characters as ``delimiters''; subsequent text between delimiters is also treated aseqninput. checkeq reports missing or unbalanced delimiters and .EQ/.EN pairs.OPTIONSThe following options are supported:Sets equation delimiters set to characters x and y with the command-line argument. The more common way to do this is with delim xy between .EQ and .EN. The left and right delimiters may be identical. Delimiters are turned off by delim off appearing in the text. All text that is neither between delim‐ iters nor between .EQ and .EN is passed through untouched.-dxyChanges font to n globally in the document. The font can also be changed globally in the body of the document by using the gfont n directive, where n is the font specification.-fnReduces subscripts and superscripts by n point sizes from the previous size. In the absence of the-pnoption, subscripts and superscripts are reduced by 3 point sizes from the previ‐ ous size.-pChanges point size to n globally in the document. The point size can also be changed globally in the body of the document by using the gsize n directive, where n is the point size.-snOPERANDSThe following operands are supported: file The nroff or troff file processed byeqnor neqn.EQN LANGUAGEThe nroff version of this description depicts the output of neqn to the terminal screen exactly as neqn is able to display it. To see an accurate depiction of the output, view the printed version of this page. Tokens withineqnare separated by braces, double quotes, tildes, cir‐ cumflexes, SPACE, TAB, or NEWLINE characters. Braces {} are used for grouping. Generally speaking, anywhere a single character like x could appear, a complicated construction enclosed in braces may be used instead. A tilde (~) represents a full SPACE in the output; a circum‐ flex (^) half as much. Subscripts and superscripts: These are produced with the keywords sub and sup. x sub i makes xi a sub i sup 2 produces ai e sup {x sup 2 + y sup 2} gives e^(x^2+y^2) Fractions: Fractions are made with over. a over b yields _ Square Roots: These are made with sqrt 1 over sqrt {ax sup 2 +bx+c} results in __________ Limits: The keywords from and to introduce lower and upper limits on arbi‐ trary things: lim from {n→ inf } sum from 0 to n x sub i makes limΣxi Brackets and Braces: Left and right brackets, braces, and the like, of the right height are made with left and right. left [ x sup 2 + y sup 2 over alpha right ] ~=~1 produces ⎣x2+__⎦=1 The right clause is optional. Legal characters after left and right are braces, brackets, bars, c and f for ceiling and floor, and "" for nothing at all (useful for a right-side-only bracket). Vertical piles: Vertical piles of things are made with pile, lpile, cpile, and rpile. pile {a above b above c} a produces b c There can be an arbitrary number of elements in a pile. lpile left-justi‐ fies, pile and cpile center, with dif‐ ferent vertical spacing, and rpile right justifies. Matrices: Matrices are made with matrix. matrix { lcol { x sub i above y sub 2 } ccol { 1 above 2 } } xi 1 produces y2 2 In addition, there is rcol for a right-justified column. Diacritical marks: Diacritical marks are made with dot, dotdot, hat, tilde, bar, vec, dyad, and under. x dot = f(t) bar is x=f(t) y dotdot bar ~=~ n under is y=n x vec ~=~ y dyad is x=y Sizes and Fonts: Sizes and font can be changed with size n or size ±n, roman, italic, bold, and font n. Size and fonts can be changed globally in a document by gsize n and gfont n, or by the command-line argumentsand-snSuccessive display arguments: Successive display arguments can be lined up. Place mark before the desired lineup point in the first equation; place lineup at the place that is to line up vertically in subsequent equations. Shorthands: Shorthands may be defined or existing keywords redefined with define: define thing % replacement % Defines a new token called thing which will be replaced by replacement whenever it appears thereafter. The % may be any character that does not occur in replacement. Keywords and Shorthands: Keywords like sum int inf and shorthands like >= → and != are rec‐ ognized. Greek letters: Greek letters are spelled out in the desired case, as in alpha or GAMMA. Mathematical words: Mathematical words like sin, cos, and log are made Roman automat‐ ically. troff(1) four-character escapes like · (·) can be used anywhere. Strings enclosed in double quotes "..." are passed through untouched; this permits keywords to be entered as text, and can be used to commu‐ nicate with troff when all else fails.-fn.SEE ALSOnroff(1), tbl(1), troff(1), attributes(5), ms(5)BUGSTo embolden characters such as digits and parentheses, it is necessary to quote them, as in `bold "12.3"'. Jul 12, 2002 EQN(1)

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