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EMACS(1)							      EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ file ...  ]

       GNU Emacs is a new version of Emacs, written by the author of the orig‐
       inal (PDP-10) Emacs, Richard Stallman.  Its user	 functionality	encom‐
       passes  everything  other Emacs editors do, and it is easily extensible
       since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       Emacs has an extensive interactive  help	 facility,  but	 the  facility
       assumes	that  you  know	 how  to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.
       CTRL-h (backspace or CTRL-h) enters the Help facility.	Help  Tutorial
       (CTRL-h	t)  requests an interactive tutorial which can teach beginners
       the fundamentals of Emacs in a few minutes.  Help  Apropos  (CTRL-h  a)
       helps you find a command given its functionality, Help Character (CTRL-
       h c) describes a given character's effect, and Help Function (CTRL-h f)
       describes a given Lisp function specified by name.

       Emacs's Undo can undo several steps of modification to your buffers, so
       it is easy to recover from editing mistakes.

       GNU Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and send‐
       ing  (Mail),  outline  editing  (Outline), compiling (Compile), running
       subshells within Emacs windows (Shell), running a Lisp  read-eval-print
       loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), and automated psychotherapy (Doctor).

       There  is  an  extensive	 reference  manual, but users of other Emacses
       should have little trouble adapting even without a copy.	 Users new  to
       Emacs will be able to use basic features fairly rapidly by studying the
       tutorial and using the self-documentation features.

       Emacs Options

       The following options are of general interest:

       file    Edit file.

       +number Go to the line specified by  number  (do	 not  insert  a	 space
	       between the "+" sign and the number).

       -q      Do not load an init file.

       -u user Load user's init file.

       -t file Use  specified file as the terminal instead of using stdin/std‐
	       out.  This must be the first argument specified in the  command

       The following options are lisp-oriented (these options are processed in
       the order encountered):

       -f function
	       Execute the lisp function function.

       -l file Load the lisp code in the file file.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

       -batch commandfile
	       Edit in batch mode using the  commands  found  in  commandfile.
	       The  editor  will send messages to stdout.  This option must be
	       the first in the argument list.

       -kill   Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

       Using Emacs with X

       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.  If  you
       run Emacs from under X windows, it will create its own X window to dis‐
       play in.	 You will probably want to start the editor  as	 a  background
       process so that you can continue using your original window.

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

       -rn name
	       Specifies the program name which should be used when looking up
	       defaults in the user's X resources.  This  must	be  the	 first
	       option specified in the command line.

       -wn name
	       Specifies  the  name which should be assigned to the Emacs win‐

       -r      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

       -i      Use the "kitchen sink" bitmap icon when	iconifying  the	 Emacs

       -font font, -fn font
	       Set  the	 Emacs	window's  font to that specified by font.  You
	       will find the various X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts	direc‐
	       tory.   Note  that  Emacs  will	only accept fixed width fonts.
	       Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conventions, any font  with
	       the  value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font name is
	       a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are  of  the
	       form  widthxheight  are	generally  fixed width, as is the font
	       fixed.  See xlsfonts(1) for more information.

	       When you specify a font, be sure to put	a  space  between  the
	       switch and the font name.

       -b pixels
	       Set  the	 Emacs	window's  border width to the number of pixels
	       specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the

       -ib pixels
	       Set  the window's internal border width to the number of pixels
	       specified by pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on  each
	       side of the window.

       -w geometry, -geometry geometry
	       Set  the	 Emacs	window's width, height, and position as speci‐
	       fied.  The geometry specification is in the standard X  format;
	       see X(1) for more information.  The width and height are speci‐
	       fied in characters; the default is 80 by 24.

       -fg color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the text.

	       See the file /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt for a	list  of  valid	 color

       -bg color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's background.

       -bd color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       -cr color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       -ms color
	       On color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

       -d displayname, -display displayname
	       Create  the  Emacs  window on the display specified by display‐
	       name.  Must be the first option specified in the command line.

       -nw     Tells Emacs not to use its special interface to X.  If you  use
	       this  switch  when invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, dis‐
	       play is done in that window.  This must	be  the	 first	option
	       specified in the command line.

       You can set X default values for your Emacs windows in your .Xresources
       file (see xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set
       default values for the following keywords:

       font (class Font)
	       Sets the window's text font.

       reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
	       If  reverseVideo's  value is set to on, the window will be dis‐
	       played in reverse video.

       bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
	       If bitmapIcon's value is set to on,  the	 window	 will  iconify
	       into the "kitchen sink."

       borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's border width in pixels.

       internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
	       Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

       foreground (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the window's text color.

       background (class Background)
	       For color displays, sets the window's background color.

       borderColor (class BorderColor)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

       cursorColor (class Foreground)
	       For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

       pointerColor (class Foreground)
	       For  color  displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cur‐

       geometry (class Geometry)
	       Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

       title (class Title)
	       Sets the title of the Emacs window.

       iconName (class Title)
	       Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

       If you try to set color values while using a black and  white  display,
       the  window's  characteristics  will default as follows: the foreground
       color will be set to black, the background color will be set to	white,
       the  border  color  will be set to grey, and the text and mouse cursors
       will be set to black.

       Using the Mouse

       The following lists the mouse button  bindings  for  the	 Emacs	window
       under X11.

       left		    Set point.
       middle		    Paste text.
       right		    Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-middle	    Cut text into X cut buffer.
       SHIFT-right	    Paste text.
       CTRL-middle	    Cut text into X cut buffer and kill it.
       CTRL-right	    Select  this  window,  then split it into two win‐
			    dows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 2.
       CTRL-SHIFT-left	    X buffer menu--hold the  buttons  and  keys	 down,
			    wait  for  menu  to	 appear,  select  buffer,  and
			    release.  Move mouse out of menu  and  release  to
       CTRL-SHIFT-middle    X  help  menu--pop	up  index  card menu for Emacs
       CTRL-SHIFT-right	    Select window with mouse,  and  delete  all	 other
			    windows.  Same as typing CTRL-x 1.

       You  can	 order	printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual for $15.00/copy
       postpaid from the Free Software Foundation, which develops GNU software
       (contact them for quantity prices on the manual).  Their address is:
	   Free Software Foundation
	   675 Mass Ave.
	   Cambridge, MA 02139
       Your  local Emacs maintainer might also have copies available.  As with
       all software and publications from FSF, everyone is permitted  to  make
       and  distribute copies of the Emacs manual.  The TeX source to the man‐
       ual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/emacs/src - C source files and object files

       /usr/local/emacs/lisp - Lisp  source  files  and	 compiled  files  that
       define	most   editing	commands.   Some  are  preloaded;  others  are
       autoloaded from this directory when used.

       /usr/local/emacs/man - sources for the Emacs reference manual.

       /usr/local/emacs/etc - various programs that are used with  GNU	Emacs,
       and some files of information.

       /usr/local/emacs/etc/DOC.* - contains the documentation strings for the
       Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU  Emacs.   They  are
       stored here to reduce the size of Emacs proper.

       /usr/local/emacs/etc/DIFF discusses GNU Emacs vs. Twenex Emacs;
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/CCADIFF discusses GNU Emacs vs. CCA Emacs;
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/GOSDIFF discusses GNU Emacs vs. Gosling Emacs.
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/SERVICE  lists people offering various services to
       assist users of GNU Emacs, including education, troubleshooting,	 port‐
       ing and customization.
       These  files  also  have	 information useful to anyone wishing to write
       programs in the Emacs Lisp extension language, which has not  yet  been
       fully documented.

       /usr/local/emacs/info  -	 files	for  the Info documentation browser (a
       subsystem of Emacs) to refer to.	 Currently not much of Unix  is	 docu‐
       mented  here,  but  the	complete text of the Emacs reference manual is
       included in a convenient tree structured form.

       /usr/local/emacs/lock - holds lock files that are made  for  all	 files
       being  modified	in  Emacs, to prevent simultaneous modification of one
       file by two users.

       /usr/local/emacs/cpp - the GNU cpp, needed for building Emacs  on  cer‐
       tain  versions  of Unix where the standard cpp cannot handle long names
       for macros.

       /usr/local/emacs/shortnames - facilities for translating long names  to
       short names in C code, needed for building Emacs on certain versions of
       Unix where the C compiler cannot handle long  names  for	 functions  or

       /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt - list of valid X color names.

       There  is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu on the internet
       (ucbvax!prep.ai.mit.edu!bug-gnu-emacs on UUCPnet), for reporting	 Emacs
       bugs and fixes.	But before reporting something as a bug, please try to
       be sure that it really is a bug, not a misunderstanding or a deliberate
       feature.	  We ask you to read the section ``Reporting Emacs Bugs'' near
       the end of the reference manual (or Info system) for hints on  how  and
       when to report bugs.  Also, include the version number of the Emacs you
       are running in every bug report that you send in.

       Do not expect a personal answer	to  a  bug  report.   The  purpose  of
       reporting  bugs	is to get them fixed for everyone in the next release,
       if possible.  For personal assistance, look in the  SERVICE  file  (see
       above) for a list of people who offer it.

       Please do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  Send
       requests to be added to mailing lists to	 the  special  list  info-gnu-
       emacs-request@prep.ai.mit.edu (or the corresponding UUCP address).  For
       more  information   about   Emacs   mailing   lists,   see   the	  file
       /usr/local/emacs/etc/MAILINGLISTS.   Bugs  tend actually to be fixed if
       they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in  such
       a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Bugs  that  I know about are: shell will not work with programs running
       in Raw mode on some Unix versions.

       Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone	 under
       the  terms  stated in the Emacs General Public License, a copy of which
       accompanies each copy of Emacs and which also appears in the  reference

       Copies  of  Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions
       of Unix systems, but it is never included in the scope of  any  license
       covering	 those	systems.   Such	 inclusion violates the terms on which
       distribution is permitted.  In fact, the primary purpose of the General
       Public  License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restric‐
       tions to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and	 urges
       that you contribute your extensions to the GNU library.	Eventually GNU
       (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a  complete  replacement  for  Berkeley	 Unix.
       Everyone will be able to use the GNU system for free.

       X(1), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs was written by Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.
       Joachim Martillo and Robert Krawitz added the X features.

4th Berkeley Distribution      1990 November 13			      EMACS(1)

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