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ECHO(1)								       ECHO(1)

       echo - echo arguments

       /usr/bin/echo [string]...

       The  echo  utility writes its arguments, separated by BLANKs and termi‐
       nated by a NEWLINE, to the standard output. If there are no  arguments,
       only the NEWLINE character is written.

       echo  is useful for producing diagnostics in command files, for sending
       known data into a pipe, and for displaying the contents of  environment

       The  C shell, the Korn shell, and the Bourne shell all have echo built-
       in commands, which, by default, is invoked if the user calls echo with‐
       out  a  full  pathname.	See  shell_builtins(1). sh's echo, ksh's echo,
       ksh93's echo, and  /usr/bin/echo	 understand  the  back-slashed	escape
       characters,  except  that sh's echo does not understand \a as the alert
       character. In addition, ksh's and ksh93's echo  does  not  have	an  -n
       option.	sh's  echo  and	 /usr/bin/echo	have an -n option if the SYSV3
       environment variable is set (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES  below).	 csh's
       echo  and  /usr/ucb/echo,  on the other hand, have an -n option, but do
       not understand the back-slashed escape characters.  sh and  ksh	deter‐
       mine  whether /usr/ucb/echo is found first in the PATH and, if so, they
       adapt the behavior of the echo builtin to match /usr/ucb/echo.

       The following operand is supported:

		 A string to be written to standard output. If any operand  is
		 "-n", it is treated as a string, not an option. The following
		 character sequences is recognized within  any	of  the	 argu‐

			 Alert character.


			 Print line without new-line. All characters following
			 the \c in the argument are ignored.



			 Carriage return.


			 Vertical tab.


			 Where n is the 8-bit character whose  ASCII  code  is
			 the  1-, 2- or 3-digit octal number representing that

       Portable applications should not use -n	(as  the  first	 argument)  or
       escape sequences.

       The printf(1) utility can be used portably to emulate any of the tradi‐
       tional behaviors of the echo utility as follows:

	   o	  The Solaris 2.6 operating  environment  or  compatible  ver‐
		  sion's /usr/bin/echo is equivalent to:

		    printf "%b\n" "$*"

	   o	  The /usr/ucb/echo is equivalent to:

		    if [ "X$1" = "X-n" ]



			    printf "%s" "$*"


			    printf "%s\n" "$*"


       New applications are encouraged to use printf instead of echo.

       Example 1 Finding how far below root your current directory is located

       You  can	 use  echo to determine how many subdirectories below the root
       directory (/) is your current directory, as follows:

	   o	  Echo your current-working-directory's full pathname.

	   o	  Pipe the output through tr to translate the path's  embedded
		  slash-characters into space-characters.

	   o	  Pipe	that  output through wc -w for a count of the names in
		  your path.

		    example% /usr/bin/echo $PWD | tr '/' ' ' | wc -w

       See tr(1) and wc(1) for their functionality.

       Below are the different flavors for echoing a string without a NEWLINE:

       Example 2 /usr/bin/echo

	 example% /usr/bin/echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

       Example 3 sh/ksh shells

	 example$ echo "$USER's current directory is $PWD\c"

       Example 4 csh shell

	 example% echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

       Example 5 /usr/ucb/echo

	 example% /usr/ucb/echo -n "$USER's current directory is $PWD"

       See environ(5) for descriptions of the following environment  variables
       that affect the execution of echo: LANG, LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, LC_MESSAGES,
       and NLSPATH.

		This environment variable is  used  to	provide	 compatibility
		with   INTERACTIVE  UNIX  System  and  SCO  UNIX  installation
		scripts. It is intended for compatibility only and should  not
		be  used  in new scripts. This variable is applicable only for
		Solaris x86 platforms, not Solaris SPARC systems.

       The following error values are returned:

	     Successful completion.

	     An error occurred.

       See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:

       │CSI		    │ Enabled		│
       │Interface Stability │ Committed		│
       │Standard	    │ See standards(5). │

       ksh93(1),  printf(1),  shell_builtins(1),   tr(1),   wc(1),   echo(1B),
       ascii(5), attributes(5), environ(5), standards(5)

       When  representing  an  8-bit  character by using the escape convention
       \0n, the n must always be preceded by the digit zero (0).

       For example, typing: echo 'WARNING:\07' prints the phrase WARNING:  and
       sounds  the  "bell"  on	your  terminal.	 The use of single (or double)
       quotes (or two backslashes) is required to protect the  "\"  that  pre‐
       cedes the "07".

       Following the \0, up to three digits are used in constructing the octal
       output character. If, following the \0n, you want  to  echo  additional
       digits  that are not part of the octal representation, you must use the
       full 3-digit n. For example, if you want to echo "ESC 7" you  must  use
       the  three  digits "033" rather than just the two digits "33" after the

	 2 digits	  Incorrect:	  echo "\0337" | od -xc
			  produces:	  df0a			   (hex)
					  337			   (ascii)
	 3 digits	  Correct:	  echo "\00337" | od -xc
			  produces:	  lb37 0a00		   (hex)
					  033 7			   (ascii)

       For the octal equivalents of each character, see ascii(5).

				  Apr 8, 2008			       ECHO(1)

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