dnssec-signzone man page on Scientific

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       dnssec-signzone - DNSSEC zone signing tool

       dnssec-signzone [-a] [-c class] [-d directory] [-E engine]
		       [-e end-time] [-f output-file] [-g] [-h] [-K directory]
		       [-k key] [-l domain] [-i interval] [-I input-format]
		       [-j jitter] [-N soa-serial-format] [-o origin]
		       [-O output-format] [-p] [-P] [-r randomdev] [-S]
		       [-s start-time] [-T ttl] [-t] [-u] [-v level] [-x] [-z]
		       [-3 salt] [-H iterations] [-A] {zonefile} [key...]

       dnssec-signzone signs a zone. It generates NSEC and RRSIG records and
       produces a signed version of the zone. The security status of
       delegations from the signed zone (that is, whether the child zones are
       secure or not) is determined by the presence or absence of a keyset
       file for each child zone.

	   Verify all generated signatures.

       -c class
	   Specifies the DNS class of the zone.

	   Compatibility mode: Generate a keyset-zonename file in addition to
	   dsset-zonename when signing a zone, for use by older versions of

       -d directory
	   Look for dsset- or keyset- files in directory.

       -E engine
	   Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for the crypto operations
	   it supports, for instance signing with private keys from a secure
	   key store. When compiled with PKCS#11 support it defaults to
	   pkcs11; the empty name resets it to no engine.

	   Generate DS records for child zones from dsset- or keyset- file.
	   Existing DS records will be removed.

       -K directory
	   Key repository: Specify a directory to search for DNSSEC keys. If
	   not specified, defaults to the current directory.

       -k key
	   Treat specified key as a key signing key ignoring any key flags.
	   This option may be specified multiple times.

       -l domain
	   Generate a DLV set in addition to the key (DNSKEY) and DS sets. The
	   domain is appended to the name of the records.

       -s start-time
	   Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records become
	   valid. This can be either an absolute or relative time. An absolute
	   start time is indicated by a number in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS notation;
	   20000530144500 denotes 14:45:00 UTC on May 30th, 2000. A relative
	   start time is indicated by +N, which is N seconds from the current
	   time. If no start-time is specified, the current time minus 1 hour
	   (to allow for clock skew) is used.

       -e end-time
	   Specify the date and time when the generated RRSIG records expire.
	   As with start-time, an absolute time is indicated in YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
	   notation. A time relative to the start time is indicated with +N,
	   which is N seconds from the start time. A time relative to the
	   current time is indicated with now+N. If no end-time is specified,
	   30 days from the start time is used as a default.  end-time must be
	   later than start-time.

       -f output-file
	   The name of the output file containing the signed zone. The default
	   is to append .signed to the input filename.

	   Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to

       -i interval
	   When a previously-signed zone is passed as input, records may be
	   resigned. The interval option specifies the cycle interval as an
	   offset from the current time (in seconds). If a RRSIG record
	   expires after the cycle interval, it is retained. Otherwise, it is
	   considered to be expiring soon, and it will be replaced.

	   The default cycle interval is one quarter of the difference between
	   the signature end and start times. So if neither end-time or
	   start-time are specified, dnssec-signzone generates signatures that
	   are valid for 30 days, with a cycle interval of 7.5 days.
	   Therefore, if any existing RRSIG records are due to expire in less
	   than 7.5 days, they would be replaced.

       -I input-format
	   The format of the input zone file. Possible formats are "text"
	   (default) and "raw". This option is primarily intended to be used
	   for dynamic signed zones so that the dumped zone file in a non-text
	   format containing updates can be signed directly. The use of this
	   option does not make much sense for non-dynamic zones.

       -j jitter
	   When signing a zone with a fixed signature lifetime, all RRSIG
	   records issued at the time of signing expires simultaneously. If
	   the zone is incrementally signed, i.e. a previously-signed zone is
	   passed as input to the signer, all expired signatures have to be
	   regenerated at about the same time. The jitter option specifies a
	   jitter window that will be used to randomize the signature expire
	   time, thus spreading incremental signature regeneration over time.

	   Signature lifetime jitter also to some extent benefits validators
	   and servers by spreading out cache expiration, i.e. if large
	   numbers of RRSIGs don't expire at the same time from all caches
	   there will be less congestion than if all validators need to
	   refetch at mostly the same time.

       -n ncpus
	   Specifies the number of threads to use. By default, one thread is
	   started for each detected CPU.

       -N soa-serial-format
	   The SOA serial number format of the signed zone. Possible formats
	   are "keep" (default), "increment" and "unixtime".

		   Do not modify the SOA serial number.

		   Increment the SOA serial number using RFC 1982 arithmetics.

		   Set the SOA serial number to the number of seconds since

       -o origin
	   The zone origin. If not specified, the name of the zone file is
	   assumed to be the origin.

       -O output-format
	   The format of the output file containing the signed zone. Possible
	   formats are "text" (default) and "raw".

	   Use pseudo-random data when signing the zone. This is faster, but
	   less secure, than using real random data. This option may be useful
	   when signing large zones or when the entropy source is limited.

	   Disable post sign verification tests.

	   The post sign verification test ensures that for each algorithm in
	   use there is at least one non revoked self signed KSK key, that all
	   revoked KSK keys are self signed, and that all records in the zone
	   are signed by the algorithm. This option skips these tests.

       -r randomdev
	   Specifies the source of randomness. If the operating system does
	   not provide a /dev/random or equivalent device, the default source
	   of randomness is keyboard input.  randomdev specifies the name of a
	   character device or file containing random data to be used instead
	   of the default. The special value keyboard indicates that keyboard
	   input should be used.

	   Smart signing: Instructs dnssec-signzone to search the key
	   repository for keys that match the zone being signed, and to
	   include them in the zone if appropriate.

	   When a key is found, its timing metadata is examined to determine
	   how it should be used, according to the following rules. Each
	   successive rule takes priority over the prior ones:

		   If no timing metadata has been set for the key, the key is
		   published in the zone and used to sign the zone.

		   If the key's publication date is set and is in the past,
		   the key is published in the zone.

		   If the key's activation date is set and in the past, the
		   key is published (regardless of publication date) and used
		   to sign the zone.

		   If the key's revocation date is set and in the past, and
		   the key is published, then the key is revoked, and the
		   revoked key is used to sign the zone.

		   If either of the key's unpublication or deletion dates are
		   set and in the past, the key is NOT published or used to
		   sign the zone, regardless of any other metadata.

       -T ttl
	   Specifies the TTL to be used for new DNSKEY records imported into
	   the zone from the key repository. If not specified, the default is
	   the minimum TTL value from the zone's SOA record. This option is
	   ignored when signing without -S, since DNSKEY records are not
	   imported from the key repository in that case. It is also ignored
	   if there are any pre-existing DNSKEY records at the zone apex, in
	   which case new records' TTL values will be set to match them.

	   Print statistics at completion.

	   Update NSEC/NSEC3 chain when re-signing a previously signed zone.
	   With this option, a zone signed with NSEC can be switched to NSEC3,
	   or a zone signed with NSEC3 can be switch to NSEC or to NSEC3 with
	   different parameters. Without this option, dnssec-signzone will
	   retain the existing chain when re-signing.

       -v level
	   Sets the debugging level.

	   Only sign the DNSKEY RRset with key-signing keys, and omit
	   signatures from zone-signing keys. (This is similar to the
	   dnssec-dnskey-kskonly yes; zone option in named.)

	   Ignore KSK flag on key when determining what to sign. This causes
	   KSK-flagged keys to sign all records, not just the DNSKEY RRset.
	   (This is similar to the update-check-ksk no; zone option in named.)

       -3 salt
	   Generate an NSEC3 chain with the given hex encoded salt. A dash
	   (salt) can be used to indicate that no salt is to be used when
	   generating the NSEC3 chain.

       -H iterations
	   When generating an NSEC3 chain, use this many interations. The
	   default is 10.

	   When generating an NSEC3 chain set the OPTOUT flag on all NSEC3
	   records and do not generate NSEC3 records for insecure delegations.

	   Using this option twice (i.e., -AA) turns the OPTOUT flag off for
	   all records. This is useful when using the -u option to modify an
	   NSEC3 chain which previously had OPTOUT set.

	   The file containing the zone to be signed.

	   Specify which keys should be used to sign the zone. If no keys are
	   specified, then the zone will be examined for DNSKEY records at the
	   zone apex. If these are found and there are matching private keys,
	   in the current directory, then these will be used for signing.

       The following command signs the example.com zone with the DSA key
       generated by dnssec-keygen (Kexample.com.+003+17247). Because the -S
       option is not being used, the zone's keys must be in the master file
       (db.example.com). This invocation looks for dsset files, in the current
       directory, so that DS records can be imported from them (-g).

	   % dnssec-signzone -g -o example.com db.example.com \

       In the above example, dnssec-signzone creates the file
       db.example.com.signed. This file should be referenced in a zone
       statement in a named.conf file.

       This example re-signs a previously signed zone with default parameters.
       The private keys are assumed to be in the current directory.

	   % cp db.example.com.signed db.example.com
	   % dnssec-signzone -o example.com db.example.com

       dnssec-keygen(8), BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual, RFC 4033.

       Internet Systems Consortium

       Copyright © 2004-2009 Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")
       Copyright © 2000-2003 Internet Software Consortium.

BIND9				 June 05, 2009		    DNSSEC-SIGNZONE(8)

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