DGGESX(1) LAPACK driver routine (version 3.2) DGGESX(1)[top]NAMEDGGESX - computes for a pair of N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, the real Schur form (S,T), and,SYNOPSISSUBROUTINE DGGESX( JOBVSL, JOBVSR, SORT, SELCTG, SENSE, N, A, LDA, B, LDB, SDIM, ALPHAR, ALPHAI, BETA, VSL, LDVSL, VSR, LDVSR, RCONDE, RCONDV, WORK, LWORK, IWORK, LIWORK, BWORK, INFO ) CHARACTER JOBVSL, JOBVSR, SENSE, SORT INTEGER INFO, LDA, LDB, LDVSL, LDVSR, LIWORK, LWORK, N, SDIM LOGICAL BWORK( * ) INTEGER IWORK( * ) DOUBLE PRECISION A( LDA, * ), ALPHAI( * ), ALPHAR( * ), B( LDB, * ), BETA( * ), RCONDE( 2 ), RCONDV( 2 ), VSL( LDVSL, * ), VSR( LDVSR, * ), WORK( * ) LOGICAL SELCTG EXTERNAL SELCTGPURPOSEDGGESX computes for a pair of N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrices (A,B), the generalized eigenvalues, the real Schur form (S,T), and, option‐ ally, the left and/or right matrices of Schur vectors (VSL and VSR). This gives the generalized Schur factorization (A,B) = ( (VSL) S (VSR)**T, (VSL) T (VSR)**T ) Optionally, it also orders the eigenvalues so that a selected cluster of eigenvalues appears in the leading diagonal blocks of the upper quasi-triangular matrix S and the upper triangular matrix T; computes a reciprocal condition number for the average of the selected eigenvalues (RCONDE); and computes a reciprocal condition number for the right and left deflating subspaces corresponding to the selected eigenvalues (RCONDV). The leading columns of VSL and VSR then form an orthonormal basis for the corresponding left and right eigenspaces (deflating sub‐ spaces). A generalized eigenvalue for a pair of matrices (A,B) is a scalar w or a ratio alpha/beta = w, such that A - w*B is singular. It is usually represented as the pair (alpha,beta), as there is a reasonable inter‐ pretation for beta=0 or for both being zero. A pair of matrices (S,T) is in generalized real Schur form if T is upper triangular with non- negative diagonal and S is block upper triangular with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 blocks. 1-by-1 blocks correspond to real generalized eigenval‐ ues, while 2-by-2 blocks of S will be "standardized" by making the cor‐ responding elements of T have the form: [ a 0 ] [ 0 b ] and the pair of corresponding 2-by-2 blocks in S and T will have a com‐ plex conjugate pair of generalized eigenvalues.ARGUMENTSJOBVSL (input) CHARACTER*1 = 'N': do not compute the left Schur vectors; = 'V': compute the left Schur vectors. JOBVSR (input) CHARACTER*1 = 'N': do not compute the right Schur vectors; = 'V': compute the right Schur vectors. SORT (input) CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the diago‐ nal of the generalized Schur form. = 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered; = 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELCTG). SELCTG (external procedure) LOGICAL FUNCTION of three DOUBLE PRECISION arguments SELCTG must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine. If SORT = 'N', SELCTG is not referenced. If SORT = 'S', SELCTG is used to select eigenvalues to sort to the top left of the Schur form. An eigenvalue (ALPHAR(j)+ALPHAI(j))/BETA(j) is selected if SELCTG(ALPHAR(j),ALPHAI(j),BETA(j)) is true; i.e. if either one of a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues is selected, then both complex eigenvalues are selected. Note that a selected complex eigenvalue may no longer satisfy SELCTG(ALPHAR(j),ALPHAI(j),BETA(j)) = .TRUE. after ordering, since ordering may change the value of complex eigenvalues (especially if the eigenvalue is ill-conditioned), in this case INFO is set to N+3. SENSE (input) CHARACTER*1 Determines which reciprocal condition numbers are computed. = 'N' : None are computed; = 'E' : Computed for average of selected eigenvalues only; = 'V' : Computed for selected deflating subspaces only; = 'B' : Computed for both. If SENSE = 'E', 'V', or 'B', SORT must equal 'S'. N (input) INTEGER The order of the matrices A, B, VSL, and VSR. N >= 0. A (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA, N) On entry, the first of the pair of matrices. On exit, A has been overwritten by its generalized Schur form S. LDA (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of A. LDA >= max(1,N). B (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDB, N) On entry, the second of the pair of matrices. On exit, B has been overwritten by its generalized Schur form T. LDB (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of B. LDB >= max(1,N). SDIM (output) INTEGER If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0. If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of ei‐ genvalues (after sorting) for which SELCTG is true. (Complex conjugate pairs for which SELCTG is true for either eigenvalue count as 2.) ALPHAR (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) ALPHAI (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) BETA (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) On exit, (ALPHAR(j) + ALPHAI(j)*i)/BETA(j), j=1,...,N, will be the gen‐ eralized eigenvalues. ALPHAR(j) + ALPHAI(j)*i and BETA(j),j=1,...,N are the diagonals of the complex Schur form (S,T) that would result if the 2-by-2 diagonal blocks of the real Schur form of (A,B) were further reduced to triangular form using 2-by-2 complex unitary transformations. If ALPHAI(j) is zero, then the j-th eigenvalue is real; if posi‐ tive, then the j-th and (j+1)-st eigenvalues are a complex con‐ jugate pair, with ALPHAI(j+1) negative. Note: the quotients ALPHAR(j)/BETA(j) and ALPHAI(j)/BETA(j) may easily over- or underflow, and BETA(j) may even be zero. Thus, the user should avoid naively computing the ratio. However, ALPHAR and ALPHAI will be always less than and usually comparable with norm(A) in magnitude, and BETA always less than and usually comparable with norm(B). VSL (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDVSL,N) If JOBVSL = 'V', VSL will contain the left Schur vectors. Not referenced if JOBVSL = 'N'. LDVSL (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of the matrix VSL. LDVSL >=1, and if JOB‐ VSL = 'V', LDVSL >= N. VSR (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDVSR,N) If JOBVSR = 'V', VSR will contain the right Schur vectors. Not referenced if JOBVSR = 'N'. LDVSR (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of the matrix VSR. LDVSR >= 1, and if JOBVSR = 'V', LDVSR >= N. RCONDE (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension ( 2 ) If SENSE = 'E' or 'B', RCONDE(1) and RCONDE(2) contain the reciprocal condition numbers for the average of the selected eigenvalues. Not referenced if SENSE = 'N' or 'V'. RCONDV (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension ( 2 ) If SENSE = 'V' or 'B', RCONDV(1) and RCONDV(2) contain the reciprocal condition numbers for the selected deflating sub‐ spaces. Not referenced if SENSE = 'N' or 'E'. WORK (workspace/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK)) On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) returns the optimal LWORK. LWORK (input) INTEGER The dimension of the array WORK. If N = 0, LWORK >= 1, else if SENSE = 'E', 'V', or 'B', LWORK >= max( 8*N, 6*N+16, 2*SDIM*(N- SDIM) ), else LWORK >= max( 8*N, 6*N+16 ). Note that 2*SDIM*(N-SDIM) <= N*N/2. Note also that an error is only returned if LWORK < max( 8*N, 6*N+16), but if SENSE = 'E' or 'V' or 'B' this may not be large enough. If LWORK =, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the bound on the optimal size of the WORK array and the minimum size of the IWORK array, returns these values as the first entries of the WORK and IWORK arrays, and no error message related to LWORK or LIWORK is issued by XERBLA. IWORK (workspace) INTEGER array, dimension (MAX(1,LIWORK)) On exit, if INFO = 0, IWORK(1) returns the minimum LIWORK. LIWORK (input) INTEGER The dimension of the array IWORK. If SENSE = 'N' or N = 0, LIWORK >= 1, otherwise LIWORK >= N+6. If LIWORK =-1, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calculates the bound on the optimal size of the WORK array and the minimum size of the IWORK array, returns these values as the first entries of the WORK and IWORK arrays, and no error message related to LWORK or LIWORK is issued by XERBLA. BWORK (workspace) LOGICAL array, dimension (N) Not referenced if SORT = 'N'. INFO (output) INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO =-1, the i-th argument had an illegal value. = 1,...,N: The QZ iteration failed. (A,B) are not in Schur form, but ALPHAR(j), ALPHAI(j), and BETA(j) should be correct for j=INFO+1,...,N. > N: =N+1: other than QZ iteration failed in DHGEQZ =N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of some complex eigenvalues so that leading eigenvalues in the Generalized Schur form no longer satisfy SELCTG=.TRUE. This could also be caused due to scaling. =N+3: reordering failed in DTGSEN.-iFURTHER DETAILSAn approximate (asymptotic) bound on the average absolute error of the selected eigenvalues is EPS * norm((A, B)) / RCONDE( 1 ). An approximate (asymptotic) bound on the maximum angular error in the computed deflating subspaces is EPS * norm((A, B)) / RCONDV( 2 ). See LAPACK User's Guide, section 4.11 for more information. LAPACK driver routine (version 3November 2008 DGGESX(1)

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