DGEES(1) LAPACK driver routine (version 3.2) DGEES(1)[top]NAMEDGEES - computes for an N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrix A, the eigen‐ values, the real Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vectors ZSYNOPSISSUBROUTINE DGEES( JOBVS, SORT, SELECT, N, A, LDA, SDIM, WR, WI, VS, LDVS, WORK, LWORK, BWORK, INFO ) CHARACTER JOBVS, SORT INTEGER INFO, LDA, LDVS, LWORK, N, SDIM LOGICAL BWORK( * ) DOUBLE PRECISION A( LDA, * ), VS( LDVS, * ), WI( * ), WORK( * ), WR( * ) LOGICAL SELECT EXTERNAL SELECTPURPOSEDGEES computes for an N-by-N real nonsymmetric matrix A, the eigenval‐ ues, the real Schur form T, and, optionally, the matrix of Schur vec‐ tors Z. This gives the Schur factorization A = Z*T*(Z**T). Option‐ ally, it also orders the eigenvalues on the diagonal of the real Schur form so that selected eigenvalues are at the top left. The leading columns of Z then form an orthonormal basis for the invariant subspace corresponding to the selected eigenvalues. A matrix is in real Schur form if it is upper quasi-triangular with 1-by-1 and 2-by-2 blocks. 2-by-2 blocks will be standardized in the form [ a b ] [ c a ] where b*c < 0. The eigenvalues of such a block are a +- sqrt(bc).ARGUMENTSJOBVS (input) CHARACTER*1 = 'N': Schur vectors are not computed; = 'V': Schur vectors are computed. SORT (input) CHARACTER*1 Specifies whether or not to order the eigenvalues on the diago‐ nal of the Schur form. = 'N': Eigenvalues are not ordered; = 'S': Eigenvalues are ordered (see SELECT). SELECT (external procedure) LOGICAL FUNCTION of two DOUBLE PRECISION arguments SELECT must be declared EXTERNAL in the calling subroutine. If SORT = 'S', SELECT is used to select eigenvalues to sort to the top left of the Schur form. If SORT = 'N', SELECT is not ref‐ erenced. An eigenvalue WR(j)+sqrt(-1)*WI(j) is selected if SELECT(WR(j),WI(j)) is true; i.e., if either one of a complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues is selected, then both complex eigenvalues are selected. Note that a selected complex eigen‐ value may no longer satisfy SELECT(WR(j),WI(j)) = .TRUE. after ordering, since ordering may change the value of complex eigen‐ values (especially if the eigenvalue is ill-conditioned); in this case INFO is set to N+2 (see INFO below). N (input) INTEGER The order of the matrix A. N >= 0. A (input/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDA,N) On entry, the N-by-N matrix A. On exit, A has been overwritten by its real Schur form T. LDA (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of the array A. LDA >= max(1,N). SDIM (output) INTEGER If SORT = 'N', SDIM = 0. If SORT = 'S', SDIM = number of ei‐ genvalues (after sorting) for which SELECT is true. (Complex conjugate pairs for which SELECT is true for either eigenvalue count as 2.) WR (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) WI (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (N) WR and WI contain the real and imaginary parts, respectively, of the computed eigenvalues in the same order that they appear on the diagonal of the output Schur form T. Complex conjugate pairs of eigenvalues will appear consecutively with the eigenvalue having the positive imaginary part first. VS (output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (LDVS,N) If JOBVS = 'V', VS contains the orthogonal matrix Z of Schur vectors. If JOBVS = 'N', VS is not referenced. LDVS (input) INTEGER The leading dimension of the array VS. LDVS >= 1; if JOBVS = 'V', LDVS >= N. WORK (workspace/output) DOUBLE PRECISION array, dimension (MAX(1,LWORK)) On exit, if INFO = 0, WORK(1) contains the optimal LWORK. LWORK (input) INTEGER The dimension of the array WORK. LWORK >= max(1,3*N). For good performance, LWORK must generally be larger. If LWORK =, then a workspace query is assumed; the routine only calcu‐ lates the optimal size of the WORK array, returns this value as the first entry of the WORK array, and no error message related to LWORK is issued by XERBLA. BWORK (workspace) LOGICAL array, dimension (N) Not referenced if SORT = 'N'. INFO (output) INTEGER = 0: successful exit < 0: if INFO =-1, the i-th argument had an illegal value. > 0: if INFO = i, and i is <= N: the QR algorithm failed to compute all the eigenvalues; elements 1:ILO-1 and i+1:N of WR and WI contain those eigenvalues which have converged; if JOBVS = 'V', VS con‐ tains the matrix which reduces A to its partially converged Schur form. = N+1: the eigenvalues could not be reordered because some eigenvalues were too close to separate (the prob‐ lem is very ill-conditioned); = N+2: after reordering, roundoff changed values of some complex eigenvalues so that leading ei‐ genvalues in the Schur form no longer satisfy SELECT=.TRUE. This could also be caused by underflow due to scaling. LAPACK driver routine (version 3November 2008 DGEES(1)-i

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