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CSCOPE(1)							     CSCOPE(1)

       cscope - interactively examine a C program

       cscope  [  -bCcdehkLlqRTUuV  ]  [-Fsymfile] [-freffile] [-Iincdir] [-inamefile]
       [-numpattern] [-pn] [-sdir]

       cscope is an interactive, screen-oriented tool that allows the user  to	browse
       through C source files for specified elements of code.

       By  default,  cscope examines the C (.c and .h), lex (.l), and yacc (.y) source
       files in the current directory.	cscope may also be invoked  for	 source	 files
       named  on the command line. In either case, cscope searches the standard direc‐
       tories for #include files that it does  not  find  in  the  current  directory.
       cscope  uses  a	symbol cross-reference, cscope.out by default, to locate func‐
       tions, function calls, macros,  variables,  and	preprocessor  symbols  in  the

       cscope  builds  the  symbol  cross-reference  the  first time it is used on the
       source files for the program being browsed. On a subsequent invocation,	cscope
       rebuilds	 the  cross-reference only if a source file has changed or the list of
       source files is different. When the cross-reference is rebuilt,	the  data  for
       the  unchanged  files  are  copied  from	 the  old cross-reference, which makes
       rebuilding faster than the initial build.

       The following options can appear in any combination:

       -b     Build the cross-reference only.

       -C     Ignore letter case when searching.

       -c     Use only ASCII characters in the cross-reference file, that is,  do  not
	      compress the data.

       -d     Do not update the cross-reference.

       -e     Suppress the <Ctrl>-e command prompt between files.

       -F symfile
	      Read  symbol  reference  lines from symfile. (A symbol reference file is
	      created by > and >>, and can also be read using the < command, described
	      under ``Issuing Subsequent Requests,'' below.)

       -f reffile
	      Use  reffile  as	the  cross-reference  file name instead of the default

       -h     View the long usage help display.

       -I incdir
	      Look in incdir (before looking in INCDIR, the standard place for	header
	      files,  normally /usr/include) for any #include files whose names do not
	      begin with ``/'' and that are not specified on the command  line	or  in
	      namefile	below. (The #include files may be specified with either double
	      quotes or angle brackets.)  The incdir directory is searched in addition
	      to the current directory (which is searched first) and the standard list
	      (which is searched last). If more than one occurrence of -I appears, the
	      directories are searched in the order they appear on the command line.

       -i namefile
	      Browse through all source files whose names are listed in namefile (file
	      names separated by spaces, tabs, or new-lines) instead  of  the  default
	      (cscope.files).  If  this	 option is specified, cscope ignores any files
	      appearing on the command line. The argument namefile can be set to ``-''
	      to accept a list of files from stdio.

       -k     ``Kernel	Mode'',	 turns off the use of the default include dir (usually
	      /usr/include) when building the database, since kernel source trees gen‐
	      erally do not use it.

       -L     Do  a  single  search  with line-oriented output when used with the -num
	      pattern option.

       -l     Line-oriented interface (see ``Line-Oriented Interface'' below).

       -num pattern
	      Go to input field num (counting from 0) and find pattern.

       -P path
	      Prepend path to relative file names in a pre-built cross-reference  file
	      so  you do not have to change to the directory where the cross-reference
	      file was built. This option is only valid with the -d option.

       -p n   Display the last n file path components instead of the default (1).  Use
	      0 to not display the file name at all.

       -q     Build  an	 inverted  index  for  quick symbol searching. If you use this
	      option with the -f option, you must use -f  on  every  call  to  cscope,
	      including	 when  you  build the cross-reference file, because it changes
	      the names of the inverted index files.

       -R     Recurse subdirectories for source files.

       -s dir Look in dir for additional source	 files.	 This  option  is  ignored  if
	      source files are given on the command line.

       -T     Use only the first eight characters to match against C symbols.  A regu‐
	      lar expression containing special characters other  than	a  period  (.)
	      will  not	 match	any symbol if its minimum length is greater than eight

       -U     Check file time stamps. This option will update the time	stamp  on  the
	      database even if no files have changed.

       -u     Unconditionally  build  the  cross-reference file (assume that all files
	      have changed).

       -V     Print on the first line of screen the version number of cscope.

       The -I, -c, -k, -p, -q, and -T options can also be in the cscope.files file.

       Requesting the initial search

       After the cross-reference is ready, cscope will display this menu:

       Find this C symbol:
       Find this function definition:
       Find functions called by this function:
       Find functions calling this function:
       Find this text string:
       Change this text string:
       Find this egrep pattern:
       Find this file:
       Find files #including this file:

       Press the <Up> or <Down> keys repeatedly to move to the	desired	 input	field,
       type the text to search for, and then press the <Return> key.

Issuing subsequent requests
       If  the	search	is  successful,	 any of these single-character commands can be

	      Edit the file referenced by the given line number.

	      Display next set of matching lines.

       <Tab>  Alternate between the menu and the list of matching lines

       <Up>   Move to the previous menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to
	      the previous matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       <Down> Move to the next menu item (if the cursor is in the menu) or move to the
	      next matching line (if the cursor is in the matching line list.)

       +      Display next set of matching lines.

       -      Display previous set of matching lines.

       ^e     Edit displayed files in order.

       >      Write the displayed list of lines to a file.

       >>     Append the displayed list of lines to a file.

       <      Read lines from a file that is in symbol reference format (created by  >
	      or >>), just like the -F option.

       ^      Filter  all  lines  through  a  shell  command and display the resulting
	      lines, replacing the lines that were already there.

       |      Pipe all lines to a shell command	 and  display  them  without  changing

       At any time these single-character commands can also be used:

	      Move to next input field.

       ^n     Move to next input field.

       ^p     Move to previous input field.

       ^y     Search with the last text typed.

       ^b     Move to previous input field and search pattern.

       ^f     Move to next input field and search pattern.

       ^c     Toggle  ignore/use  letter  case	when  searching. (When ignoring letter
	      case, search for ``FILE'' will match ``File'' and ``file''.)

       ^r     Rebuild the cross-reference.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       ^d     Exit cscope.

       NOTE: If the first character of the text to be searched for matches one of  the
       above commands, escape it by typing a (backslash) first.

       Substituting new text for old text

       After  the  text	 to  be changed has been typed, cscope will prompt for the new
       text, and then it will display the lines containing the old  text.  Select  the
       lines to be changed with these single-character commands:

	      Mark or unmark the line to be changed.

       *      Mark or unmark all displayed lines to be changed.

	      Display next set of lines.

       +      Display next set of lines.

       -      Display previous set of lines.

       a      Mark or unmark all lines to be changed.

       ^d     Change the marked lines and exit.

       <Esc>  Exit without changing the marked lines.

       !      Start an interactive shell (type ^d to return to cscope).

       ^l     Redraw the screen.

       ?      Give help information about cscope commands.

       Special keys

       If  your	 terminal  has	arrow  keys  that work in vi, you can use them to move
       around the input fields. The up-arrow key is useful to  move  to	 the  previous
       input  field  instead  of  using the <Tab> key repeatedly. If you have <CLEAR>,
       <NEXT>, or <PREV> keys they will act as the ^l,	+,  and	 -  commands,  respec‐

       Line-Oriented interface

       The  -l	option lets you use cscope where a screen-oriented interface would not
       be useful, for example, from another screen-oriented program.

       cscope will prompt with >> when it is ready for an input line starting with the
       field  number (counting from 0) immediately followed by the search pattern, for
       example, ``lmain'' finds the definition of the main function.

       If you just want a single search, instead of the -l option use the -L and  -num
       pattern options, and you won't get the >> prompt.

       For -l, cscope outputs the number of reference lines cscope: 2 lines

       For  each  reference  found, cscope outputs a line consisting of the file name,
       function name, line number, and line text, separated by	spaces,	 for  example,
       main.c main 161 main(argc, argv)

       Note  that  the	editor is not called to display a single reference, unlike the
       screen-oriented interface.

       You can use the c command to toggle  ignore/use	letter	case  when  searching.
       (When  ignoring	letter	case,  search  for  ``FILE''  will  match ``File'' and

       You can use the r command to rebuild the database.

       cscope will quit when it detects end-of-file, or when the first character of an
       input line is ``^d'' or ``q''.

       EDITOR Preferred editor, which defaults to vi.

       HOME   Home directory, which is automatically set at login.

	      Colon-separated list of directories to search for #include files.

       SHELL  Preferred shell, which defaults to sh.

	      Colon-separated  list  of	 directories  to  search for additional source

       TERM   Terminal type, which must be a screen terminal.

	      Terminal information directory full path name. If your terminal  is  not
	      in  the  standard terminfo directory, see curses and terminfo for how to
	      make your own terminal description.

       TMPDIR Temporary file directory, which defaults to /var/tmp.

       VIEWER Preferred file display program (such as less),  which  overrides	EDITOR
	      (see above).

       VPATH  A colon-separated list of directories, each of which has the same direc‐
	      tory structure below it. If VPATH is set,	 cscope	 searches  for	source
	      files  in	 the  directories specified; if it is not set, cscope searches
	      only in the current directory.

       cscope.files Default files containing -I, -p, -q, and -T options and  the  list
       of source files (overridden by the -i option).

	      Symbol  cross-reference file (overridden by the -f option), which is put
	      in the home directory if it cannot be created in the current directory.
	      Default files containing	the  inverted  index  used  for	 quick	symbol
	      searching (-q option). If you use the -f option to rename the cross-ref‐
	      erence file (so it's not cscope.out), the names for these inverted index
	      files will be created by adding
	       .in  and	 .po to the name you supply with -f. For example, if you indi‐
	      cated -f xyz, then these files would be named and xyz.po.

       INCDIR Standard directory for #include files (usually /usr/include).

       cscope recognizes function definitions of the form:
       fname blank ( args ) white arg_decs white {

       where: fname is the function name

       blank  is zero or more spaces or tabs, not including newlines

       args   is any string that does not contain a ``"'' or a newline

       white  is zero or more spaces, tabs, or newlines

	      are zero or more argument declarations (arg_decs	may  include  comments
	      and white space)

       It  is  not necessary for a function declaration to start at the beginning of a
       line. The return type may precede the function name; cscope will	 still	recog‐
       nize the declaration. Function definitions that deviate from this form will not
       be recognized by cscope.

       The ``Function'' column of the search output for the menu option Find functions
       called  by  this	 function:  input  field  will only display the first function
       called in the line, that is, for this function

		return (f() + g());

       the display would be

	  Functions called by this function: e
	  File Function Line
	  a.c f 3 return(f() + g());

       Occasionally, a function definition or call may not be  recognized  because  of
       braces  inside  #if  statements. Similarly, the use of a variable may be incor‐
       rectly recognized as a definition.

       A typedef name preceding a preprocessor statement will  be  incorrectly	recog‐
       nized as a global definition, for example,

	#if AR16WR

       Preprocessor  statements	 can  also prevent the recognition of a global defini‐
       tion, for example,

	char flag
	     = -1

       A function declaration inside a function is incorrectly recognized as  a	 func‐
       tion call, for example,

		void g();

       is incorrectly recognized as a call to g.

       cscope  recognizes  C++	classes	 by looking for the class keyword, but doesn't
       recognize that a struct is also a class, so it doesn't recognize inline	member
       function	 definitions  in a structure. It also doesn't expect the class keyword
       in a typedef , so it incorrectly recognizes X as a definition in

	typedef class X	 *  Y;

       It also doesn't recognize operator function definitions

	Bool Feature::operator==(const Feature & other)

       Nor does it recognize function definitions with a function pointer argument

	ParseTable::Recognize(int startState, char *pattern,
	  int finishState, void (*FinalAction)(char *))

The Santa Cruz Operation	 November 2000			     CSCOPE(1)

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