create_role man page on Scientific

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       CREATE ROLE - define a new database role

       CREATE ROLE name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

       where option can be:

	   | CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
	   | VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
	   | IN ROLE rolename [, ...]
	   | IN GROUP rolename [, ...]
	   | ROLE rolename [, ...]
	   | ADMIN rolename [, ...]
	   | USER rolename [, ...]
	   | SYSID uid

       CREATE ROLE adds a new role to a PostgreSQL database cluster. A role is
       an entity that can own database objects and have database privileges; a
       role  can  be  considered a ``user'', a ``group'', or both depending on
       how it is used. Refer to in the documentation and in the	 documentation
       for  information about managing users and authentication. You must have
       CREATEROLE privilege or be a database superuser to use this command.

       Note that roles are defined at the database cluster level, and  so  are
       valid in all databases in the cluster.

       name   The name of the new role.


	      These clauses determine whether the new role is a ``superuser'',
	      who can override all access restrictions	within	the  database.
	      Superuser	 status	 is  dangerous	and  should  be used only when
	      really needed. You must yourself be a superuser to create a  new
	      superuser.  If not specified, NOSUPERUSER is the default.


	      These  clauses  define  a role's ability to create databases. If
	      CREATEDB is specified, the role being defined will be allowed to
	      create new databases. Specifying NOCREATEDB will deny a role the
	      ability to create databases. If not specified, NOCREATEDB is the


	      These clauses determine whether a role will be permitted to cre‐
	      ate new roles (that is, execute CREATE ROLE).  A role with  CRE‐
	      ATEROLE  privilege  can also alter and drop other roles.	If not
	      specified, NOCREATEROLE is the default.


	      These clauses are an obsolete, but still accepted,  spelling  of
	      SUPERUSER and NOSUPERUSER.  Note that they are not equivalent to
	      CREATEROLE as one might naively expect!


	      These clauses determine whether a role ``inherits''  the	privi‐
	      leges  of	 roles	it  is	a  member of.  A role with the INHERIT
	      attribute can automatically  use	whatever  database  privileges
	      have  been  granted  to all roles it is directly or indirectly a
	      member of.  Without INHERIT, membership  in  another  role  only
	      grants  the  ability  to SET ROLE to that other role; the privi‐
	      leges of the other role are only available after having done so.
	      If not specified, INHERIT is the default.


	      These  clauses  determine	 whether  a role is allowed to log in;
	      that is, whether the role can be given as	 the  initial  session
	      authorization  name  during client connection. A role having the
	      LOGIN attribute can be thought of as a user.  Roles without this
	      attribute	 are  useful for managing database privileges, but are
	      not users in the usual sense of the  word.   If  not  specified,
	      NOLOGIN  is  the	default,  except  when	CREATE ROLE is invoked
	      through its alternative spelling CREATE USER.

       CONNECTION LIMIT connlimit
	      If role can log in, this specifies how many  concurrent  connec‐
	      tions the role can make. -1 (the default) means no limit.

       PASSWORD password
	      Sets  the	 role's password. (A password is only of use for roles
	      having the LOGIN attribute, but you can nonetheless  define  one
	      for  roles  without  it.)	 If  you  do  not plan to use password
	      authentication you can omit this option. If no password is spec‐
	      ified, the password will be set to null and password authentica‐
	      tion will always fail for that user. A null password can option‐
	      ally be written explicitly as PASSWORD NULL.


	      These key words control whether the password is stored encrypted
	      in the system catalogs. (If neither is  specified,  the  default
	      behavior	is  determined	by  the	 configuration parameter pass‐
	      word_encryption.) If the presented password string is already in
	      MD5-encrypted format, then it is stored encrypted as-is, regard‐
	      less of whether ENCRYPTED or UNENCRYPTED is specified (since the
	      system  cannot decrypt the specified encrypted password string).
	      This   allows   reloading	  of   encrypted   passwords	during

	      Note that older clients might lack support for the MD5 authenti‐
	      cation mechanism that is needed to work with passwords that  are
	      stored encrypted.

       VALID UNTIL 'timestamp'
	      The  VALID  UNTIL	 clause	 sets  a date and time after which the
	      role's password is no longer valid. If this  clause  is  omitted
	      the password will be valid for all time.

       IN ROLE rolename
	      The IN ROLE clause lists one or more existing roles to which the
	      new role will be immediately added as a new member.  (Note  that
	      there  is no option to add the new role as an administrator; use
	      a separate GRANT command to do that.)

       IN GROUP rolename
	      IN GROUP is an obsolete spelling of IN ROLE.

       ROLE rolename
	      The ROLE clause lists one or more existing roles which are auto‐
	      matically	 added	as  members  of the new role.  (This in effect
	      makes the new role a ``group''.)

       ADMIN rolename
	      The ADMIN clause is like ROLE, but the named roles are added  to
	      the  new	role WITH ADMIN OPTION, giving them the right to grant
	      membership in this role to others.

       USER rolename
	      The USER clause is an obsolete spelling of the ROLE clause.

       SYSID uid
	      The SYSID clause is ignored, but is accepted for backwards  com‐

       Use  ALTER ROLE [alter_role(7)] to change the attributes of a role, and
       DROP ROLE [drop_role(7)] to remove a role. All the attributes specified
       by CREATE ROLE can be modified by later ALTER ROLE commands.

       The  preferred  way  to	add and remove members of roles that are being
       used as groups is to use GRANT [grant(7)] and REVOKE [revoke(7)].

       The VALID UNTIL clause defines an expiration time for a password	 only,
       not  for	 the  role  per	 se. In particular, the expiration time is not
       enforced when logging  in  using	 a  non-password-based	authentication

       The INHERIT attribute governs inheritance of grantable privileges (that
       is, access privileges for database objects and  role  memberships).  It
       does  not  apply	 to the special role attributes set by CREATE ROLE and
       ALTER ROLE. For example, being a member of a role with CREATEDB	privi‐
       lege  does  not immediately grant the ability to create databases, even
       if INHERIT is set; it would be necessary to become that	role  via  SET
       ROLE [set_role(7)] before creating a database.

       The  INHERIT attribute is the default for reasons of backwards compati‐
       bility: in prior releases of PostgreSQL, users always had access to all
       privileges of groups they were members of.  However, NOINHERIT provides
       a closer match to the semantics specified in the SQL standard.

       Be careful with the CREATEROLE privilege. There is no concept of inher‐
       itance for the privileges of a CREATEROLE-role. That means that even if
       a role does not have a certain privilege but is allowed to create other
       roles, it can easily create another role with different privileges than
       its own (except for creating  roles  with  superuser  privileges).  For
       example,	 if the role ``user'' has the CREATEROLE privilege but not the
       CREATEDB privilege, nonetheless it can create a new role with the  CRE‐
       ATEDB privilege. Therefore, regard roles that have the CREATEROLE priv‐
       ilege as almost-superuser-roles.

       PostgreSQL includes a program createuser [createuser(1)] that  has  the
       same  functionality as CREATE ROLE (in fact, it calls this command) but
       can be run from the command shell.

       The CONNECTION LIMIT option is only enforced approximately; if two  new
       sessions start at about the same time when just one connection ``slot''
       remains for the role, it is possible that both  will  fail.  Also,  the
       limit is never enforced for superusers.

       Caution	must be exercised when specifying an unencrypted password with
       this command. The password will be transmitted to the server in cleart‐
       ext, and it might also be logged in the client's command history or the
       server log. The command createuser [createuser(1)], however,  transmits
       the  password encrypted. Also, psql [psql(1)] contains a command \pass‐
       word that can be used to safely change the password later.

       Create a role that can log in, but don't give it a password:

       CREATE ROLE jonathan LOGIN;

       Create a role with a password:

       CREATE USER davide WITH PASSWORD 'jw8s0F4';

       (CREATE USER is the same as CREATE ROLE except that it implies LOGIN.)

       Create a role with a password that is valid  until  the	end  of	 2004.
       After one second has ticked in 2005, the password is no longer valid.

       CREATE ROLE miriam WITH LOGIN PASSWORD 'jw8s0F4' VALID UNTIL '2005-01-01';

       Create a role that can create databases and manage roles:


       The CREATE ROLE statement is in the SQL standard, but the standard only
       requires the syntax

       CREATE ROLE name [ WITH ADMIN rolename ]

       Multiple initial administrators, and all the other  options  of	CREATE
       ROLE, are PostgreSQL extensions.

       The  SQL	 standard  defines  the	 concepts  of  users and roles, but it
       regards them as distinct concepts  and  leaves  all  commands  defining
       users to be specified by each database implementation. In PostgreSQL we
       have chosen to unify users and roles into  a  single  kind  of  entity.
       Roles  therefore have many more optional attributes than they do in the

       The behavior specified by the SQL standard is most closely approximated
       by  giving  users  the  NOINHERIT  attribute, while roles are given the
       INHERIT attribute.

       SET  ROLE  [set_role(7)],  ALTER	 ROLE	[alter_role(7)],   DROP	  ROLE
       [drop_role(7)], GRANT [grant(7)], REVOKE [revoke(7)], createuser(1)

SQL - Language Statements	  2013-10-08			CREATE ROLE(7)

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