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combine(1)							    combine(1)

       combine - combine images to create new images.

       combine [ options ... ] image composite [ mask ] combined

       combine combine images to create new images.

       To combine a image of a cockatoo with a perch, use

	    combine cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff

       To compute the difference between images in a series, use

	    combine -compose difference series.1 series.2 difference.miff

       To combine a image of a cockatoo with a perch starting at location
       (100,150), use

	    combine -geometry +100+150 cockatoo.miff perch.ras composite.miff

       To tile a logo across your image of a cockatoo, use

	    convert +shade 30x60 cockatoo.miff mask.miff
	    combine -compose bumpmap -tile logo.gif cockatoo.miff mask.miff composite.miff

       To combine a red, green, and blue color plane into a single composite
       image, try

	    combine -compose CopyGreen red.png green.png red-green.png
	    combine -compose CopyBlue red-green.png blue.png composite.png

       -cache threshold
	      megabytes of memory available to the pixel cache.

	      Image pixels are stored in memory until 80 megabytes of memory
	      have been consumed.  Subsequent pixel operations are cached on
	      disk.  Operations to memory are significantly faster but if your
	      computer does not have a sufficient amount of free memory you
	      may want to adjust this threshold value.

       -colors value
	      preferred number of colors in the image.

	      The actual number of colors in the image may be less than your
	      request, but never more.	Note, this is a color reduction
	      option.  Images with less unique colors than specified with this
	      option will have any duplicate or unused colors removed.	Refer
	      to quantize(9) for more details.

	      Note, options -dither, -colorspace, and -treedepth affect the
	      color reduction algorithm.

       -colorspace value
	      the type of colorspace: GRAY, OHTA, RGB, Transparent, XYZ,
	      YCbCr, YIQ, YPbPr, YUV, or CMYK.

	      Color reduction, by default, takes place in the RGB color space.
	      Empirical evidence suggests that distances in color spaces such
	      as YUV or YIQ correspond to perceptual color differences more
	      closely than do distances in RGB space.  These color spaces may
	      give better results when color reducing an image.	 Refer to
	      quantize(9) for more details.

	      The Transparent color space behaves uniquely in that it pre‐
	      serves the matte channel of the image if it exists.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
	      take effect.

       -comment string
	      annotate an image with a comment.

	      By default, each image is commented with its file name.  Use
	      this option to assign a specific comment to the image.  Option‐
	      ally you can include the image filename, type, width, height, or
	      other image attributes by embedding special format characters:

		  %b   file size
		  %c   comment
		  %d   directory
		  %e   filename extention
		  %f   filename
		  %h   height
		  %i   input filename
		  %l   label
		  %m   magick
		  %n   number of scenes
		  %o   output filename
		  %p   page number
		  %q   quantum depth
		  %s   scene number
		  %t   top of filename
		  %u   unique temporary filename
		  %w   width
		  %x   x resolution
		  %y   y resolution
		  \n   newline
		  \r   carriage return

	      For example,

		   -comment "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image comment of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the image comment is read
	      from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

       -compose operator
	      the type of image composition.

	      By default, each of the composite image pixels are replaced by
	      the corresponding image tile pixel. You can choose an alternate
	      composite operation:


	      How each operator behaves is described below.

       over   The result will be the union of the two image shapes, with com‐
	      posite image obscuring image in the region of overlap.

       In     The result is simply composite image cut by the shape of image.
	      None of the image data of image will be in the result.

       Out    The resulting image is composite image with the shape of image
	      cut out.

       Atop   The result is the same shape as image image, with composite
	      image obscuring image where the image shapes overlap.  Note this
	      differs from over because the portion of composite image outside
	      image's shape does not appear in the result.

       Xor    The result is the image data from both composite image and image
	      that is outside the overlap region.  The overlap region will be

       Plus   The result is just the sum of the image data.  Output values are
	      cropped to 255 (no overflow).  This operation is independent of
	      the matte channels.

       Minus  The result of composite image - image, with underflow cropped to
	      zero.  The matte channel is ignored (set to 255, full coverage).

       Add    The result of composite image + image, with overflow wrapping
	      around (mod 256).

	      The result of composite image - image, with underflow wrapping
	      around (mod 256).	 The add and subtract operators can be used to
	      perform reversible transformations.

	      The result of abs(composite image - image).  This is useful for
	      comparing two very similar images.

	      The result of composite image image.  This is useful for the
	      creation of drop-shadows.

	      The result image shaded by composite image.

       Copy   The resulting image is image replaced with composite image.
	      Here the matte information is ignored.

	      The resulting image is the red layer in image replaced with the
	      red layer in composite image.  The other layers are copied

	      The resulting image is the green layer in image replaced with
	      the green layer in composite image.  The other layers are copied

	      The resulting image is the blue layer in image replaced with the
	      blue layer in composite image.  The other layers are copied

	      The resulting image is the matte layer in image replaced with
	      the matte layer in composite image.  The other layers are copied

	      The image compositor requires a matte, or alpha channel in the
	      image for some operations.  This extra channel usually defines a
	      mask which represents a sort of a cookie-cutter for the image.
	      This is the case when matte is 255 (full coverage) for pixels
	      inside the shape, zero outside, and between zero and 255 on the
	      boundary.	 For certain operations, if image does not have a
	      matte channel, it is initialized with 0 for any pixel matching
	      in color to pixel location (0,0), otherwise 255 (to work prop‐
	      erly borderwidth must be 0).

       -compress type
	      the type of image compression: None, BZip, Fax, Group4, JPEG,
	      LZW, RunlengthEncoded, or Zip.

	      Specify +compress to store the binary image in an uncompressed
	      format.  The default is the compression type of the specified
	      image file.

       -density <width>x<height>
	      vertical and horizontal resolution in pixels of the image.

	      This option specifies an image density when decoding a Post‐
	      script or Portable Document page.	 The default is 72 pixels per
	      inch in the horizontal and vertical direction.  This option is
	      used in concert with -page.

       -displace <horizontal scale>x<vertical scale>
	      shift image pixels as defined by a displacement map.

	      With this option, composite image is used as a displacement map.
	      Black, within the displacement map, is a maximum positive dis‐
	      placement.  White is a maximum negative displacement and middle
	      gray is neutral.	The displacement is scaled to determine the
	      pixel shift.  By default, the displacement applies in both the
	      horizontal and vertical directions.  However, if you specify
	      mask, composite image is the horizontal X displacement and mask
	      the vertical Y displacement.

       -display host:display[.screen]
	      specifies the X server to contact; see X(1).

       -dispose method
	      GIF disposal method.

	      Here are the valid methods:

		   0	 No disposal specified.
		   1	 Do not dispose between frames.
		   2	 Overwrite frame with background color from header.
		   3	 Overwrite with previous frame.

       -dissolve value
	      dissolve the two images a given percent.

	      apply Floyd/Steinberg error diffusion to the image.

	      The basic strategy of dithering is to trade intensity resolution
	      for spatial resolution by averaging the intensities of several
	      neighboring pixels.  Images which suffer from severe contouring
	      when reducing colors can be improved with this option.

	      The -colors or -monochrome option is required for this option to
	      take effect.

	      Use +dither to render Postscript without text or graphic alias‐

       -font name
	      This option specifies the font to be used	 for displaying normal

	      If the font is a fully qualified X server font name, the font is
	      obtained from an X server (e.g. -*-helvetica-medium-
	      r-*-*-12-*-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*).  To use a TrueType font, precede
	      the TrueType filename with a @ (e.g.  @times.ttf).  Otherwise,
	      specify a Postscript, X11, or TrueType font (e.g. helvetica).

       -geometry {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>{%}{!}{<}{>}
	      location of the composite image.

	      By default the images are combined relative to the image gravity
	      (see -gravity).  Use <x offset> and <y offset> to specify a par‐
	      ticular location to combine the images.

       -gravity type
	      direction image gravitates to within the composite: NorthWest,
	      North, NorthEast, West, Center, East, SouthWest, South, South‐
	      East.  See X(1) for details about the gravity specification.

	      The image may not fill the composite completely (see -geometry).
	      The direction you choose specifies where to position the image
	      within the composite.  For example Center gravity forces the
	      image to be centered within the composite.  By default, the
	      image gravity is NorthWest.

       -interlace type
	      the type of interlacing scheme: None, Line, Plane, or Partition.
	      The default is None.

	      This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme
	      for raw image formats such as RGB or YUV.	 No means do not
	      interlace (RGBRGBRGBRGBRGBRGB...), Line uses scanline interlac‐
	      ing (RRR...GGG...BBB...RRR...GGG...BBB...), and Plane uses plane
	      interlacing (RRRRRR...GGGGGG...BBBBBB...).  Partition is like
	      plane except the different planes are saved to individual files
	      (e.g.  image.R, image.G, and image.B).

	      Use Line, or Plane to create an interlaced GIF or progressive
	      JPEG image.

       -label name
	      assign a label to an image.

	      Use this option to assign a specific label to the image.
	      Optionally you can include the image filename, type, width,
	      height, or other image attributes by embedding special format
	      characters.  See -comment for details.

	      For example,

		   -label "%m:%f %wx%h"

	      produces an image label of MIFF:bird.miff 512x480 for an image
	      titled bird.miff and whose width is 512 and height is 480.

	      If the first character of string is @, the image label is read
	      from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.

	      When converting to Postscript, use this option to specify a
	      header string to print above the image. Specify the label font
	      with -font.

       -matte store matte channel if the image has one otherwise create an
	      opaque one.

	      transform the image to black and white.

	      replace every pixel with its complementary color (white becomes
	      black, yellow becomes blue, etc.).

	      The red, green, and blue intensities of an image are negated.
	      Use +negate to only negate the grayscale pixels of the image.

       -page <width>x<height>{+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>{%}{!}{<}{>}
	      preferred size and location of an image canvas.

	      Use this option to specify the dimensions of the Postscript page
	      in dots per inch or a TEXT page in pixels.  The choices for a
	      Postscript page are:

		     11x17	   792	1224
		     Ledger	  1224	 792
		     Legal	   612	1008
		     Letter	   612	 792
		     LetterSmall   612	 792
		     ArchE	  2592	3456
		     ArchD	  1728	2592
		     ArchC	  1296	1728
		     ArchB	   864	1296
		     ArchA	   648	 864
		     A0		  2380	3368
		     A1		  1684	2380
		     A2		  1190	1684
		     A3		   842	1190
		     A4		   595	 842
		     A4Small	   595	 842
		     A5		   421	 595
		     A6		   297	 421
		     A7		   210	 297
		     A8		   148	 210
		     A9		   105	 148
		     A10	    74	 105
		     B0		  2836	4008
		     B1		  2004	2836
		     B2		  1418	2004
		     B3		  1002	1418
		     B4		   709	1002
		     B5		   501	 709
		     C0		  2600	3677
		     C1		  1837	2600
		     C2		  1298	1837
		     C3		   918	1298
		     C4		   649	 918
		     C5		   459	 649
		     C6		   323	 459
		     Flsa	   612	 936
		     Flse	   612	 936
		     HalfLetter	   396	 612

	      For convenience you can specify the page size by media (e.g.
	      A4, Ledger, etc.).  Otherwise, -page behaves much like -geometry
	      (e.g. -page letter+43+43>).

	      To position a GIF image, use -page {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>
	      (e.g. -page +100+200).

	      For a Postscript page, the image is sized as in -geometry and
	      positioned relative to the lower left hand corner of the page by
	      {+-}<x offset>{+-}<y offset>.  Use -page 612x792>, for example,
	      to center the image within the page.  If the image size exceeds
	      the Postscript page, it is reduced to fit the page.

	      The default page dimensions for a TEXT image is 612x792.

	      This option is used in concert with -density.

       -quality value
	      JPEG/MIFF/PNG compression level.

	      For the JPEG image format, quality is 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
	      The default quality is 75.

	      Quality for the MIFF and PNG image format sets the amount of
	      image compression (quality / 10) and filter-type (quality % 10).
	      Compression quality values range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best).
	      If filter-type is 4 or less, the specified filter-type is used
	      for all scanlines:

		  0: none
		  1: sub
		  2: up
		  3: average
		  4: Paeth

	      If filter-type is 5, adaptive filtering is used when quality is
	      greater than 50 and the image does not have a color map, other‐
	      wise no filtering is used.

	      If filter-type is 6 or more, adaptive filtering with minimum-
	      sum-of-absolute-values is used.

	      The default is quality is 75.  Which means nearly the best com‐
	      pression with adaptive filtering.

	      For further information, see the PNG specification (RFC 2083),

       -scene value
	      image scene number.

       -size <width>x<height>{+offset}
	      width and height of the image.

	      Use this option to specify the width and height of raw images
	      whose dimensions are unknown such as GRAY, RGB, or CMYK.	In
	      addition to width and height, use -size to skip any header
	      information in the image or  tell the number of colors in a MAP
	      image file, (e.g. -size 640x512+256).

       -stegano offset
	      hide watermark within an image.  <p> Use an offset to start the
	      image hiding some number of pixels from the beginning of the
	      image.  Note this offset and the image size.  You will need this
	      information to recover the steganographic image (e.g. display
	      -size 320x256+35 stegano:image.png).

	      combine two image to create a stereo anaglyph.

	      The left side of the stereo pair is saved as the red channel of
	      the output image.	 The right sife is saved as the green channel.
	      Red-blue stereo glasses are required to properly view the stereo

       -tile  repeat composite operation across image.

       -treedepth value
	      Normally, this integer value is zero or one.  A zero or one
	      tells combine to choose a optimal tree depth for the color
	      reduction algorithm.

	      An optimal depth generally allows the best representation of the
	      source image with the fastest computational speed and the least
	      amount of memory.	 However, the default depth is inappropriate
	      for some images.	To assure the best representation, try values
	      between 2 and 8 for this parameter.  Refer to quantize(9) for
	      more details.

	      The -colors option is required for this option to take effect.

       -type type
	      set the image type: Bilevel, Grayscale, Palette, PaletteMatte,
	      TrueColor, TrueColorMatte, or ColorSeparation.

	      print detailed information about the image.

	      This information is printed: image scene number;	image name;
	      combined image name;  image size;	 the image class (DirectClass
	      or PseudoClass);	the total number of unique colors;  and the
	      number of seconds to read and combine the image.

       Options are processed in command line order.  Any option you specify on
       the command line remains in effect until it is explicitly changed by
       specifying the option again with a different effect.

       By default, the image format is determined by its magic number. To
       specify a particular image format, precede the filename with an image
       format name and a colon (i.e. ps:image) or specify the image type as
       the filename suffix (i.e.  See convert(1) for a list of
       valid image formats.

       When you specify X as your image type, the filename has special mean‐
       ing.  It specifies an X window by id, name, or root.  If no filename is
       specified, the window is selected by clicking the mouse in the desired

       Specify image as - for standard input, combined as - for standard out‐
       put.  If image has the extension .Z or .gz, the file is uncompressed
       with uncompress or gunzip respectively.	If combined has the extension
       .Z or .gz, the file size is compressed using with compress or gzip
       respectively.  Finally, precede the image file name with | to pipe to
       or from a system command.

       Use an optional index enclosed in brackets after a file name to specify
       a desired subimage of a multi-resolution image format like Photo CD
       (e.g. img0001.pcd[4]) or a range for MPEG images (e.g.
       video.mpg[50-75]).  A subimage specification can be disjoint (e.g.
       image.tiff[2,7,4]).  For raw images, specify a subimage with a geometry
       (e.g.  -size 640x512 image.rgb[320x256+50+50]).

       The optional mask can be used to provide matte information for compos‐
       ite when it has none or if you want a different mask.  A mask image is
       typically grayscale and the same size as composite.  If the image is
       not grayscale, it is converted to grayscale and the resulting intensi‐
       ties are used as matte information.

       If combined already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it
       should be overwritten.

	      To get the default host, display number, and screen.

       display(1), animate(1), import(1), montage(1), mogrify(1), convert(1),

       Copyright (C) 2001 ImageMagick Studio, a non-profit organization dedi‐
       cated to making software imaging solutions freely available.

       Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a
       copy of this software and associated documentation files ("ImageMag‐
       ick"), to deal in ImageMagick without restriction, including without
       limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute,
       sublicense, and/or sell copies of ImageMagick, and to permit persons to
       whom the ImageMagick is furnished to do so, subject to the following

       The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
       in all copies or substantial portions of ImageMagick.

       The software is provided "as is", without warranty of any kind, express
       or implied, including but not limited to the warranties of mer‐
       chantability, fitness for a particular purpose and noninfringement.  In
       no event shall ImageMagick Studio be liable for any claim, damages or
       other liability, whether in an action of contract, tort or otherwise,
       arising from, out of or in connection with ImageMagick or the use or
       other dealings in ImageMagick.

       Except as contained in this notice, the name of the ImageMagick Studio
       shall not be used in advertising or otherwise to promote the sale, use
       or other dealings in ImageMagick without prior written authorization
       from the ImageMagick Studio.

       John Cristy, E.I. du Pont De Nemours and Company Incorporated

ImageMagick			10 January 1993			    combine(1)

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